# Problems for Chapter 9: Producing data: Experiments. STAT Fall 2015.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Problems for Chapter 9: Producing data: Experiments. STAT 145-023. Fall 2015."

## Transcription

1 How Data are Obtained The distinction between observational study and experiment is important in statistics. Observational Study Experiment Observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt to influence the responses; The purpose is to describes some group or situation; Where? - Sample surveys are one type of observational study. Deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses; The purpose is to study whether the treatment causes a change in the response; Where? - Studies whether the treatment causes change in the response. Common: Both typically have the goal of detecting a relationship between the explanatory and response variables. Difference: In contrast to observational studies, experiments don t just observe individuals or ask them questions. They actively impose some treatment in order to measure the response. When our goal is to understand cause and effect, experiments are the only source of fully convincing data. Why Not Always Use an Experiment? Sometimes it is unethical or impossible to assign people to receive a specific treatment. Sometimes too expensive (special equipments, paying individuals,...) Certain explanatory variables are inherent traits and cannot be randomly assigned (e.g. handedness or gender). Vocabulary for Experiments: Subjects - individuals studied in an experiment, particularly when they are people (= experimental units). Factors - the explanatory variables in an experiment (1, 2, or sometimes more factors). Treatment - any specific experimental condition applied to the subjects; if there are several factors, a treatment is a combination of specific values of each factor. Response variable The basic principles of well-design experiment are: Comparative design. Control the effects of lurking variables on the response, most simply by comparing two or more treatments. Randomization. Use chance to assign subjects to treatments. Replication. Use enough subjects in each group to reduce chance variation in the results. 1

2 Problem 1. A report in Circulation, the journal of the American Heart Association, examined whether taking aspirin helps with the recovery from heart attacks. The subjects were the 539 patients who were admitted with heart attack or stroke symptoms to a University Hospital in Barcelona, Spain, between October 1991 and March The patients were asked if they had taken aspirin during the prior week: 214 said yes and 325 said no. It was found that the group who had taken aspirin had a much lower amount of permanent damage from their heart attacks than the group who had not taken aspirin. Is this an observational study or an experiment? Explain your answer. Problem 2. A researcher conducts a study to investigate the effect of exercise and diet on mood. She selects three types of exercise: yoga, weight lifting, and aerobics, and two diet types: low sugar, and low fat. A 12-week experiment will compare all combinations of exercise and diet. Each treatment will have 30 different participants. The mood of each participate will be scored before and after each treatment. a) Is this an observational study or an experiment? Explain your answer. b) How many factors are in the study? Specify. c) How many treatments are in the study? Specify. d) How many subjects does the experiment require? e) What is the response variable? Factor 1 (Exercise) Low sugar Factor 2 (Diet) Low fat yoga Tr. 1 Tr. 2 weight lifting Tr. 3 Tr. 4 aerobics Tr. 5 Tr. 6 Confounding A lurking variable is a variable that is not among the explanatory or response variables in a study but that may influence the response variable. Confounding occurs when two variables are associated in such a way that their effects on a response variable cannot be distinguished from each other. Well-designed experiments take steps to avoid confounding. 2

3 Problem 3. Many studies have found that people who drink alcohol in moderation have lower risk of heart attacks than either nondrinkers or heavy drinkers. Does alcohol consumption also improve survival after a heart attack? One study followed 1913 people who were hospitalized after severe heart attacks. In the year before their heart attacks, 47% of these people did not drink, 36% drank moderately, and 17% drank heavily. After four years, fewer of the moderate drinkers had died. a) Is this an observational study or an experiment? Why? b) What are the explanatory and response variables? c) Suggest some lurking variables that may be confounded with the drinking habits of the subjects. The possible confounding makes it difficult to conclude that drinking habits explain death rates. Answers: a) [ in class ] b) The explanatory variable is alcohol consumption, and the response variable is whether or not a subject dies. c) Many answers are possible. For example, some nondrinkers might avoid drinking because of other health concerns. We do not know what kind of alcohol (beer? wine? whiskey?) the subjects were drinking. We don't know diet and lifestyles of people within groups. Design of Experiments The design of an experiment describes the choice of treatments and the manner in which the subjects are assigned to the treatments. Type 1: Randomized Comparative Experiments / Completely Randomized Experimental Design An experiment that uses both comparison of two or more treatments and random assignment of subjects to treatments. So, some units receive one treatment and similar units receive another and then experimental units are assigned to treatments at random, that is, using some sort of chance process. Randomized comparative experiments are designed to give good evidence that differences in the treatments actually cause the differences we see in the response. Example. The college decides to compare the progress of 25 on-campus students taught in the classroom with that of 25 students taught the same material online. Select the students who will be taught online by taking a simple random sample of size 25 from the 50 available subjects. The remaining 25 students form the control group. They will receive classroom instruction. The result is a randomized comparative experiment with two groups. The design in graphical form: 3

