Crucial role of methyla0on on SAMe and Oxida0ve Stress

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Crucial role of methyla0on on SAMe and Oxida0ve Stress"

Transcription

1 Crucial role of methyla0on on SAMe and Oxida0ve Stress

2 Consequences of Reduced SAMe

3

4 Crea9ne Methylcobalamin Phospha9dylcholine Coenzyme Q10 Carni9ne SAMe is involved in the synthesis of: Methyla9on by SAMe is a cri9cal step in the stabiliza9on of many proteins including myelin.

5 lectures/biosynaa.pdf

6

7 and I would suggest we should also include oxida0ve stress

8

9

10

11 methionine SAH SAMe X SAMe homocysteine adenosine

12

13

14

15

16 SAH methyltransferase Less fluid membrane High adenosine Less receptor recycling

17 Since damaged SAMe also can lead to increased SAH and adenosine can start to see the importance of this on a more global level methionine SAH SAMe X SAMe homocysteine adenosine

18

19

20 Lack of methyla9on (ie decreased PCMT) Ability to repair protein damage due to oxida9on, which in turn may cause damage to SAMe SAMe X which then generates more SAH end we end up in a catch 22

21 So high levels of protein damage can deplete SAMe and throw off the SAMe/SAH ra9o

22 Oxida9ve stress affects >>> SAMe/ SAH ra9o Also NOS/BH4 rela9onship

23 DNA damage 8 hydroxy 2 deoxyguanosine

24 Fuchs, Schroecksnadel and Frick make the interes9ng and important observa9on that oxida9ve stress may have an addi9onal impact on the methionine synthase reac9on by irreversibly oxidizing methyl folate. We agree that this would contribute to methionine synthase inac9va9on. Following our publica9on, we learned that the zinc site in methionine synthase, essen9al for binding and ac9va9ng homocysteine, might also be oxidized. Current experiments in E.coli indicate that this site is readily oxidized on treatment of cells to induce oxida9ve stress [1]. It seems likely that, for a variety of reasons, the methionine synthase reac9on will be physiologically compromised by oxida9ve stress. The differen9al effects of such stress on this enzyme and cystathionine beta synthase may explain the observed age related decline in methionine synthase ac9vity and the switch from methionine conserva9on to transsulfura9on with aging [2]. Tissues without an alterna9ve means of metabolizing homocysteine will be par9cularly affected by such stress. Their consequent increased cellular export of homocysteine might contribute to elevated plasma levels. Neurones and vascular endothelium both lack an intact transsulfura9on pathway and also lack the B12 and folate independent enzyme betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase. Homocysteine levels in these 9ssues should therefore prove to be an excellent marker of oxida9ve stress. Rather than cons9tu9ng a risk factor for vascular disease, demen9a and other neurological condi9ons, elevated plasma homocysteine might best be considered a risk marker signifying the effects of oxida9ve stress in such diseases. 1) E. Manning and R. G. Mabhews, unpublished data. 2) J.Finkelstein. Regula9on of Homocysteine Metabolism. In: Carmel R, Jacobsen DW, eds. Homocysteine in Health and Disease. Cambridge University Press, 2001:

25 We read with interest the hypothesis by McCaddon et al [1] in which oxida9ve stress discussed underlying moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in AD. It is suggested that the oxida9on sensi9ve intermediate form of vitamin B12 (cob[i]alamin) will be destroyed thereby impairing remethyla9on of homocysteine and giving rise to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. The authors further speculate that cerebral oxida9ve stress plays a major role. These assump9ons confirm our findings that oxida9ve stress may underlie moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. [2,3] Not only the intermediate form of vitamin B12 but also methyl tetrahydrofolate, the second necessary cofactor in the remethyla9on of homocysteine, is very sensi9ve to oxida9on and as a 6 subs9tuted pteridinederiva9ve is irreversibly degraded once oxidized. This may impact other clinical condi9ons such as atherosclerosis, depression and even cancer, [2 4] which are ojen associated with moderate hyperhomocysteinemia. Interes9ngly, folate deficiency is detected more ojen in pa9ents than vitamin B12 deficiency, further suppor9ng the concept that also degrada9on of folate is important. The results confirm a state of chronic immune ac9va9on in pa9ents with AD. [5] Homocysteine concentra9ons correlate with the degree of immune ac9va9on as measured by, for example, neopterin concentra9ons. [3] This associa9on is also found in other clinical condi9ons with hyperhomocysteinemia. [3,4] Ac9va9on of immunocompetent cells like T lymphocytes and macrophages is associated with the produc9on of large amounts of oxidizing compounds, indica9ng oxida9ve stress. The immunopathogene9c background of oxida9ve stress resul9ng in vitamin deple9on and thus hyperhomocysteinemia is likely and would confirm the concept proposed by McCadden et al. References 1. McCaddon A, Regland B, Hudson P, Davies G. Func9onal vitamin B(12) deficiency and Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2002;58: Widner B, Fuchs D, Leblhuber F, Sperner Unterweger B. Does disturbed homocysteine and folate metabolism in depression result from enhanced oxida9ve stress? J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 2001;70: Fuchs D, Jaeger M, Widner B, Wirleitner B, Artner Dworzak E, Leblhuber F. Is hyperhomocysteinemia due to oxida9ve deple9on of folate rather than insufficient dietary intake. Clin Chem Lab Med 2001;39: Frick B, Schröcksnadel K, Fuchs D. Folate and homocysteine levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer (in press). 5. Leblhuber F, Walli J, Demel U, Tilz GP, Widner B, Fuchs D: Increased serum neopterin concentra9ons in pa9ents with Alzheimer's disease. Clin Chem Lab Med 1999;37:

