# Self-Check and Review Chapter 1 Sections

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1 Self-Check and Review Chapter 1 Sections Practice True/False 1. The entire collection of individuals or objects about which information is desired is called a sample. 2. A study is an observational study if the investigator observes the behavior of a response variable when one or more factors are manipulated. 3. By definition, a simple random sample of size n is any sample that is selected in a manner to guarantee every individual in the population has an equal chance of selection. 8. As long as the sample size is small relative to the population, there is little practical difference between sampling with replacement and sampling without replacement. 9. Clusters are non-overlapping subgroups of a population that have been identified as homogeneous. 10. Random subpopulations of a population are called strata. 4. Response bias can occur when responses are not actually obtained from all individuals selected for inclusion in the sample. 5. Selection bias can occur if volunteers only are used in a study. 6. Stratified sampling is a sampling method that in no way involves simple random sampling. 7. Increasing sample size will generally eliminate bias in a sample. 1

2 Multiple Choice 11. Which of the following statistical studies is an observational study? a. A group of students is surveyed to determine the percentage who believe in reincarnation. b. A random sample of students is shown a documentary on the evolution of reincarnation beliefs throughout human history. A second random sample is not shown the documentary. The object of the study is to determine whether viewing the documentary affects belief in reincarnation. c. To determine whether Vitamin C has any effectiveness at lessening the duration of the common cold, one set of cold sufferers is given no Vitamin C, a second set is given 2 grams per day, and a third set is given 5 grams of Vitamin C per day. d. All of these studies are observational. e. None of these studies is observational. 12. Which of the following statistical studies is an experimental study? a. A researcher observes the effect of alcohol consumption on reaction time by administering various quantities of alcohol to randomly-selected subjects. b. A study is conducted to see if exposure to increased carbon dioxide levels increases tomato yields.tomato plants are selected at random and are then exposed to various doses of carbon dioxide. c. Two random samples of senior adults are selected. The first group watches a 30-minute presentation on medicare fraud, while the other group does not watch the presentation. A survey is then administered to measure the level of confidence the subjects have in their health care providers. d. All of these are experimental studies. e. None of these are experimental studies. 13. Select the correct sampling method for the following situation. To analyze the level of employee satisfaction at stores in a certain large city, a grocery store chain selects eight store locations at random and surveys all employees at these locations. a. Simple random sampling b. Stratified random sampling c. Cluster sampling d. Systematic sampling e. Convenience sampling 14. A study is commissioned to determine whether piglets gain body mass more rapidly when a certain hormone is introduced into their feed. In January, a random sample of week-old piglets receives a diet that includes the hormone. Sixteen weeks later, the average weight increase is determined. A similar experiment is conducted the following June with a random sample of 36 piglets, except the hormone is removed from the diet. Which of the following do you think represents the most serious flaw in this study? a. the presence of a confounding variable b. the presence of a sampling bias c. an absence of experimental control d. the presence of a measurement bias e. inadequate information regarding dietary needs of piglets 2

3 15. Which of the following best summarizes nonresponse bias? a. a tendency for samples to differ from the corresponding population as a result of systematic exclusion of some part of the population b. a tendency for samples to differ from the corresponding population because data are not obtained from all individuals selected for inclusion in the sample c. a tendency for samples to differ from the corresponding population because the method of observation tends to produce values that differ from the true value d. a bias on the part of the researcher towards those who chose not to participate in a survey e. None of these describes nonresponse bias. 16. To estimate the proportion of students who plan to purchase tickets to an upcoming school fundraiser, a high school decides to sample 100 students as they register for the spring semester. There are 2000 students at the school. Which of the following sampling plans would result in a simple random sample? a. Number the students from 1 to 2000 and then use random numbers to select 100 students. b. Survey the first 100 students to register. c. Randomly select 100 students from a list of the 950 female students at the school. d. Divide the students into early registrants (the first 1000 to register) and late registrants (the last 1000 to register). Use random numbers to identify 50 of the early registrants and 50 of the late registrants to survey. e. Select one of the first 20 students to register using a random number table and then select every 20th student to register thereafter. 3