4 The selection procedure is exactly the same as it is for sampling. Label: Label the 50 students 01 to 50. Table: Go to the table of random digits and read successive two-digit groups.the first 25 labels encountered select the online group. As usual, ignore repeated labels and groups of digits not used as labels. For example, if you begin at line 125 in Table B, the first five students chosen are those labeled 21, 49, 37, 18, and 44, and so on. Also experiments in medicine and psychology often give a placebo to a control group because just being in an experiment can affect responses. A placebo is a dummy treatment. Type 2: Double-Blind Experiments In a double-blind experiment, neither the subjects nor the people who interact with them (e.g. doctor) know which treatment each subject is receiving. Problem 4. As men age, their testosterone levels gradually decrease. This may cause a reduction in lean body mass, an increase in fat, and other undesirable changes. Do testosterone supplements reverse some of these effects? A study in the Netherlands assigned 237 men aged 60 to 80 with low or low-normal testosterone levels to either a testosterone supplement or a placebo. The report in the Journal of the American Medical Association described the study as a "double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial". Explain each of these terms to someone who knows no statistics. Answers: "Double-blind" means that the treatment (testosterone or placebo) assigned to a subject was unknown to both the subject and those responsible for assessing the effectiveness of that treatment. "Randomized" means that the patients were randomly assigned to receive either the testosterone supplement or a placebo. "Placebo-controlled" means that some of the subjects were given placebos. Even though these possess no medical properties, some subjects may show improvement or benefits just as a result of participating in the experiment; the placebos allow those doing the study to observe this effect. 4

5 Type 3: Block Designs A block is a group of individuals that are known before the experiment to be similar in some way that is expected to affect the response to the treatments. In a block design, the random assignment of individuals to treatments is carried out separately within each block. Example. Women and men respond differently to advertising. An experiment to compare the effectiveness of three advertisements for the same product will want to look separately at the reactions of men and women, as well as to assess the overall response to the ads. A completely randomized design considers all subjects, both men and women, as a single pool. The randomization assigns subjects to three treatment groups without regard to their sex. This ignores the differences between men and women. A block design considers women and men separately. Randomly assign the women to three groups, with one to view each advertisement. Then separately assign the men at random to three groups. A block design allows us to draw separate conclusions about each block, for example, about men and women. A wise experimenter will form blocks based on the most important unavoidable sources of variability among the subjects. Type 4: Matched Pairs Design Matched pairs are a common form of blocking design for comparing only two treatments. Choose pairs of subjects that are as closely matched as possible. Use chance to decide which subject in a pair gets the first treatment. The other subject in that pair gets the other treatment. Sometimes each "pair" in a matched pairs design consists of just one subject, who gets both treatments one after the other, also twins could be subjects in such design. Use chance to decide the order in which subjects receive the treatments. Problem 5. Researchers from the United Kingdom studied the effect of two breathing frequencies on performance times and on several physiological parameters in front crawl swimming. The breathing frequencies were one breath every second stroke (B2) and one breath every fourth stroke (B4). Subjects were 10 male collegiate swimmers. Each subject swam 200 meters, once with breathing frequency B2 and once on a different day with breathing frequency B4. Describe the design of this matched pairs experiment, including the randomization required by this design. 5