DNA methylation and epigenetics. Homocysteine metabolism

DNA methylation and epigenetics. Homocysteine metabolism DNA methylation and epigenetics metabolism Sulfur-containing non-protein-forming amino acid similar to cysteine is not found in our diet, it is produced in our bodies Considered an endotoxin and must be

More information

Methyl groups, like vitamins, are

Methyl groups, like vitamins, are Methyl groups are essential for the body to function properly and must be obtained from the diet The need for methyl groups increases under stress Chapter 11 Betaine a new B vitamin Methyl groups reduce

More information

B12 & Cobalamin. Learning objectives

B12 & Cobalamin. Learning objectives Learning objectives B12 & Cobalamin Define vitamins Classify fat soluble and water soluble vitamins. Study chemical structure and biological active coenzyme form of vitamin B12. List the dietary sources

More information

Impaired transsulfuration and oxidative stress in autistic children: Improvement with targeted nutritional intervention

Impaired transsulfuration and oxidative stress in autistic children: Improvement with targeted nutritional intervention Impaired transsulfuration and oxidative stress in autistic children: Improvement with targeted nutritional intervention S. Jill James, PhD, DAN! Conference, 2003 Oxidative Stress The generation of reactive

More information

Pathobiochemistry of vitamin B12. Background information

Pathobiochemistry of vitamin B12. Background information Pathobiochemistry of vitamin B12 Background information Absorption of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is readily absorbed when administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Absorption from the gastrointestinal

More information

Diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency:

Diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency: Diagnosing vitamin B12 deficiency: The complexity of vitamin B12 testing Jan Lindemans, Sandra Heil, Robert de Jonge, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands

More information

Jorge Flechas MD, MPH Hendersonville, NC INTRACELLULAR HYPOTHYROIDISM

Jorge Flechas MD, MPH Hendersonville, NC INTRACELLULAR HYPOTHYROIDISM Jorge Flechas MD, MPH Hendersonville, NC 28792 INTRACELLULAR HYPOTHYROIDISM Factors That Affect Thyroid Function Deiodinase 1, 2, 3 and All 3 are Selenium, Zinc Dependent Deiodinase 1 (D1) D1 converts

More information

Functionally this should be between 5-8

Functionally this should be between 5-8 Homocysteine Homocysteine is an amino acid made from a common dietary amino acid, methionine, that inflicts damage to the inner arterial lining (endothelium) and contributes to many diseases: Functionally

More information

The Nutritional Value of Tea

The Nutritional Value of Tea The Nutritional Value of Tea Introduction As a nation we enjoy drinking tea on a daily basis, getting through 165 million cups a day. On-going research is discovering that drinking just 4 cups of tea a

More information

ACTIVE-B12 EIA. the next level of B12 testing

ACTIVE-B12 EIA. the next level of B12 testing ACTIVE-B12 EIA the next level of B12 testing Vitamin B12 an essential nutrient Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient (can only be obtained from the diet) and is a vital component in many cellular functions

More information

How Enzymes Lower the E A. Barrier. Substrate Specificity of Enzymes. Enzymes catalyze reac.ons by lowering the E A barrier

How Enzymes Lower the E A. Barrier. Substrate Specificity of Enzymes. Enzymes catalyze reac.ons by lowering the E A barrier How Enzymes Lower the E A Barrier Enzymes catalyze reac.ons by lowering the E A barrier do not affect the change in free energy ( G) Instead hasten reac.ons that would occur eventually Fig. 8 15 Free energy

More information

Functional Vitamin, Mineral and Antioxidant Assessment. J.F. Crawford, PhD. SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. Houston, TX

Functional Vitamin, Mineral and Antioxidant Assessment. J.F. Crawford, PhD. SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. Houston, TX Functional Vitamin, Mineral and Antioxidant Assessment J.F. Crawford, PhD. SpectraCell Laboratories, Inc. Houston, TX 1 Recent Publications Antioxidant supplementation increases morbidity and mortality.

