3.1.1 Decimals and Fractions

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1 3.. Decimals and Fractions Learning Objective(s) Read and write numbers in decimal notation. 2 Write decimals as fractions. 3 Write fractions as decimals. Introduction In addition to fraction notation, decimal notation is another way to write numbers between 0 and. Decimals can also be used to write numbers between any two whole numbers. For example, you may have to write a check for \$2, Or, in measuring the length of a room, you may find that the length is between two whole numbers, such as feet. In this topic you will focus on reading and writing decimal numbers, and rewriting them in fraction notation. To read or write numbers written in decimal notation, you need to know the place value of each digit, that is, the value of a digit based on its position within a number. With decimal numbers, the position of a numeral in relation to the decimal point determines its place value. For example, the place value of the 4 in 45.6 is in the tens place, while the place value of 6 in 45.6 is in the tenths place. Decimal Notation Objective Decimal numbers are numbers whose place values are based on 0s. Whole numbers are actually decimal numbers that are greater than or equal to zero. The place-value chart can be extended to include numbers less than one, which are sometimes called decimal fractions. A decimal point is used to separate the whole number part of the number and the fraction part of the number. Let s say you are measuring the length of a driveway and find that it is 745 feet. You would say this number as seven hundred forty-five. Then, a more accurate measurement shows that it is feet. Let s place this number in a place-value chart. What you want to examine now are the place values of the decimal part, which are underlined in the chart below. Decimal Numbers Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Point Tenths Hundredths This work by Monterey Institute for Technology and Education (MITE) 202 and remixed by David Lippman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

2 Notice how the place-value names start from the decimal point. To the left of the decimal point are the ones, tens, and hundreds places, where you put digits that represent whole numbers that are greater than or equal to zero. To the right of the decimal point are the tenths and hundredths, where you put digits that represent numbers that are fractional parts of one, numbers that are more than zero and less than one. Again, the place value of a number depends on how far away it is from the decimal point. This is evident in the chart below, where each number has the digit 4 occupying a different place value. Decimal Numbers Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal Point Tenths Hundredths Thousandths Imagine that as a large balloon deflates, the volume of air inside it goes from,000 liters, to 00 liters, to 0 liters, to liter. Notice that you re dividing a place value by ten as you go to the right. You divide 00 by 0 to get to the tens place. This is because there are 0 tens in 00. Then, you divide 0 by 0 to get to the ones place, because there are 0 ones in 0. Now, suppose the balloon continues to lose volume, going from liter, to 0. liters, to 0.0 liters, and then to 0.00 liters. Notice that you continue to divide by 0 when moving to decimals. You divide by 0 ( ) to get to the tenths place, which is basically 0 breaking one into 0 pieces. And to get to the hundreds place, you break the tenth into ten more pieces, which results in the fraction. The relationship between decimal 00 places and fractions is captured in the table below. 3.2

3 Word Form Decimal Notation Fraction Notation one thousand,000 one hundred 00 ten 0 one, one tenth 0. one hundredth 0.0 one thousandth ,000 Consider a number with more digits. Suppose a fisherman has a net full of fish that weighs, kilograms. To write this number, you need to use the thousands place, which is made up of 0 hundreds. You also use the thousandths place, which is /0 of a hundredth. In other words, there are ten thousandths in one hundredth. no th side th side Decimal Numbers Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal point Tenths Hundredths Thousandths, As you can see, moving from the decimal point to the left is ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. This is the no th side, which are the numbers greater than or equal to one. Moving from the decimal point to the right is tenths, hundredths, thousandths. This is the the th side, which are the numbers less than., no th side th side 3.3

4 The pattern going to the right or the left from the decimal point is the same but there are two big differences:. The place values to the right of the decimal point all end in th. 2. There is no such thing as oneths. From your work with fractions, you know that 5 and 5 are the same. What is the place value of 8 in 4, ? no th side th side Decimal Numbers Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Decimal point Tenths Hundredths Thousandths Write the number in a place-value chart. Read the value of the 8 from the chart. 4, Answer In the number 4, , the 8 is in the hundredths place. Self Check A What is the place value of the 7 in ? Reading Decimals The easiest way to read a decimal number is to read the decimal fraction part as a fraction. (Don t simplify the fraction though.) Suppose you have 0.4 grams of yogurt in a cup. You would say, 4 tenths of a gram of yogurt, as the 4 is in the tenths place. Note that the denominator of the fraction written in fraction form is always a power of ten, and the number of zeros in the denominator is the same as the number of decimal places to the right of the decimal point. See the examples in the table below for further guidance. 3.4