6 Answers: Each swimmer swims one time using each breathing technique (B2 and B4). A coin is tossed to determine the order in which these techniques are used. Inference for Experiments In an experiment, researchers usually hope to see a difference in the responses so large that it is unlikely to happen just because of chance variation. We can use the laws of probability, which describe chance behavior, to learn whether the treatment effects are larger than we would expect to see if only chance were operating. If they are, we call them statistically significant. Problem 6. An experiment was conducted by some students to explore the nature of the relationship between a heart rate (measured in beats per minute) and the frequency at which that person stepped up and down on steps of various heights. Two rates of stepping, three different step heights. Forty randomly assigned people in their thirties are subjected to each treatment. Heart rate was then measured before and after treatment. a) How many factors are in the study? Specify. b) How many treatments are in the study? Specify. c) How many subjects does the experiment require? d) What is the response variable? e) What is the population? f) What are the three elements of a well-designed experiment? Explain by this study. Problem 7. An experiment was conducted by some students to explore the nature of the relationship between a person's heart rate (measured in beats per minute) and the frequency at which that person stepped up and down on steps of various heights. Four rates of stepping, three different step heights. Forty randomly assigned people in their thirties are subjected to each treatment. Heart rate was then measured before and after treatment. How many treatments are in the study? Specify. 6

### Chapter 6. Examples (details given in class) Who is Measured: Units, Subjects, Participants. Research Studies to Detect Relationships

Announcements: Midterm Friday. Bring calculator and one sheet of notes. Can t use the calculator on your cell phone. Assigned seats, random ID check. Review Wed. Review sheet posted on website. Fri discussion

### Your Results. For more information visit: www.sutton.gov.uk/healthchecks. Name: Date: In partnership with

Your Results Name: Date: For more information visit: www.sutton.gov.uk/healthchecks In partnership with Introduction Everyone is at risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, stroke and

### AP * Statistics Review. Designing a Study

AP * Statistics Review Designing a Study Teacher Packet Advanced Placement and AP are registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. The College Board was not involved in the production

### David Salafsky, MPH Carlos Moll, MPH Peggy Glider, Ph.D. The University of Arizona

Comparison of an In-Class vs. Online Alcohol Diversion Program to Reduce Alcohol Consumption and Negative Consequences Among College Students: Findings from a 2-year study David Salafsky, MPH Carlos Moll,

### Moderate Drinking, Harm Reduction, and Abstinence Outcomes

Moderate Drinking, Harm Reduction, and Abstinence Outcomes BACKGROUND Kenneth Anderson - HAMS Harm Reduction Starting in the 1970s and leading up to the present day, William Miller and his colleagues have

### Facts About Alcohol. Addiction Prevention & Treatment Services

Facts About Alcohol Addiction Prevention & Treatment Services Table of Contents Facts about alcohol: What is harmful involvement with alcohol?... 2 What is alcohol dependence?... 3 What Is BAC?... 4 What

### Calories. 23 calories from fat + 48 calories from carbohydrates + 32 calories from protein = 103 Calories in 1 cup of 1% milk

Calories What's the magical formula to achieve your weight goals? Calorie needs are based on individual needs. In order for your weight to stay the same, the energy (or Calories) you consume must equal

### What You Don t Know Can Harm You

A L C OHOL What You Don t Know Can Harm You National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism National Institutes of Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services If you are like many Americans,

### THE CORRELATION BETWEEN PHYSICAL HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH

HENK SWINKELS (STATISTICS NETHERLANDS) BRUCE JONAS (US NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS) JAAP VAN DEN BERG (STATISTICS NETHERLANDS) THE CORRELATION BETWEEN PHYSICAL HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH IN THE

### Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Risk factors are traits and life-style habits that increase a person's chances of having coronary artery and vascular disease. Some risk factors cannot be changed or

### ThinkTwice! Treating Alcohol Dependence with Topiramate: A Critical Appraisal Learning Activity JOURNAL ARTICLE TEI PLAIN LANGUAGE ANTHOLOGY

JOURNAL ARTICLE Transformed into part of a plain language anthology Treating Alcohol Dependence with Topiramate: A Critical Appraisal Learning Activity Abstract: This study set out to test a drug, topiramate,

### Diabetes. Patient Education. What you need to know. Diabetes Facts. Improving Health Through Education. What is Diabetes?