More information

Children with cerebral palsy and normal brain MRI imaging. Dinah Reddihough, Jane Leonard, Alison Cozens, Sue Reid, Michael Fahey

Children with cerebral palsy and normal brain MRI imaging. Dinah Reddihough, Jane Leonard, Alison Cozens, Sue Reid, Michael Fahey Children with cerebral palsy and normal brain MRI imaging Dinah Reddihough, Jane Leonard, Alison Cozens, Sue Reid, Michael Fahey Cerebral palsy - a clinical description varying types of movement disorder

More information

SpectraCell MicroNutrient Testing

SpectraCell MicroNutrient Testing SpectraCell MicroNutrient Testing Spectracell Laboratories, Inc. Copyright 2009 SpectraCell s MicroNutrient Test gives an ACCURATE assessment of cellular performance. Overview Who is SpectraCell? What

More information

The Science of Muscle Growth and Repair By William Cabot M.D., FAAOS

The Science of Muscle Growth and Repair By William Cabot M.D., FAAOS The Science of Muscle Growth and Repair By William Cabot M.D., FAAOS Part 2 - The Role Individual Amino Acids Play in Muscle growth and Repair American Casein Company has been a worldwide leader in supplying

More information

Vitmain B12 Deficiency and The Role It Plays in Disease Causing DNA Mutation

Vitmain B12 Deficiency and The Role It Plays in Disease Causing DNA Mutation Vitmain B12 Deficiency and The Role It Plays in Disease Causing DNA Mutation Luke Flood Appalachian State University Faculty Mentor: Carol Babyak Appalachian State University ABSTRACT A review of how vitamin

More information

A Functional Approach to Hypothyroidism Part 2 of 3. Jim Paoletti, BS Pharmacy, FAARFM, FIACP

A Functional Approach to Hypothyroidism Part 2 of 3. Jim Paoletti, BS Pharmacy, FAARFM, FIACP A Functional Approach to Hypothyroidism Part 2 of 3 Jim Paoletti, BS Pharmacy, FAARFM, FIACP Objec&ves Review the produc/on, metabolism, and ac/vi/es of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones Discuss causes

More information

Vitamin B 12. Introduction

Vitamin B 12. Introduction Vitamin B 12 Introduction Vitamin B12 helps maintain the body s nervous system and blood cells and supports the production of DNA. Vitamin B12 also helps prevents a type of anemia and has been termed the

More information

Learning Objectives. Learning Objectives (cont.) Chapter 6: Metabolism - Energy & Enzymes 1. Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D.

Learning Objectives. Learning Objectives (cont.) Chapter 6: Metabolism - Energy & Enzymes 1. Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D. Biology, 10e Sylvia S. Mader Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D. Learning Objectives Define energy, emphasizing how it is related to work and to heat State and apply two energy laws to energy transformations.

More information

The Biochemistry of Alzheimer s Disease K A R A B A L D W I N

The Biochemistry of Alzheimer s Disease K A R A B A L D W I N The Biochemistry of Alzheimer s Disease K A R A B A L D W I N What is Alzheimer s Disease? 2 A progressive brain disorder that damages and destroys brain cells Leads to memory loss and changes in brain

More information

Medical Cannabis in Maryland Presentation to University of Maryland Medical School Quarterly Meeting October 8, 2015 by Deborah Miran Commissioner

Medical Cannabis in Maryland Presentation to University of Maryland Medical School Quarterly Meeting October 8, 2015 by Deborah Miran Commissioner Medical Cannabis in Maryland Presentation to University of Maryland Medical School Quarterly Meeting October 8, 2015 by Deborah Miran Commissioner Maryland Medical Cannabis Commission Medical Cannabis

More information

Antioxidant Nutrients. Benjamin Caballero, MD, PhD Johns Hopkins University

Antioxidant Nutrients. Benjamin Caballero, MD, PhD Johns Hopkins University This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

Blood Testing Protocols. Disclaimer

Blood Testing Protocols. Disclaimer Blood Testing Protocols / Page 2 Blood Testing Protocols Here are the specific test protocols recommend by Dr. J.E. Williams. You may request these from your doctor or visit www.readyourbloodtest.com to

More information

Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed

Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed Cholesterol a biomolecule Bad cholesterol a strange tale Good cholesterol - indeed Thomas B. Kuhn: University of Alaska, Cereon Biotechnology LLC This document is protected by copyright Dr. Thomas B. Kuhn

More information

Chapter 10. Summary & Future perspectives

Chapter 10. Summary & Future perspectives Summary & Future perspectives 123 Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by inflammation and axonal degeneration. All current therapies modulate the peripheral