5 Decimal Notation Fraction Notation Word Form ,000 five tenths thirty-four hundredths eight hundred ninety-six thousandths Notice that 0.5 has one decimal place. Its equivalent fraction, 5, has a denominator of 0 0 which is followed by one zero. In general, when you are converting decimals to fractions, the denominator is always, followed by the number of zeros that correspond to the number of decimal places in the original number. Another way to determine which number to place in the denominator is to use the place value of the last digit without the ths part. For example, if the number is.458, the 8 is in the thousandths place. Take away the ths and you have a thousand, so the number 458 is written as.,000 Write 0.68 in word form = 68 = 00 sixty-eight hundredths Note that the number is read as a fraction. Also note that the denominator has 2 zeros, the same as the number of decimal places in the original number. Answer The number 0.68 in word form is sixty-eight hundredths. Recall that a mixed number is a combination of a whole number and a fraction. In the case of a decimal, a mixed number is also a combination of a whole number and a fraction, where the fraction is written as a decimal fraction. To read mixed numbers, say the whole number part, the word and (representing the decimal point), and the number to the right of the decimal point, followed by the name and the place value of the last digit. You can see this demonstrated in the diagram below, in which the last digit is in the ten thousandths place. 3.5

6 One thousand four hundred seventy-five, and three thousand fourteen ten thousandths Another way to think about this is with money. Suppose you pay \$5, for a car. You would read this as fifteen thousand, two hundred sixty-four dollars and twenty-five cents. In this case, the cents means hundredths of a dollar, so this is the same as saying fifteen thousand, two hundred sixty-four and twenty-five hundredths. A few more examples are shown in the table below. Decimal Notation Fraction Notation Word Form Nine and four tenths Eighty-seven and forty-nine hundredths ,000 Five hundred ninety-four and two hundred thirty-six thousandths Write in word form = 379 4,000 = four and three hundred seventy-nine thousandths The decimal fraction is read as a fraction. Answer Note that the denominator has 3 zeros, the same as the number of decimal places in the original number. The number in word form is four and three hundred seventy-nine thousandths. Self Check B Write in word form. Objective 2 3.6

7 Writing Decimals as Simplified Fractions As you have seen above, every decimal can be written as a fraction. To convert a decimal to a fraction, place the number after the decimal point in the numerator of the fraction and place the number 0, 00, or,000, or another power of 0 in the denominator. For example, 0.5 would be written as 5. You ll notice that this fraction 0 can be further simplified, as 5 0 reduces to, which is the final answer. 2 Let s get more familiar with this relationship between decimal places and zeros in the denominator by looking at several examples. Notice that in each example, the number of decimal places is different. Write 0.6 as a simplified fraction. 0.6 = = The last decimal place is tenths, so use 0 for your denominator. The number of zeros in the denominator is always the same as the number of decimal places in the original decimal. Simplify the fraction. Answer 0.6 = 3 5 Let s look at an example in which a number with two decimal places is written as a fraction. Write 0.64 as a simplified fraction = = Answer 0.64 = 6 25 The last decimal place is hundredths, so use 00 for your denominator. The number of zeros in the denominator is always the same as the number of decimal places in the original decimal. Simplify the fraction. 3.7

8 Now, examine how this is done in the example below using a decimal with digits in three decimal places. Write as a simplified fraction = = Answer = Note that there are 3 zeros in the denominator, which is the same as the number of decimal places in the original decimal. Simplify the fraction. You can write a fraction as a decimal even when there are zeros to the right of the decimal point. Here is an example in which the only digit greater than zero is in the thousandths place. Write as a simplified fraction = Answer = Note that 7 is in the thousandths place, so you write,000 in the denominator. The number of zeros in the denominator is always the same as the number of decimal places in the original decimal. The fraction cannot be simplified further. When writing decimals greater than, you only need to change the decimal part to a 35 fraction and keep the whole number part. For example, 6.35 can be written as

9 Write 8.65 as a simplified mixed fraction = = Rewrite 0.65 as Answer 8.65 = Note that the number of zeros in the denominator is two, which is the same as the number of decimal places in the original decimal. Then simplify by dividing numerator and denominator by 5. Self Check C Write 0.25 as a fraction. Writing Fractions as Decimals Objective 3 Just as you can write a decimal as a fraction, every fraction can be written as a decimal. To write a fraction as a decimal, divide the numerator (top) of the fraction by the denominator (bottom) of the fraction. Use long division, if necessary, and note where to place the decimal point in your answer. For example, to write 3 5 as a decimal, divide 3 by 5, which will result in 0.6. Write 2 as a decimal. 0 0 Using long division, you can see that dividing by 2 results in 0.5. Answer 2 =