Diabetes What you need to know Diabetes Facts More than 3 million Canadians have diabetes (Canadian Diabetes Association, 2009). It is the 4th leading cause of death in the world (CDA, 2009). Patient Education

### California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) Consumer Q&As

C o n s u m e r Q & A 1 California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) Consumer Q&As Q: Is addiction a disease? A: Addiction is a chronic disorder, like heart disease or diabetes. A chronic disorder is

### A Patient s Guide to Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation

Patient s Guide to Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation A Patient s Guide to Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation PATIENT EDUCATION GUIDE What is atrial fibrillation? Atrial fibrillation

### Do you drink or use other drugs? You could be harming more than just your health.

Do you drink or use other drugs? You could be harming more than just your health. Simple questions. Straight answers about the risks of alcohol and drugs for women. 1 Why is my health care provider asking

### PRESSURE POINTS SERIES: Introducing high blood pressure

PRESSURE POINTS SERIES: NO.1 Introducing high blood pressure BLOOD PRESSURE ASSOCIATION Pressure Points series Pressure Points is a series of booklets produced by the Blood Pressure Association, to help

### Stroke: Major Public Health Burden. Stroke: Major Public Health Burden. Stroke: Major Public Health Burden 5/21/2012

Faculty Prevention Sharon Ewer, RN, BSN, CNRN Stroke Program Coordinator Baptist Health Montgomery, Alabama Satellite Conference and Live Webcast Monday, May 21, 2012 2:00 4:00 p.m. Central Time Produced

### High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes:

Prepared in collaboration with High Blood Pressure in People with Diabetes: Are you at risk? Updated 2012 People with diabetes are more likely to have high blood pressure. What is blood pressure? The force

### Vermont PRAMS Data Brief

Prenatal Counseling part 3 Alcohol, Tobacco & Drugs This is a report on the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), a survey conducted on a sample of Vermont women with live births since 2001.

### High Blood Pressure (Essential Hypertension)

Sacramento Heart & Vascular Medical Associates February 18, 2012 500 University Ave. Sacramento, CA 95825 Page 1 916-830-2000 Fax: 916-830-2001 What is essential hypertension? Blood pressure is the force

### Cardiac rehabilitation

Information For Patients & Carers Cardiac rehabilitation Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Trust Thomas Drive Liverpool Merseyside L14 3PE Telephone: 0151-228 1616 www.lhch.nhs.uk This leaflet has

### What are some of the signs that alcohol is a problem?

Problems with Alcohol How can I tell if alcohol is a problem for me? Alcohol is a problem if it affects any part of your life, including your health, your work and your life at home. You may have a problem

### AP Stats- Mrs. Daniel Chapter 4 MC Practice

AP Stats- Mrs. Daniel Chapter 4 MC Practice Name: 1. Archaeologists plan to examine a sample of 2-meter-square plots near an ancient Greek city for artifacts visible in the ground. They choose separate

### Older Adults and Alcohol

Older Adults and Alcohol You Can Get Help 5 What s Inside? Read this booklet to learn about alcohol and aging. Share this booklet with your friends and family. Use this booklet to start talking about how

### Shared Decision Making

Deciding what to do about high cholesterol This short decision aid is to help you decide what to do about your high cholesterol. You can use it on your own, or with your doctor, to help you make a decision

### High Blood Sugar. Printable Materials

Printable Materials Activity Card #1 Symptoms of High Blood Sugar or Pre-Diabetes Symptoms People often don t know they have high blood sugar or pre-diabetes. There are no symptoms and pre-diabetes can

### Risk of alcohol. Peter Anderson MD, MPH, PhD, FRCP Professor, Alcohol and Health, Maastricht University Netherlands. Zurich, 4 May 2011

Risk of alcohol Peter Anderson MD, MPH, PhD, FRCP Professor, Alcohol and Health, Maastricht University Netherlands Zurich, 4 May 2011 Lifetime risk of an alcoholrelated death (1/100) 16.0 14.0 12.0 10.0

### Stat 1040, Spring 2009 Homework 1 Solutions (with two extra problems at the end)

Stat 1040, Spring 2009 Homework 1 Solutions (with two extra problems at the end) 1. A 1999 study claimed that Infants who sleep at night in a bedroom with a light on may be at higher risk for myopia (nearsightedness)

### 3.5% 3.0% 3.0% 2.4% Prevalence 2.0% 1.5% 1.0% 0.5% 0.0%

S What is Heart Failure? 1,2,3 Heart failure, sometimes called congestive heart failure, develops over many years and results when the heart muscle struggles to supply the required oxygen-rich blood to

### High Cholesterol (Hyperlipidemia)

High Cholesterol (Hyperlipidemia) My cholesterol medication is: The directions are: In recent years, powerful new drugs have been developed to reduce cholesterol in your blood, thereby reducing your risk