4 Short Answer: Use complete detailed sentences to answer each part of the question. 17. We have distinguished two types of studies: observational and experimental. Briefly explain the essential difference(s) between these two types of study. 18. The following paragraph describes an actual study. After reading the description, determine whether the study is an observational study or an experiment. Justify your answer with specific references to the information in the study. "We compared paired daytime and night counts of wild brook trout, brown trout, and rainbow trout made by the same snorkelers in five streams during August Overall, we counted 109 trout in the daytime and 333 trout at night. We speculate that trout counted at night were present during the daytime but were hidden from view. Biologists should consider that trout behavior and susceptibility to being seen might vary a great deal between daytime and night, even during summer. In some streams, the majority of trout may not be seen during the daytime." 19. The following paragraph describes an actual study. After reading the description, determine whether the study is an observational or experimental study. Justify your answer with specific references to the information in the study. "Before the opening of the new International Airport and the termination of the old airport, children near both sites were recruited into aircraft-noise groups (aircraft noise at present or pending) and control groups with no aircraft noise and closely matched for socio-economic status. A total of 326 children (mean age = 10.4 years) took part in three data-collection waves, one before and two after the switch-over of the airports. After the switch to the new airport, long-term memory and reading were found to be impaired in the noise group at the new airport, and improved in the formerly noise-exposed group at the old airport." 20. Briefly describe how populations and samples differ. 4

5 21. A friend of yours, who is not taking statistics, wonders why it is that anyone would choose to take a sample. "Obviously," she says, "you would get better information from a census." In a short paragraph, explain why it is that statisticians take samples rather than taking a census. 22. The most basic sampling method studied in statistics is the simple random sample (SRS). In your own words, what is the correct definition of a simple random sample of size n? 5

6 23. The ZZZ chain of motels has a standard method of constructing their rooms to maximize the ease of parking for its customers. The rooms are arranged in adjacent buildings so that each customer can park outside the rented room. The layout for one of the hotels with 48 rooms located along a famous highway is diagrammed below: Route 66 Building A Building B The manager would like to survey customers in 12 of his rooms (one randomly selected customer for each room selected in the sample) to assess their satisfaction with the motel services. The surveys will be placed on the customers' beds before they check in to the motel. In order to make the directions easy to follow, he elects to use systematic sampling. (a) (b) Explain how you would use random numbers to set up the systematic sampling process. Write a short paragraph for the maids that helps them carry out your method in part (a). 6

7 24. Bias is a serious problem that sometimes arises when one takes a sample. (a) (b) In a few sentences, explain generally what bias is. What is the distinction between response bias and non-response bias? 25. Bias, the tendency for samples to differ from the corresponding population in some systematic way, might be due to: (a) selection bias, (b) response bias, and/or (c) nonresponse bias. In a few sentences, discuss the differences among these different biases. 7

8 26. The two paragraphs below discuss aspects of two studies, each of which exhibit a bias. For each study, decide whether the problem is selection bias, response bias, or nonresponse bias, and in a few sentences explain why you chose your answer. (a) (b) One part of the Nurses' Health Study is concerned with possible causes of skin cancer. Nurses were asked about different behaviors and aspects of their health when they entered the study. Then, the nurses were given the questionnaire again if they were diagnosed with cancer. When the questionnaires were analyzed, the investigators discovered that after the nurses were diagnosed with cancer they tended to report a reduced ability to tan. It is thought that the shift in reporting might be caused by an awareness of their diagnosis. One part of the Demographic and Health Surveys Program is concerned with measures of malnutrition. Investigators measure physical aspects of growing children, and attempt to document the physical characteristics of a population at different ages. Sadly, in some countries many children die early, and thus a bias is introduced in the study when the investigators can not collect the data from the deceased children. 8

9 27. Three methods for random sampling are: (a) simple random sampling, (b) stratified random sampling, and (c) cluster sampling. In a few sentences, discuss the similarities and differences among these sampling methods. Specifically, what sampling circumstances would lead you to choose each of these methods? 9

10 28. A pharmaceutical company wants to test its new drug that is designed to help balding men grow more hair. From their records of past customers, the company has data on about 5,000 men. The data contains information about the men's hair color, age, and percent of baldness. (A partial list is given below.) For their anticipated experiment, they want to take a sample that is representative of their customers. Hair color Age (yrs) % Baldness Light Dark Light Dark Dark Light Dark Light (a) (b) Briefly describe how you would select a simple random sample of size n = 20 from this list of customers. Describe in a short paragraph why you might wish to use a stratified random sample. 10