10 Note that you could also have thought about the problem like this: =?, and then 2 0 solved for?. One way to think about this problem is that 0 is five times greater than 2, so? will have to be five times greater than. What number is five times greater than? Five is, so the solution is = Now look at a more complex example, where the final digit of the answer is in the thousandths place. Write 3 as a decimal. 8 Using long division, you can see that dividing 3 by 8 results in Answer 3 8 = Converting from fractions to decimals sometimes results in answers with decimal numbers that begin to repeat. For example, 2 converts to 0.666, a repeating decimal, in 3 which the 6 repeats infinitely. You would write this as 0.6, with a bar over the first decimal digit to indicate that the 6 repeats. Look at this example of a problem in which two consecutive digits in the answer repeat. 3.0

11 Convert 4 to a decimal. Answer = 0.36 Using long division, you can see that dividing 4 by results in 0.36 repeating. As a result, this is written with a line over it as With numbers greater than, keep the whole number part of the mixed number as the whole number in the decimal. Then use long division to convert the fraction part to a 3 decimal. For example, 2 can be written as Convert 2 4 to a decimal = 2.25 Knowing that the whole number 2 will remain the same during the conversion, focus only on the decimal part. Using long division, you can see that dividing by 4 results in Now bring back the whole number 2, and the resulting fraction is Answer 2 4 =

12 Tips on Converting Fractions to Decimals To write a fraction as a decimal, divide the numerator (top) of the fraction by the denominator (bottom) of the fraction. In the case of repeating decimals, write the repeating digit or digits with a line over it. For example, repeating would be written as 0.3. Summary Decimal notation is another way to write numbers that are less than or that combine whole numbers with decimal fractions, sometimes called mixed numbers. When you write numbers in decimal notation, you can use an extended place-value chart that includes positions for numbers less than one. You can write numbers written in fraction notation (fractions) in decimal notation (decimals), and you can write decimals as fractions. You can always convert between fractional notation and decimal notation. 3.. Self Check Solutions Self Check A What is the place value of the 7 in ? The digit 7 is three decimal places to the right of the decimal point, which means that it is in the thousandths place. Self Check B Write in word form. two and three hundred sixty-four thousandths is the same as 2, so in addition to the whole number 2, you have three,000 hundred sixty-four thousandths. Self Check C Write 0.25 as a fraction. The number 0.25 can be written as 25 00, which reduces to

13 3.2. Ordering and Rounding Decimals Learning Objective(s) Use a number line to assist with comparing decimals. 2 Compare decimals, beginning with their digits from left to right. 3 Use < or > to compare decimals. 4 Round a given decimal to a specified place. Introduction Decimal numbers are a combination of whole numbers and numbers between whole numbers. It is sometimes important to be able to compare decimals to know which is greater. For example, if someone ran the 00-meter dash in 0.57 seconds, and someone else ran the same race in 0.67 seconds, you can compare the decimals to determine which time is faster. Knowing how to compare decimals requires an understanding of decimal place value, and is similar to comparing whole numbers. When working with decimals, there are times when a precise number isn t needed. When that s true, rounding decimal numbers is helpful. For example, if the pump at the gas station shows that you filled a friend s car with gallons of gasoline, you may want to round the number and just tell her that you filled it with 6.5 gallons. Comparing Decimals Objective, 2, 3 You can use a number line to compare decimals. The number that is further to the right is greater. Examine this method in the example below. Use < or > for [ ] to write a true sentence: 0.5 [ ] 0.7. Here, the digits in the tenths places differ. The numbers are both plotted on a number line ranging from 0.0 to.0. Because 0.5 is to the left of 0.7 on the number line, 0.5 is less than (<) 0.7. Answer 0.5 <