### High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Page 1 of 5 High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) If you have high blood pressure, you have an increased risk of developing heart disease, a stroke, and other serious conditions. In some cases blood pressure

### Chapter 7: Middle Adulthood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD. Changes with age = Aging. Age Changes

Chapter 7: Middle Adulthood Module 7.1 Physical Development in Middle Adulthood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE ADULTHOOD 4/14/2009 1 4/14/2009 2 Age Changes What stays the same as we age? What changes

### Aging Well - Part V. Hormone Modulation -- Growth Hormone and Testosterone

Aging Well - Part V Hormone Modulation -- Growth Hormone and Testosterone By: James L. Holly, MD (The Your Life Your Health article published in the December 4th Examiner was a first draft. It was sent

### Cell Phone Impairment?

Cell Phone Impairment? Overview of Lesson This lesson is based upon data collected by researchers at the University of Utah (Strayer and Johnston, 2001). The researchers asked student volunteers (subjects)

### Student Drinking Spring 2013

Students Student Drinking Spring 2013 INTRODUCTION This survey, conducted by Student Affairs Research and Assessment, provides data on alcohol use and high-risk drinking behavior of undergraduate students

### The facts about... Alcohol and diabetes. Five key things you need to know

The facts about... Alcohol and diabetes Five key things you need to know Diabetes affects around 2.9 million people in the UK. It s likely there are another 850,000 people who have the condition, but aren

### Reduce Stroke Risk - Control Your Blood Pressure

Reduce Stroke Risk - Control Your Blood Pressure What is blood pressure? Blood is carried from the heart to the rest of your body in vessels called arteries. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing

### inflammation of the pancreas and damage to the an increased risk of hypertension, stroke and Table 7.1: Classification of alcohol consumption

H E A LT H SURVEY Alcohol Consumption 7 Alcohol Consumption N AT I O N A L Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with inflammation of the pancreas and damage to the an increased risk

### Booklet B The Menace of Alcohol

The Menace of Alcohol This report has been designed so that you consider the effects of excessive drinking. It has been compiled from a series of websites from around the world, all of which are reputable

### AP Statistics Chapters 11-13 Practice Test MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

AP Statistics Chapters 11-13 Practice Test Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A company sponsoring a new Internet search engine

### Taking a statin to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke

Patient decision aid Taking a statin to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg181/resources/cg181-lipid-modification-update-patient-decisionaid2 Published:

### Love your heart. A South Asian guide to controlling your blood pressure

Love your heart A South Asian guide to controlling your blood pressure BLOOD PRESSURE ASSOCIATION Love your heart If you are of South Asian origin, then this booklet is for you. It has been written to

### Neal Rouzier responds to the JAMA article on Men and Testosterone

Neal Rouzier responds to the JAMA article on Men and Testosterone On the first day the JAMA article was released I received 500 emails from physicians and patients requesting my opinion of the article

### What is a Heart Attack? 1,2,3

S What is a Heart Attack? 1,2,3 Heart attacks, otherwise known as myocardial infarctions, are caused when the blood supply to a section of the heart is suddenly disrupted. Without the oxygen supplied by

### What Alcohol Does to the Body. Chapter 25 Lesson 2

What Alcohol Does to the Body Chapter 25 Lesson 2 Short-Term Effects of Drinking The short-term term effects of alcohol on the body depend on several factors including: amount of alcohol consumed, gender,

### Living a happy, healthy and satisfying life Tineke de Jonge, Christianne Hupkens, Jan-Willem Bruggink, Statistics Netherlands, 15-09-2009

Living a happy, healthy and satisfying life Tineke de Jonge, Christianne Hupkens, Jan-Willem Bruggink, Statistics Netherlands, 15-09-2009 1 Introduction Subjective well-being (SWB) refers to how people

### Alcohol Units. A brief guide

Alcohol Units A brief guide 1 2 Alcohol Units A brief guide Units of alcohol explained As typical glass sizes have grown and popular drinks have increased in strength over the years, the old rule of thumb

### ARTICLE #1 PLEASE RETURN AT THE END OF THE HOUR

ARTICLE #1 PLEASE RETURN AT THE END OF THE HOUR Alcoholism By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alcoholism/ds00340 Definition Alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive

### Optimal levels of alcohol consumption for men and women at different ages, and the all-cause mortality attributable to drinking

Optimal levels of alcohol consumption for men and women at different ages, and the all-cause mortality attributable to drinking Ian R. White, Dan R. Altmann and Kiran Nanchahal 1 1. Summary Background

### Alcohol and Pancreatitis

The facts about... Alcohol and Pancreatitis Five key things you need to know You probably don t pay much attention to your pancreas. But that small, tadpoleshaped organ behind your stomach and below your

### The relationship between socioeconomic status and healthy behaviors: A mediational analysis. Jenn Risch Ashley Papoy.

