# Sampling. COUN 695 Experimental Design

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1 Sampling COUN 695 Experimental Design

2 Principles of Sampling Procedures are different for quantitative and qualitative research Sampling in quantitative research focuses on representativeness Sampling in qualitative research focuses on the sample (or topic) of study The goal of quantitative research is generalizability The goal of qualitative research is transfer

3 Sampling Theory Social Scientists have adopted methods from the physical sciences to address sampling However, these methods provide a theoretical base only Most social science research does not rely on a true population or true random selection

4 Practical Issues in Sampling 1. Defining the target population 2. Creating a participant pool 3. Selecting participants 4. Establishing validity 5. Determining the number of participants

5 Population Validity The extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized from the sample Representativeness Dependent upon: Randomness Sample size

6 Population Validity Reduces the chance of type I and type II error Increases statistical power Demonstrates a good faith approximation of the population

7 Population Validity We will always have sampling error: Generalizable results are still only an approximation of the population We demonstrate our sampling error by reporting measures of variability Range Variance Standard deviation

8 Types of Populations Target population All members of a real or hypothetical set Saves time and money Studying a whole population is unrealistic High level of accuracy Accessible population All participants who could be realistically included

9 Generalizability: A two-step process Demonstrate that the sample in the study is representative to the accessible population Randomness Common characteristics Note any bias Demonstrate that the sample in the study is representative to the target population Determine similarities of the accessible population to the target population

10 To show generalizability: Clearly describe the population Define the sampling procedure in terms of type, size, and demographic data Identify any records that were accessed to obtain the data Completion rate, if possible

11 Probability sampling Individuals are chosen by chance Four general types: Simple random sampling Systematic sampling Stratified sampling Cluster sampling

12 Simple Random Sampling Participants in a population of a given size have an equal chance of being selected Independence: selection of one participant has no effect on the selection of another participant The above characteristics define randomness

13 Simple Random Sampling Randomness leads to generalizability, smaller amounts of error, and utility in inferential statistics Randomness can be assured through the use of random number tables or random number software.

14 Systematic Sampling Mathematically subdivide the population Randomly select a number less than the number of subdivisions

15 Systematic Sampling For example, if there are 2000 students in a high school, you divide the number of students by 50. You now have 40 students in 50 subdivisions. Randomly select equal or less than 40, such as 26. Select the 26 th person from each of the 50 subdivisions. You now have a random sample of 50 participants.

16 Stratified Sampling The goal is to represent subgroups of a population Proportional: take in to account the proportion of a subgroup in the population Nonproportional: focus on equal sample size in subgroups

17 Cluster Sampling Random sample of groups, rather than a random sample of individuals Multi-stage cluster sampling: randomly select the groups and then randomly select the participants within the clusters

18 Convenience Sampling Non-probability sampling Common in social science research Why is it utilized? Location Administrative approval Familiarity Generalizability must be shown through the two-step process

19 Establishing validity in the absence of random selection Counseling research is not amenable to random selection Samples should have characteristics that generalization to a population seem reasonable Thus, generalizability occurs rationally as well as statistically

20 Establishing validity in the absence of random selection Is my sample good enough? Identifying characteristics Recruitment Particular attention should be paid to how diversity is reflected in the sample

21 Determining Sample Size Power analysis Subgroup analysis Attrition Reliability of measures

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