More information

Nutritional Support of the Burn Patient

Nutritional Support of the Burn Patient Nutritional Support of the Burn Patient Objectives To understand the principles of normal nutrient utilization and the abnormalities caused by burn injury To be able to assess nutrient needs To be able

More information

Control of Gene Expression

Control of Gene Expression Control of Gene Expression What is Gene Expression? Gene expression is the process by which informa9on from a gene is used in the synthesis of a func9onal gene product. What is Gene Expression? Figure

More information

VITAMIN B 12. Syn Extrinsic factor of Castle Anti-pernecious anaemia factor

VITAMIN B 12. Syn Extrinsic factor of Castle Anti-pernecious anaemia factor VITAMIN B 12 Syn Extrinsic factor of Castle Anti-pernecious anaemia factor History 1849: Addison described a familial type of anaemia now known as Addisonian Pernicious anaemia 1934: William Murphy & George

More information

The Emerging Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatry Omega-3 fatty acid status in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

The Emerging Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatry Omega-3 fatty acid status in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder The Emerging Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatry Omega-3 fatty acid status in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 1 Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids Volume 75, Issues 4-5,

More information

Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise

Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise chapter 3 Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise Chapter Objectives Understand basic concepts of endocrinology. Explain the physiological roles of anabolic hormones. Describe hormonal responses to

More information

Cognitive Testing for Underwriting Life Insurance

Cognitive Testing for Underwriting Life Insurance Cognitive Testing for Underwriting Life Insurance Presentation to the Mortality Working Group of the International Actuarial Association Al Klein April 8, 2011 Cognitive function Agenda What is it? What

More information

Gene Therapy. The use of DNA as a drug. Edited by Gavin Brooks. BPharm, PhD, MRPharmS (PP) Pharmaceutical Press

Gene Therapy. The use of DNA as a drug. Edited by Gavin Brooks. BPharm, PhD, MRPharmS (PP) Pharmaceutical Press Gene Therapy The use of DNA as a drug Edited by Gavin Brooks BPharm, PhD, MRPharmS (PP) Pharmaceutical Press Contents Preface xiii Acknowledgements xv About the editor xvi Contributors xvii An introduction

More information

A pilot study to determine the normal level of VITAMIN B12 among Palestinian adolescents

A pilot study to determine the normal level of VITAMIN B12 among Palestinian adolescents A pilot study to determine the normal level of VITAMIN B12 among Palestinian adolescents Dr Ayman Hussein Faculty of Medicine An-Najah National University Outline Background about vitamin B12 Significance

More information

High Blood Pressure. Dr. Rath s Cellular Health Recommendations for Prevention and Adjunct Therapy

High Blood Pressure. Dr. Rath s Cellular Health Recommendations for Prevention and Adjunct Therapy 4 High Blood Pressure Dr. Rath s Cellular Health Recommendations for Prevention and Adjunct Therapy The Facts About High Blood Pressure Dr. Rath s Cellular Health Recommendations: - Documented Health Benefits

More information

ENZYMES. reflect. collagen: a group of proteins found in connective tissues of the body

ENZYMES. reflect. collagen: a group of proteins found in connective tissues of the body reflect Have you ever been told to take your vitamins? Many caregivers tell this to their children daily. However, most people do not understand what vitamins and minerals do and why they are so important.

More information

Rheumatoid Arthritis. Treating Inflammation. Sequoia Education Systems, Inc http://www.functionalmedicineuniversity.com 1. How is RA Diagnosed?

Rheumatoid Arthritis. Treating Inflammation. Sequoia Education Systems, Inc http://www.functionalmedicineuniversity.com 1. How is RA Diagnosed? Rheumatoid Arthritis Causes, Assessment and Treatment How is RA Diagnosed? The following labs make up the basics of ruling in or out RA. Citrullinated Peptide (anti-ccp) Antibodies Rheumatoid factor Erythrocyte

More information

Downloading of this book for private use and official government purposes is permitted and encouraged. Commercial use is protected by international

Downloading of this book for private use and official government purposes is permitted and encouraged. Commercial use is protected by international Downloading of this book for private use and official government purposes is permitted and encouraged. Commercial use is protected by international copy right and translation, reprinting and electronic

More information

Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine use for Alzheimer s disease TOPIC REVIEW

Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine use for Alzheimer s disease TOPIC REVIEW Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine use for Alzheimer s disease TOPIC REVIEW Diagnosis of Dementia : DSM-IV criteria Loss of memory and one or more other cognitive abilities Aphasia Apraxia Agnosia

More information

Mona Osman MD, MPH, MBA

Mona Osman MD, MPH, MBA Mona Osman MD, MPH, MBA Background Burden of Disease What is Dementia? Can we prevent Dementia? The improved health care system and aging of the population, led to an increase in the prevalence of Non-