Running head: SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND HEALTHY BEHAVIORS The relationship between socioeconomic status and healthy behaviors: A mediational analysis Jenn Risch Ashley Papoy Hanover College Prior research

### Important facts to remember

Important facts to remember If you re pregnant or trying to get pregnant, or if you know someone who is, there are several important points to remember: See a healthcare professional regularly. Get plenty

### Young people and alcohol Factsheet

IAS Factsheet Young people and alcohol Updated May 2013 Young people and alcohol Factsheet Institute of Alcohol Studies Alliance House 12 Caxton Street London SW1H 0QS Tel: 020 7222 4001 Email: info@ias.org.uk

### Wellness for People with MS: What do we know about Diet, Exercise and Mood And what do we still need to learn? March 2015

Wellness for People with MS: What do we know about Diet, Exercise and Mood And what do we still need to learn? March 2015 Introduction Wellness and the strategies needed to achieve it is a high priority

### WHAT IS BLOOD PRESSURE?

HYPERTENSION Hypertension - also known as high blood pressure - is a chronic medical condition that is caused by a persistent elevation of the pressure inside the circulatory system. Hypertension is one

### The Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Memory Retention and Recall

The Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Memory Retention and Recall Lab 603 Group 1 Kailey Fritz, Emily Drakas, Naureen Rashid, Terry Schmitt, Graham King Medical Sciences Center University of Wisconsin-Madison

### Alcohol and Dependence

The facts about... Alcohol and Dependence Five key things you need to know A glass of wine with dinner, a beer after work, a cocktail in the sunshine on holiday. Alcohol makes an appearance in so many

### Alcohol. And Your Health. Psychological Medicine

Alcohol And Your Health Psychological Medicine Introduction Alcohol, when used in moderation and as part of a healthy lifestyle, can have beneficial effects for some people, particularly in the prevention

### REDUCE YOUR RISK OF STROKE

REDUCE YOUR RISK OF STROKE WHAT IS STROKE? A stroke is a brain attack. It can be fatal. A stroke happens when a blockage such as a clot blocks the blood flow to the brain, or when a burst blood vessel

### Welcome! Tuesday, July 16, 2013 10-11 am

Tuesday, July 16, 2013 10-11 am Welcome! Grennan Sims, RD, LD District Dietitian/Nutrition Education Coordinator Hickman Mills C-1 School District, Kansas City, MO Objectives: Learn what heart disease

### HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND YOUR KIDNEYS

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND YOUR KIDNEYS www.kidney.org About the Information in this Booklet Did you know that the National Kidney (NKF) Foundation offers guidelines and commentaries that help your healthcare

### CAGE. AUDIT-C and the Full AUDIT

CAGE In the past have you ever: C tried to Cut down or Change your pattern of drinking or drug use? A been Annoyed or Angry because of others concern about your drinking or drug use? G felt Guilty about

### Maintaining Healthy Body Mass Index (BMI) Through Physical Activity and Diet Pitfalls of Fad Dieting. Julia Sosa, MS,RD,LD ADPH

Maintaining Healthy Body Mass Index (BMI) Through Physical Activity and Diet Pitfalls of Fad Dieting Julia Sosa, MS,RD,LD ADPH How do you define Healthy? What is Body Mass Index? Body mass index (BMI)

### Testosterone. Testosterone For Women

Testosterone Testosterone is a steroid hormone. Popular use of the term steroid leads people to believe that it signifies a drug that s illegal and abused by some body builders and other athletes. While

### Alcohol and accidents

The facts about... Alcohol and accidents Five key things you need to know The facts about alcohol and accidents Spilling red wine over your friend s pristine white sofa. Breaking another wine glass all

### Alcohol Overuse and Abuse

Alcohol Overuse and Abuse ACLI Medical Section CME Meeting February 23, 2015 Daniel Z. Lieberman, MD Professor and Vice Chair Department of Psychiatry George Washington University Alcohol OVERVIEW Definitions