14 Another approach to comparing decimals is to compare the digits in each number, beginning with the greatest place value, which is on the left. When one digit in a decimal number is greater than the corresponding digit in the other number, then that decimal number is greater. For example, first compare the tenths digits. If they are equal, move to the hundredths place. If these digits are not equal, the decimal with the greater digit is the greater decimal number. Observe how this is done in the examples below. Use < or > for [ ] to write a true sentence: [ ] In the hundredths place, 8 is greater than 7 Here, the numbers in the tens, ones, and tenths places, 35.6, are the same. However, the digits in the hundredths places differ. Because 8 is greater than 7, is greater than Answer > If more than two digits in the two numbers differ, focus on the digit in the greatest place value. Look at this example in which two sums of money are compared. Use < or > for [ ] to write a true sentence: \$45.67 [ ] \$ \$45.67 \$45.76 In the tenths place, 6 is less than 7 Here, the place value that determines which amount is greater is not the hundredths place, but the tenths place. Because 6 tenths is less than 7 tenths, \$45.67 is less than \$ Answer \$45.67 < \$

15 If one number has more decimal places than another, you may use 0 s as placeholders in the number with fewer decimal places to help you compare. For example, if you are comparing 4.75 and 4.7, you may find it helpful to write 4.7 as 4.70 so that each number has three digits. Note that adding this extra 0 does not change the value of the decimal; you are adding 0 hundredths to the number. You can add placeholder 0 s as long as you remember to add the zeros at the end of the number, to the right of the decimal point. This is demonstrated in the example below. Use < or > for [ ] to write a true sentence: [ ] 5.6. Here, you can insert two zeros in the hundredths and thousandths places of 5.6 so that you have the same number of digits for each. Then, you can compare digits. Look for the greatest place value that has different values in each number. Here, it is the hundredths place In the hundredths place, 7 is greater than 0 Because 7 is greater than 0, is greater than Answer > 5.6 Strategies for Comparing Decimals Use a number line to assist with comparing decimals, as you did with whole numbers. Compare decimals beginning with their digits from left to right. When two digits are not equal, the one with the greater digit is the larger number. Self Check A Use < or > for [ ] to write a true sentence: [ ] Rounding Decimals Objective 4 Rounding with decimals is like rounding with whole numbers. As with whole numbers, you round a number to a given place value. Everything to the right of the given place value becomes a zero, and the digit in the given place value either stays the same or increases by one. 3.5

16 With decimals, you can drop off the zeros at the end of a number without changing its value. For example, 0.20 = 0.2, as 20 2 simplifies to. Of course, you cannot drop 00 0 zeros before the decimal point: The zeros that occur at the end of a decimal number are called trailing zeros. Dropping Zeros with Whole Numbers and Decimals Dropping zeros at the end of a whole number changes the value of a number ,000 2 Dropping zeros at the end of a decimal does not change the number s value = = One way to think of it is to consider the number thirty-six dollars. This amount can be written equally well one of two ways: \$36 = \$36.00 Any zero at the very end of a decimal number can be dropped: = = = A sprinter ran a race in seconds. What was the sprinter s time, rounded to the nearest tenth of a second? Look at the first digit to the right of the tenths digit Since 5 = 5, round the 3 up to 4. Change all digits to the right of the given place value into zeros. This is an intermediate step that you don t actually write down. 7.4 Since = 0.4, the zeros are not needed and should be dropped. Answer rounded to the nearest tenth is 7.4. In the above example, the digit next to the selected place value is 5, so you round up. Let s look at a case in which the digit next to the selected place value is less than

17 Round to the nearest hundredth Look at the first digit to the right of the hundredths digit Since 4 < 5, leave 5 as is. The zeros to the right of the given place value are not needed and should be dropped. Answer rounded to the nearest hundredth is Sometimes you re asked to round a decimal number to a place value that is in the whole number part. Remember that you may not drop zeros to the left of the decimal point. Round, to the nearest hundred., , , ,300 Look at the first digit to the right of the hundreds place. 9 is greater than 5, so round the 2 up to 3. Zeros to the left of the decimal must be included. Zeros to the right of the decimal can be dropped and should be dropped. Answer, rounded to the nearest hundred is,300. Tip on Rounding Decimals When you round, everything to the right of the given place value becomes a zero, and the digit in the given place value either stays the same or rounds up one. Trailing zeros after the decimal point should be dropped. Self Check B Round to the nearest tenth. 3.7

18 Summary Ordering, comparing, and rounding decimals are important skills. You can figure out the relative sizes of two decimal numbers by using number lines and by comparing the digits in the same place value of the two numbers. To round a decimal to a specific place value, change all digits to the right of the given place value to zero, and then round the digit in the given place value either up or down. Trailing zeros after the decimal point should be dropped Self Check Solutions Self Check A Use < or > for [ ] to write a true sentence: [ ] > , because the 7 in is greater than the corresponding 4 in Self Check B Round to the nearest tenth. 0.5 We round to the nearest tenth, and round up, because the 7 in is greater than

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