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1 Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following situations qualifies as an observational study? (A) The girls at your high school are surveyed to determine if they believe there is any sexual stereotyping in the school newspaper. (B) Two flowerpots are planted with the same type of seed. One is given 0.2 cups of water each day while the other is given 0.5 cups of water each day. At the end of one month, the growth of each plant is observed and measured. (C) A team of researchers records the number and type of cars that pass a specific intersection. (D) A student flips a coin 100 times and records the number of heads. (E) None of these are observational studies. 2. Which of the following is not a requirement of a controlled experiment? (A) control (B) comparison (C) replication (D) randomization (E) All of these are required. 3. You have been given the task of determining if righthanded persons have stronger right hands than left hands. A sample of 10 right- handed persons is selected randomly. Which of the following designs would be most appropriate for this study? (A) an observational study. (B) a design blocked for gender to determine if righthand strength differs by gender. (C) a matched pair blocked experiment in which each subject represents a block wherein the strength of the right hand and the left hand is measured in random order. (D) five of the subjects are randomly placed in the control group and the other in the treatment group. All are tested and the results of each group are compared. (E) None of these is appropriate. Use the following information to answer questions 4 and 5. A research team wished to compare performance in AP Statistics based on whether the students were taught using activity-based or traditional lecture methods. The final grades in AP Statistics for 500 students were collected. 4. The population of interest is: (A) the 500 students chosen. (B) the students taught by activity-based methods. (C) the students taught by traditional lecture methods. (D) all students in high school. (E) none of these. 5. An appropriate design for the study is: (A) a blocked designed experiment. (B) a stratified random sample. (C) a completely randomized design. (D) a simple random sample. (E) none of these. 6. The three principles of experimental design include: (A) control, randomization, and double blindness (B) control, randomization, and replication (C) control, replication, and simple random sampling (D) randomization, replication, and homogeneity (E) control, randomization, and homogeneity 7. A randomized block design is not (A) similar to a stratified random sample for surveys. (B) a strategy to control for an influence that would affect the outcome of the experiment. (C) a strategy that depends on randomization. (D) only used for gender comparisons. (E) All of these describe a randomized block design. 8. Which one of the following statements about experiments is true? (A) All experiments must have a control group. (B) Blocking is employed to reduce variation. (C) Random assignment is only critical for treatment groups, as opposed to control groups. (D) Matching can be used in any experiment to eliminate lurking variables. (E) None of these is true. 9. In an experiment, if two variables are confounded, which of the following statements is true? (A) One of the variables must be a lurking variable. (B) The variables will have a correlation coefficient greater than ±.5. (C) There is a clear indication that a placebo effect is present in the experiment. (D) The investigator cannot separate the effect of the variables on a response variable. (E) None of these is true. 10. When subjects in both the treatment and control group exhibit favorable responses, the condition is an example of (A) the Hawthorne effect, an improvement merely because of a change from the status quo. (B) the placebo effect. (C) an experiment that is confounded. (D) the regression fallacy. (E) blocking to reduce variation. 11. A randomized block design is similar to which of the following sampling designs? (A) simple random sample (B) multistage cluster sample (C) stratified sample (D) convenience sample (E) systematic sample 12. Blocking is utilized to help (A) organize the treatment and control groups. (B) counteract the placebo effect. (C) produce groups that are as similar as possible. (D) replicate the experiment within each block. (E) avoid the need for randomization.

4 d. How could the counselor design a related experiment to study caloric intake at breakfast with alertness in first period? 30. A high school math department conducts a study to determine whether a new AP Statistics textbook will lead to higher AP exam scores than the textbook currently in use. Two AP statistics classes are scheduled, each teacher has 18 students, and it is randomly decided which class will use which book. At the end of the academic year, the 18 students in each class take the AP Statistics, exam, and the department notes the scores. a. Identify the response variable, the treatments, and the experimental units. b. Was randomization properly used? Explain. c. Was replication properly used? Explain. d. Teacher is a confounding variable. Explain. 31. A high school math teacher believes the greater the number of hours of sleep before taking an AP exam, the better the score. She interviews the 18 students taking her AP Statistics class the day after the exam and later notes their scores. a. Is this an observational study or an experiment? Explain. b. Comment on the design of the study.

5 Answers 1. C 7. D 13. A 2. E 8. B 14. C 3. C 9. D 15. B 4. E 10. B 16. C 5. C 11. C 17. E 6. B 12. C 18. B 19. a. No. No treatments were imposed. b. Explanatory: location; Response: voting preference. Levels of the explanatory variable: rural, suburban, urban. c. Answers will vary. Be careful to make sure that all teachers in all settings have a chance to be included in the sample. d. Run a simple random sample within rural schools, suburban schools, and urban schools. 20. Answers will vary. An example of a correct answer is block arrangement, data from each pairing should be compared and analyzed separately. 23. a. Select a simple random sample of 10 from each class. b. Select a simple random sample of 20 males and a simple random sample of 20 females. c. Select a simple random sample of size Answers may vary. Possible correct graphics are shown below. b. b. c. d. 21. a. The investigator can randomly place individuals interested in the surgery into groups for procedure A and for procedure B. Perform the surgeries and monitor the degree of improvement for each group. Compare the mean degree of improvement for each group. b. Perform procedure A on one eye, randomly selected, and procedure B on the other eye and compare the difference in the degrees of improvements of each eye (the A eye - the B eye) for each participant. c. Answers will vary. d. Answers will vary but should focus on the recruitment of subjects for each group. 22. Answers may vary. One possible correct answer would be to block beds (1, 4), (2, 5), and (3, 6). Within each pair, assignment of beds to the new fertilizer or the traditional fertilizer should be accomplished randomly. A coin could be flipped; random digit tables could be used; or a random number generator could be employed as well. With the

6 25. There could be many lurking variables such as pace of life, levels of stress, diet, lack of exercise, etc. 26. In a temperate climate, there are fewer very hot days each year during which a riot could occur. 27. Answers will vary. One possible design for the observational study might be: Randomly select 200 kernels of each brand and pop them in the same popper. Count the number of unpopped kernels when finished. Make sure that the popper is cool before starting each popping session. An experiment is not possible since the investigator cannot impose the brands on the kernels. 28. Answers may vary. A good design would be to block ; ; 2-11; 5-8; and randomly assign fertilizers within each block. Correct answers should clearly indicate blocking in such a way that lighting effect is the same for all flowerbeds. 29. (a) No treatment is being imposed on anyone. (b) There are many possible answers. For example, it is possible that the students eating under 1,000 calories are those who sleep in late, have to rush to school without eating, and have not fully awakened during first period. (c) No, because cause-and-effect conclusions cannot be drawn from observational studies. (d) Randomly select a group of students who are told they must eat under 1,000 calories at breakfast, and randomly select another group who are told they must eat over 1,000 calories at breakfast. Compare alertness levels in first-period classes. 30. (a) The response variable is the exam scores, the treatments are the two books, and the experimental units are the two classes (not the students themselves!). (b) Yes, the two books (the treatments) were randomly assigned to the two classes (the experimental units). (c) No, there was no replication in this study. Each treatment was applied to only one experimental unit. (d) If a difference in exam scores is noted between the two classes, it is not known if this is due to the difference in books or the difference in teachers. That is, the treatments (books) are confounded with the teachers. 31. (a) No treatment is being imposed, so this is an observational study. (b) This is not an SRS of students. The students were all from her class and this could have introduced bias in the way they responded about hours of sleep.

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