### Action plan for reducing risky drinking

AMA Healthier Life Steps A physician-patient alliance for a longer, healthier life Action plan for reducing risky drinking The goal For adults who choose to consume alcohol, moderation as defined by the

### The Impact of Alcohol

Alcohol and Tobacco Smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol are behaviors that often begin in adolescence. Although tobacco companies are prohibited from advertising, promoting, or marketing their products

### High Blood Pressure and Your Kidneys

High Blood Pressure and Your Kidneys About 65 million Americans have high blood pressure, but as many as one third or three in 10 don't even know it. There are usually no signs or symptoms that your blood

### AFib (short for atrial fibrillation) is the most common type of irregular heartbeat, affecting literally millions of men and women

What is atrial fibrillation? AFib (short for atrial fibrillation) is the most common type of irregular heartbeat, affecting literally millions of men and women What is atrial fibrillation? AFib occurs

### Health Risk Appraisal Profile

Language (Character Set): Health Risk Appraisal Profile Congratulations for completing your Health Risk Appraisal Questionnaire! Last update: June 4, 2012; 8:27:54 CDT This Health Risk Appraisal is not

### Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Brief

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Brief What is Coronary Heart Disease? Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease 1, is the most common heart condition in the United States. It occurs

### Stress is linked to exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity. 1) Stress 2) Hostility 3) Social Support. Evidence of association between these

Psychosocial Factors & CHD Health Psychology Psychosocial Factors 1) Stress 2) Hostility 3) Social Support Evidence of association between these psychosocial factors and CHD Physiological Mechanisms Stress

### Statistical Bulletin. Drinking Habits Amongst Adults, 2012. Correction. Key points:

Statistical Bulletin Drinking Habits Amongst Adults, 2012 Coverage: GB Date: 17 December 2013 Geographical Area: Region Theme: Health and Social Care Correction A minor error was found in table 11 of the

### THE ROWANS SURGERY MEDICAL HISTORY QUESTIONNAIRE MALE & FEMALE 18+

THE ROWANS SURGERY MEDICAL HISTORY QUESTIONNAIRE MALE & FEMALE 18+ Surname: First Name: Date of Birth: NHS Number: / / Mobile Telephone No: Male / Female If you wish to sign up for Vision On-Line services

### Cardiac Rehabilitation

Cardiac Rehabilitation Introduction Experiencing heart disease should be the beginning of a new, healthier lifestyle. Cardiac rehabilitation helps you in two ways. First, it helps your heart recover through

### D.G. Counseling Inc.

D.G. Counseling Inc. March 2009 Newsletter T H I S M O N T H W E E N J O Y A N A R T I C L E W R I T T E N B Y J U D I T H F A W E L L ATTENTION: Two of the books Donna Gluck coauthored with Dr. Rob Bollendorf

### 1 GUIDE TO ALCOHOLISM

1 GUIDE TO ALCOHOLISM Understanding Alcoholism While a glass of wine with dinner or a couple of beers while watching the big game may seem like a harmless way to unwind, for 14 million Americans, it is

### Heart Health and Stroke

Heart Health and Stroke The first and third leading causes of death in the United States are heart disease and cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Most of cardiovascular disease morbidity is the result

### My health action plan

My health action plan Contents What is a health action plan? 3 Section 1 Personal information 7 Section 2 People who help me 13 Section 3 Communication 17 Section 4 Medicine 23 Section 5 My general health

### Review for Exam 2. H 0 : p 1 p 2 = 0 H A : p 1 p 2 0

Review for Exam 2 1 Time in the shower The distribution of the amount of time spent in the shower (in minutes) of all Americans is right-skewed with mean of 8 minutes and a standard deviation of 10 minutes.