11 ID: A Practice Answer Section TRUE/FALSE 1. F 2. F 3. F 4. F 5. T 6. F 7. F 8. T 9. F 10. F MULTIPLE CHOICE 11. A 12. D 13. C 14. A 15. B 16. A SHORT ANSWER 17. In an experiment, researchers observe how a response variable behaves when they manipulate one or more factors. However, in an observational study, the researchers do not manipulate any factors. Instead, they observe characteristics of a subset of the members of one or more existing populations. 18. This study is an observational study since the explanatory variable was not manipulated by the researchers and the subjects were not randomly assigned to different treatments. Instead, the researchers simply observed the number of trout visible during the day and during the evening. 19. This is an observational study. The children were identified in place and the manipulation of sound level was not randomly assigned. 20. A population consists of an entire group about which some information is desired. A sample consists of only some part of this group that has been selected for study. 21. Although we may get better information from a census, it is usually far too costly and time consuming to contact every member of the population. A large random sample will be nearly as good for far less cost. 1

12 ID: A 22. A simple random sample of size n is a sample that is selected from a population in a way that ensures that every different possible sample of the desired size has the same chance of being selected Note: It is important that students not only state that each person has the same chance of being chosen, but also each possible sample of size n has the same chance of being chosen. a) Since there are 48 units in the population and we want a sample of size 12, we want to choose every fourth room after randomly choosing one of the first four rooms to start with. If we are using a random digit table, we would go through the table until we get a number from 1 to 4. Then, we would keep adding 4 to that number until we get to the end of the hotel rooms. For example, if we come upon the number 3 first, we would survey the 3rd room, the 7th room, the 11th room, etc. b) Dear Maids, when you are placing the surveys in the rooms, please follow the following procedure. Starting at the northwest corner of building A and moving east, place a survey in the third room, the seventh room, and every fourth room thereafter, moving back and forth along the four rows of rooms. a) Bias is the tendency for a sample to differ from the corresponding population in some systematic way. b) Non-response bias occurs when responses are not actually obtained from all individuals selected for the sample. With response bias, however, responses are obtained from the subjects, but the method of observation tends to produce values that systematically differ from the true population value in some way. 25. Selection bias occurs when some part of the population is systematically excluded from the sample. Non-response bias occurs when responses are not actually obtained from all individuals who were selected for the sample. With response bias, however, responses are obtained from the subjects, but the method of observation tends to produce values that systematically differ from the true population value in some way. 26. a) This is an example of response bias, since the awareness of their diagnosis may have caused them to change their response. It isn't non-response bias since they were able to obtain responses from the nurses and it isn't selection bias since they did not attempt to generalize to a larger population. b) This is an example of non-response bias, since some of the children selected for the study were not able to participate after they died. It is not selection bias since the children were not left out on purpose and it isn't response bias since the researchers were unable to obtain responses in the first place. 2

13 ID: A 27. In simple random sampling, every individual and every possible sample of size n has an equal chance of being selected for the study. In stratified random sampling, the population is divided into non-overlapping homogeneous groups (called strata) and a simple random sample is selected from each strata. In cluster sampling, the population is divided into non-overlapping (preferably heterogeneous) groups called clusters and then a random sample of clusters is selected and every member of the selected clusters is studied. 28. Cluster sampling works best when the population is already divided into easily identifiable groups that are heterogeneous (i.e. each cluster can reasonably be assumed to be representative of the entire population). Stratified random sampling works best when there are easily identified groups in the population that are anticipated to have very different responses to the question of interest. Simple random sampling is best when neither of the circumstances listed above are present. a) To select a simple random sample of size 20, we could number the subjects from and use a random digit table. On the table, we would look at sets of 4 digits until 20 numbers from were selected (ignoring any repeats) and these would be the men selected. b) If the researchers anticipate an association between any of the variables listed (hair color, age, or % baldness) and the response variable, they should stratify by that variable so that the sample they get will not over- or under-represent a subgroup which may respond differently than the population in general. 3

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