More information

Male Health. The three major issues are: Cardiovascular Health Prostate Health Fertility & Sexual Performance

Male Health. The three major issues are: Cardiovascular Health Prostate Health Fertility & Sexual Performance Male Health Do Men Value Their Health? The ancient Greek physician Hippocrates once said, A wise man ought to realise that his health is his most valuable possession. It is believed that Hippocrates lived

More information

Moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia and immune activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia and immune activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis Clinica Chimica Acta 338 (2003) 157 164 www.elsevier.com/locate/clinchim Moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia and immune activation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis Katharina Schroecksnadel a, Barbara Frick

More information

Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin

Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin Session Objectives. What you will cover Basic cell organelles Plasma membrane structure Basic function of membrane proteins Tissues Skin Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin Your objectives are List the

More information

Methylation Overview for Professionals

Methylation Overview for Professionals Methylation Overview for Professionals Methyl groups are CH3" groups that are utilized extensively in the body for transport of nutrients in fat soluble states and in epigenetic processes, turning genes

More information

EFFECTS OF IRON ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

EFFECTS OF IRON ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM EFFECTS OF IRON ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Gert Mayer Department of Internal Medicine IV (Nephrology and Hypertension) Medical University Innsbruck Austria Conflicts of interest Research Support: Amgen, Roche,

More information

Cardiovascular disease physiology. Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011

Cardiovascular disease physiology. Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011 Cardiovascular disease physiology Linda Lowe-Krentz Bioscience in the 21 st Century October 14, 2011 Content Introduction The number 1 killer in America Some statistics Recommendations The disease process

More information

CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM. Section B: Enzymes

CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM. Section B: Enzymes CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM Section B: Enzymes 1. Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers 2. Enzymes are substrate specific 3. The active site in an enzyme s catalytic

More information

GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS-II: An Overview

GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS-II: An Overview GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS-II: An Overview University of Papua New Guinea School of Medicine & Health Sciences, Division of Basic Medical Sciences Discipline of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, M Med Part I

More information

Methyl group: A methyl group is simply a single carbon atom bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms (CH3).

Methyl group: A methyl group is simply a single carbon atom bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms (CH3). Common Terminology: Methyl group: A methyl group is simply a single carbon atom bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms (CH3). Methylation: Transfer of methyl groups from one chemical to another is called methylation.

More information

Structures of Proteins. Primary structure - amino acid sequence

Structures of Proteins. Primary structure - amino acid sequence Structures of Proteins Primary structure - amino acid sequence Secondary structure chain of covalently linked amino acids folds into regularly repeating structures. Secondary structure is the result of

More information

Sick and Tired?... Get to the Root Cause of Complex Chronic Disease

Sick and Tired?... Get to the Root Cause of Complex Chronic Disease Sick and Tired?... Get to the Root Cause of Complex Chronic Disease Susan Blum, MD Owner, Blum Center for Health Patrick Hanaway, MD CMO, Genova Diagnostics 2008 2011 Patrick Hanaway, MD Susan Blum, MD

More information

The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species. I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose

The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species. I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose The Physiology of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Free Radicals and Reactive Oxygen Species I. Introduction Definition, Source, function and Purpose A. Definition of free radicals and reactive oxygen species

More information

Longevity and the impact on LTC and Social Security

Longevity and the impact on LTC and Social Security Longevity and the impact on LTC and Social Security MODERATOR Michael Zmistowski Chairman Financial Planning Associa-on of Florida PANELISTS David Leonardi, MD Founder Leonardi Ins-tute Phil Walker Vice

More information

Nutritional Considerations in Bipolar Disorder. Simon J. Evans, Ph.D.

Nutritional Considerations in Bipolar Disorder. Simon J. Evans, Ph.D. Nutritional Considerations in Bipolar Disorder Simon J. Evans, Ph.D. Leave your drugs in the chemist s pot if you can heal the patient with food. Hippocrates, circa 400 B.C. Overview The Brain as a Physical

More information

Lecture 4 Enzymes Catalytic proteins. Enzymes. Enzymes 10/21/10. What enzymes do therefore is:

Lecture 4 Enzymes Catalytic proteins. Enzymes. Enzymes 10/21/10. What enzymes do therefore is: Lecture 4 Catalytic proteins Are a type of protein that acts as a catalyst-speeding up chemical reactions A catalyst is defined as a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed

More information

Homocysteine (plasma, urine, dried blood spots)

Homocysteine (plasma, urine, dried blood spots) Homocysteine (plasma, urine, dried blood spots) 1 Name and description of analyte 1.1 Name of analyte Homocysteine 1.2 Alternative names None 1.3 NLMC code To follow 1.4. Function(s) of analyte Homocysteine

More information

Lecture 11 - Biosynthesis of Amino Acids. Chem 454: Regulatory Mechanisms in Biochemistry University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

Lecture 11 - Biosynthesis of Amino Acids. Chem 454: Regulatory Mechanisms in Biochemistry University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Lecture 11 - Biosynthesis of Amino Acids Chem 454: Regulatory Mechanisms in Biochemistry University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Introduction Biosynthetic pathways for amino acids, nucleotides and lipids are

More information

Copyright 2000-2003 Mark Brandt, Ph.D. 35

Copyright 2000-2003 Mark Brandt, Ph.D. 35 Amino acid breakdown Amino acids comprise one of the three major energy sources for animals. They are an especially important energy source for carnivorous animals, and for all animals during early starvation

More information

Insulin s Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and IGF I Following Resistance Training

Insulin s Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and IGF I Following Resistance Training Insulin s Effects on Testosterone, Growth Hormone and IGF I Following Resistance Training By: Jason Dudley Summary Nutrition supplements with a combination of carbohydrate and protein (with a ratio of

More information

Product Information HYDROXO-B12

Product Information HYDROXO-B12 Product Information HYDROXO-B12 Name of medicine Hydroxocobalamin ( ) as chloride. Molecular formula: C 62 H 90 ClCoN 13 O 15 P. Molecular weight is 1,383. CAS: 58288-50-9. Description Hydroxocobalamin

More information

Glutathione and Oxidative Stress - Part I

Glutathione and Oxidative Stress - Part I Glutathione and Oxidative Stress - Part I By: James L. Holly, MD Oxidative Stress refers to effects from endogenous (produced in the body) toxins (free radicals) produced in the body by normal metabolism

More information

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because:

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: Section 10 Multiple Choice 1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: A) acyl-carnitines readily cross the mitochondrial inner membrane, but

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation Honors Biology Chapter 6.8 6.12 Study Sheet The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation PYRUVATE OXIDATION DRAW THE DETAILED REACTION BELOW: REACTION SUMMARY: SUBSTRATES: PRODUCTS: THE CITRIC ACID

More information

! chriskresser.com!1

! chriskresser.com!1 !!1 ebook B12 Deficiency A Silent Epidemic With Serious Consequences What do all of these diseases have in common? Alzheimer s, dementia, cognitive decline and memory loss (collectively referred to as

More information

DNA METHYLATION AND THE CONCEPT OF EPIGENETICS

DNA METHYLATION AND THE CONCEPT OF EPIGENETICS DNA METHYLATION AND THE CONCEPT OF EPIGENETICS The term Epigenetics describes heritable genetic modifications that are not attributable to changes in the primary DNA sequence. Epigenetic modifications

More information

Special report. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Genomic Biology 3020 April 20, 2006

Special report. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Genomic Biology 3020 April 20, 2006 Special report Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Genomic Biology 3020 April 20, 2006 Gene And Protein The gene that causes the mutation is CCND1 and the protein NP_444284 The mutation deals with the cell

More information

Biomarkers for Vitamins and Minerals

Biomarkers for Vitamins and Minerals Biomarkers for Vitamins and Minerals Eleanor Brindle Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology University of Washington Biomarkers for Vitamins and Minerals Current methods New methods for use now and

More information

Pernicious Anaemia. Suzi Kennefick, Pat Kornic August 2006

Pernicious Anaemia. Suzi Kennefick, Pat Kornic August 2006 Pernicious Anaemia Suzi Kennefick, Pat Kornic August 2006 INTRODUCTION The definition of pernicious means highly injurious, destructive or deadly which accurately depicts the type of anaemia that Thomas

More information

William Shaw, Ph.D. The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc., Lenexa, Kansas, USA

William Shaw, Ph.D. The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc., Lenexa, Kansas, USA Inhibition of dopamine conversion to norepinephrine by Clostridia metabolites appears to be a (the) major cause of autism, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. All these factors can now

More information

Hepatitis C. Laboratory Tests and Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C. Laboratory Tests and Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Laboratory Tests and Hepatitis C If you have hepatitis C, your doctor will use laboratory tests to check your health. This handout will help you understand what the major tests are and what

More information

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Human Energy Transfer

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Human Energy Transfer Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Human Energy Transfer Slide Show developed by: Richard C. Krejci, Ph.D. Professor of Public Health Columbia College 6.18.11 Objectives 1. Describe the first law of thermodynamics

More information

Normal and Abnormal Aging and the Brain. Joel Kramer, PsyD Saul Villeda, PhD Kristine Yaffe, MD

Normal and Abnormal Aging and the Brain. Joel Kramer, PsyD Saul Villeda, PhD Kristine Yaffe, MD Normal and Abnormal Aging and the Brain Joel Kramer, PsyD Saul Villeda, PhD Kristine Yaffe, MD The myth of cognitive decline The myth of cognitive decline Individual change varies Individual change varies

More information

Animal Physiology. Topic: Introduction

Animal Physiology. Topic: Introduction Animal Physiology Topic: Introduction Badiozaman Sulaiman BSc.(UKM), MSc.(USM) Molecular Biology Department of Zoology Faculty of Resource Science & Technology Universiti Malaysia Sarawak This OpenCourseWare@UNIMAS

More information

Nutritional Supplements

Nutritional Supplements Nutritional Supplements Like many people, you may feel a bit bewildered at times by the glut of conflicting information about nutritional supplements. Depending on the source health providers, government

More information

Lecture 5. Fall M. Jawad Khan, PhD BSC203/BIO132

Lecture 5. Fall M. Jawad Khan, PhD BSC203/BIO132 Lecture 5 Fall 2015 BSC203/BIO132 By M. Jawad Khan, PhD Course Outline General chemistry including atomic nature of matter, molecules, principles of chemical reactions, stochiometry, acids and bases, oxidation-reduction,

More information

Citric Acid cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid cycle or Krebs Cycle Overview and brief history

Citric Acid cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid cycle or Krebs Cycle Overview and brief history Citric Acid cycle or Tricarboxylic Acid cycle or Krebs Cycle Overview and brief history Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC) and its control Reactions of TCA cycle or CAC Amphibolic nature of TCA cycle

More information

Chapter 2 Phosphorus in the Organic Life: Cells, Tissues, Organisms

Chapter 2 Phosphorus in the Organic Life: Cells, Tissues, Organisms Chapter 2 Phosphorus in the Organic Life: Cells, Tissues, Organisms As already mentioned (see Chap. 1 ), in the living cell phosphorus plays a decisive role in three different essential structures: In

More information

Detailed Course Descriptions for the Human Nutrition Program

Detailed Course Descriptions for the Human Nutrition Program 1 Detailed Course Descriptions for the Human Nutrition Program Major Required Courses NUTR221 Principles of Food Science and Nutrition Credit (Contact) Hours 2 CH(2 Theory) Prerequisites Course Description

More information

Disorders of Red Blood Cells

Disorders of Red Blood Cells Disorders of Red Blood Cells The function of RBC, facilitated by hemoglobin molecule, is to transport oxygen to the tissue. Oxygen is poorly soluble in plasma, So about 95%-98% is carried bound to hemoglobin.

More information

Hypothyroidism clinical features and treatment. 1. The causes of hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism clinical features and treatment. 1. The causes of hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism clinical features and treatment 1. The causes of hypothyroidism The thyroid is a gland in the neck which makes two thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3). Thyroxine

More information

Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates ischemic cell loss and sensory motor dysfunction in an experimental stroke model

Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates ischemic cell loss and sensory motor dysfunction in an experimental stroke model Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates ischemic cell loss and sensory motor dysfunction in an experimental stroke model Robyn Balden & Farida Sohrabji Texas A&M Health Science Center- College of Medicine ISC

More information

HUNTINGTON S DISEASE THERAPIES RESEARCH UPDATE

HUNTINGTON S DISEASE THERAPIES RESEARCH UPDATE HUNTINGTON S DISEASE MULTIDISCIPLINARY CLINIC HUNTINGTON S DISEASE THERAPIES RESEARCH UPDATE From gene to treatments The gene that causes Huntington s disease (HD) was discovered in 1993. Since then, enormous

More information

The Methionine-Homocysteine Cycle and Its Effects on Cognitive Diseases

The Methionine-Homocysteine Cycle and Its Effects on Cognitive Diseases The Methionine-Homocysteine Cycle and Its Effects on Cognitive Diseases Alan L. Miller, ND Abstract Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a metabolite of the essential amino acid methionine,

More information

Metabolism Practice Test KEY

Metabolism Practice Test KEY Biology 12 Metabolism Practice Test KEY Name: Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only

More information

Curriculum Overview:

Curriculum Overview: Curriculum Overview: The following courses must be completed by all Certified Nutrition Specialist candidates. Courses cannot fulfill multiple curriculum requirements, however, excess nutrition science

More information

1. glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue; a symptom of riboflavin deficiency.

1. glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue; a symptom of riboflavin deficiency. Chapter 11 Water-Soluble Vitamins Key Terms 1. glossitis: Inflammation of the tongue; a symptom of riboflavin deficiency. 2. decarboxylation: Removal of a carboxyl group ( COOH) from a molecule. The carboxyl

More information

Haemoglobin Haemproteins Haem porhyrins porphyrias Iron Fe ++ /Fe +++

Haemoglobin Haemproteins Haem porhyrins porphyrias Iron Fe ++ /Fe +++ Haemoglobin Haemproteins Haem porhyrins porphyrias Iron Fe ++ /Fe +++ 1 3 4 PORPHYRIAS A group of rare disorders caused by deficiencies of enzymes of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The majority of the

More information

Ch 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism

Ch 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism Ch 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism Energy as it relates to Biology Chemical reactions Enzymes and how they speed rxs Metabolism and metabolic pathways Catabolism (ATP production) Anabolism (Synthesis

More information

BSc in Medical Sciences with PHARMACOLOGY

BSc in Medical Sciences with PHARMACOLOGY BSc in Medical Sciences with PHARMACOLOGY Course Director Dr Christopher John Module Leaders Dr Robert Dickinson (Module 1) Dr Anabel Varela Carver (Module 2) Dr Sohag Saleh (Module 3) Course Administrator

More information

ACE s Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals. Chapter 2: Hormones

ACE s Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals. Chapter 2: Hormones ACE s Essentials of Exercise Science for Fitness Professionals Chapter 2: Hormones Learning Objectives This chapter covers how the body responds to the demands of exercise at the cellular level and the

More information

Functions of Blood. Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis

Functions of Blood. Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis Blood Objectives Describe the functions of blood Describe blood plasma Explain the functions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets Summarize the process of blood clotting What is Blood?

More information

New strategies in anticancer therapy

New strategies in anticancer therapy 癌 症 診 療 指 引 簡 介 及 臨 床 應 用 New strategies in anticancer therapy 中 山 醫 學 大 學 附 設 醫 院 腫 瘤 內 科 蔡 明 宏 醫 師 2014/3/29 Anti-Cancer Therapy Surgical Treatment Radiotherapy Chemotherapy Target Therapy Supportive

More information

Enzymes and Metabolism

Enzymes and Metabolism Enzymes and Metabolism AP Biology Chapter 8 Metabolism Metabolism are all the chemical reactions in an organism Forming bonds between molecules dehydration synthesis synthesis of new muscle tissue by linking

More information

Brain Sm rt EMF Protective Shields

Brain Sm rt EMF Protective Shields Brain Sm rt EMF Protective Shields Cook Your Food With Microwaves Not Your Brain Discover The Health Benefits Of EMF Protective Shields Anti EMP - Anti EMR Anti Radiation Removes Unnecessary EMF Waves

More information

Metabolic Syndrome in the brain. Presented By: Beena Murthy & Arlene Ngor. Authors: Rahul Agrawal and Fernando Gomez-Pinilla

Metabolic Syndrome in the brain. Presented By: Beena Murthy & Arlene Ngor. Authors: Rahul Agrawal and Fernando Gomez-Pinilla Presented By: Beena Murthy & Arlene Ngor Metabolic Syndrome in the brain Deficiency in omega-3 Fatty acid exacerbates dysfunctions In insulin receptor signaling and cognition. Authors: Rahul Agrawal and

More information

Marasmus. Kwashiorkor

Marasmus. Kwashiorkor Chapter 8 NUTRITION Poor nutrition can negate all the benefits of proper wound care or advanced medical interventions. Studies have shown that malnourished patients often require longer hospitalizations,

More information

Who typically has Metabolic Syndrome? According to the American Heart Association, three groups of people often have metabolic syndrome:

Who typically has Metabolic Syndrome? According to the American Heart Association, three groups of people often have metabolic syndrome: Metabolic Syndrome By Seth Bilazarian, MD, FACC, FSCAI, RPVI Clinical and Intervential Cardiologist What is the Metabolic Syndrome? The Metabolic Syndrome is a collection of five problems that greatly

More information

PRODUCT INFORMATION Vita-B12 Injection 1mg/1mL

PRODUCT INFORMATION Vita-B12 Injection 1mg/1mL PRODUCT INFORMATION Vita-B12 Injection 1mg/1mL NAME OF THE MEDICINE Hydroxocobalamin (as acetate) Chemical structure Hydroxocobalamin acetate has the following chemical structure: CAS number 22465-48-1

More information

Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin 1000 mcg Sublingual Tablets

Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin 1000 mcg Sublingual Tablets Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin 1000 mcg Sublingual Tablets Product Summary: Vitamin B12 absorption decreases with age, so adults 50 years and older may see considerable health benefits through supplementation

More information

Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007

Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 Your Life Your Health Cariodmetabolic Risk Syndrome Part VII Inflammation chronic, low-grade By James L. Holly, MD The Examiner January 25, 2007 The cardiometabolic risk syndrome is increasingly recognized

More information

Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS)

Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress 1 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) December 7, 2004, Vol. 101, No. 49 17312-17315 Elissa

More information