### Am I at Risk for type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower the Risk of Getting Diabetes NATIONAL DIABETES INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

NATIONAL DIABETES INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE Am I at Risk for type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower the Risk of Getting Diabetes U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health

### PERSONAL TRAINING FITNESS ASSESSMENT

PERSONAL TRAINING FITNESS ASSESSMENT A fitness assessment is a great way to evaluate your current fitness level. It includes a series of measurements that help determine physical fitness and are a great

### MANAGEMENT OF LIPID DISORDERS: IMPLICATIONS OF THE NEW GUIDELINES

MANAGEMENT OF LIPID DISORDERS: IMPLICATIONS OF THE NEW GUIDELINES Robert B. Baron MD MS Professor and Associate Dean UCSF School of Medicine Declaration of full disclosure: No conflict of interest EXPLAINING

### Understanding and Managing Your. Triglycerides

Understanding and Managing Your Triglycerides What are Triglycerides? There are several types are one of several types of fat in your body, and triglycerides are the most common. Along with LDL ( bad )

### GENERAL HEART DISEASE KNOW THE FACTS

GENERAL HEART DISEASE KNOW THE FACTS WHAT IS Heart disease is a broad term meaning any disease affecting the heart. It is commonly used to refer to coronary heart disease (CHD), a more specific term to

### Three Essential Properties of a Well-Designed Experiment

Experimental Design Three Essential Properties of a Well-Designed Experiment Experimenter must: 1. Systematically vary (manipulate) at least one independent variable 2. Assign participants to experimental

### MY TYPE 2 DIABETES NUMBERS

BLOOD SUGAR MANAGEMENT GUIDE MY TYPE 2 DIABETES NUMBERS Understanding and Tracking the ABCs of Type 2 Diabetes 1 BLOOD MY TYPE SUGAR 2 DIABETES MANAGEMENT ABC NUMBERS GUIDE When you have type 2 diabetes,

### is for A1c (blood sugar level) What causes unhealthy levels of blood sugar?

diabetes matters Summer 2016 Do you have diabetes? Or do you have prediabetes and want to know more about it? Diabetes Matters is just for you, to help you learn how to live well with diabetes and prevent

### Manage cancer related fatigue:

Manage cancer related fatigue: For People Affected by Cancer In this pamphlet: What can I do to manage fatigue? What is cancer related fatigue? What causes cancer related fatigue? How can my health care

### Statistical Bulletin. Adult Drinking Habits in Great Britain, 2013. Key points in 2013: Summary

Statistical Bulletin Adult Drinking Habits in Great Britain, 2013 Coverage: GB Date: 13 February 2015 Geographical Area: Region Theme: Health and Social Care Key points in 2013: More than one in five adults

### ELEMENTS FOR A PUBLIC SUMMARY. Overview of disease epidemiology. Summary of treatment benefits

VI: 2 ELEMENTS FOR A PUBLIC SUMMARY Bicalutamide (CASODEX 1 ) is a hormonal therapy anticancer agent, used for the treatment of prostate cancer. Hormones are chemical messengers that help to control the

### Aspirin Dosing: A Patient Centric Trial Assessing Benefits and Long term Effectiveness (ADAPTABLE)

Aspirin Dosing: A Patient Centric Trial Assessing Benefits and Long term Effectiveness (ADAPTABLE) We are asking you to join a research study called ADAPTABLE. The information below explains the study

### SCRIPT NUMBER 93 HIGH CHOLESTEROL (ONE SPEAKER)

SCRIPT NUMBER 93 HIGH CHOLESTEROL (ONE SPEAKER) PROGRAM NAME: HEALTH NUGGETS PROGRAM TITLE: HIGH CHOLESTEROL PROGRAM NUMBER: 93 SUBJECT: SOURCES, COMPLICATIONS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HIGH CHOLESTEROL

### What is a P-value? Ronald A. Thisted, PhD Departments of Statistics and Health Studies The University of Chicago

What is a P-value? Ronald A. Thisted, PhD Departments of Statistics and Health Studies The University of Chicago 8 June 1998, Corrections 14 February 2010 Abstract Results favoring one treatment over another

### Gene A. Spiller, PhD, Antonella Dewell, MS, RD, Sally Chaves, RN, Zaga Rakidzich

TITLE Effect of daily use natural astaxanthin on C-reactive protein. Conducted by: Health Research & Studies Center, Los Altos, CA Gene A. Spiller, PhD, Antonella Dewell, MS, RD, Sally Chaves, RN, Zaga

### FAQ' s on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

FAQ' s on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism It is important to understand that these answers are not meant to provide specific medical advice, but to provide information to better understand the health consequences

### Cardiac Rehabilitation

Cardiac Rehabilitation Questions and Answers Information for Patients Cardiac Rehabilitation Dept Phone: 01625 663083 Macclesfield District General Hospital www.eastcheshire.nhs.uk @eastcheshirenhs Ref: