# 1 THE LIGHT BULB EXPERIMENT: Exploring Simple Electric Circuits

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1 THE LIGHT BULB EXPERIMENT: Exploring Simple Electric Circuits"

## Transcription

1 1 THE LIGHT BULB EXPERIMENT: Exploring Simple Electric Circuits Preparatory Questions for Review: (also read this guide sheet, which contains some of the answers!) 1. State Ohm s Law, defining every term in the equation. 2. If a bulb connected directly to a 6 V battery glows brightly when 1 A of current passes through it, what is the resistance of the bulb at that point? What is the power delivered to the bulb by the battery in this case. 3. Two equal resistors are connected a) in series and b) in parallel. Write down the resistance of the combination in the two cases. 4. Read "Some electrical terms - a review" (next page). What is the electrical analogue of pressure difference in the hydraulic model? Objectives: to develop facility in wiring simple circuits to understand the concepts of electrical potential difference (voltage) and of electrical current to understand how voltage and current are divided up when circuit components are combined to draw schematic diagrams to use schematic diagrams as an aid to understanding what a circuit is doing to use schematic diagrams as an aid to wiring References: The introductory electric circuits chapter of your first year textbook Lillian McDermott, Physics by Inquiry, Vol 2; John Wiley, Toronto, Introduction: This series of experiments enables you to test your understanding of the properties of electric current flow. You will have available to you some small light bulbs, a battery (source of constant voltage), a current supply (source of constant current), a power supply of variable voltage, meters to measure voltage and current, and lots of wires to connect all of these together. Since much of this lab is qualitative, be sure to write clear and concise notes on your procedure, and highlight those measurements you do make.

2 2 Notes: This experiment is mainly a qualitative one. Careful error analysis is not appropriate for the most part, but you should give quick estimates of uncertainties. Some electrical terms - a review. In this section, in order that you better visualize what the electrical phenomena are, we will draw upon an hydraulic analogy - in other words, we will take a simple electric circuit, shown in Figure 1, of a battery connected by wires to an electric motor, and compare it to an hydraulic circuit, show in Figure 2 - of an upper water reservoir in which the water in it has previously been taken from a lower tank to an elevated tank - connected by pipes to a paddle wheel motor. (We hope to have a working model of this hydraulic analogue available to clarify this explanation). I = current in m 3 /s Figure 1 I = current in Coulombs/s (Amperes) (Note: the battery gets recharged prior to use by moving electrical charge from one battery terminal to the other.) Figure 2 (Note: the hydraulic energy source gets recharged prior to use when the water in the lower tank gets placed in the upper tank.) Notice that both the battery and the water tanks have stored energy, and after some use they both run down and no more energy is available from these sources. Charge: this is the electrical "size" of the electrical entities that are acting, as evidenced by the force between two of these charges. Units are Coulombs (=6.2x10 18 electron charges). In our hydraulic analogue its equivalent is volume of water = m 3. Current: this is the rate of flow of electrical charge through a device or wire (i.e. flowing past a point in the wire). Units are Coulombs/second = Amperes. The hydraulic analogue is volume rate of flow of water = m 3 /second.

3 3 Potential difference or voltage: this has to do with the "push" on charges that the electrical force has between two points in a circuit. More clearly, it is the difference in potential energy that a 1 Coulomb charge experiences in being transferred between the two points in the circuit that are being compared. Units are Joules/Coulomb = Volts. The hydraulic analogue is pressure difference = Pascal = Newtons/m 2. Note that in both cases current flows through a wire or pipe whereas voltage (or pressure difference) has to do with a difference between two points in wires or pipes. It is left to you to conclude that in both the electrical and hydraulic cases, current flow between points in the circuit at different potentials implies transfer of power into/out of that region and that the power transferred is just the current times the potential difference. (Thus, both electric circuits and hydraulic circuits are convenient media for transporting power.) A note about the equipment: The bulbs and power sources are reasonably inexpensive and not easily destroyed by wrong connections. Also, the voltages used are so low that there is no danger of electric shock. This allows you to try out any combination you wish without concern. The battery does have a "breaker" on it so that if too much current does get demanded from it, the breaker will open. If that happens, merely disconnect the wire you had connected, wait a minute, and then push the breaker's reset button. So we invite you to play with this equipment and to not worry about damaging it. [EXCEPTION - PLEASE NOTE: When using the ammeter NEVER connect it directly across the battery, and, when you first introduce it into the circuit ensure that it is set on the 20A selection. Read the CAUTIONS in the section on the ammeters at the end). The brightness of a bulb is proportional to the power delivered to it - i.e. the product of the resistance and the square of the current passing through it. The bulbs vary somewhat in construction and room-temperature resistance, and their resistance increases as they shine more brightly. The bulbs shine at full brightness when the voltage across them is about 6 Volts so that they pass a current of about 1 Ampere. The battery supplies an approximately constant voltage of 6 Volts. We use the following symbols in our schematic diagrams: What to do: Note: As a general guide, we expect that most students will be able to complete parts 1 through 5 or possibly 6 during the first session devoted to this experiment, and the remaining sections during the second session.

4 4 1. The Circuit: Use one bulb and one battery and a maximum of two wires. Note that both the battery and the bulb have two connections each. Explore all the ways you can join (with one and with two wires) the various connections to the battery and the bulb. Which ways make the bulb light? Which ways blow the breaker on the battery? Which ways do nothing? Does the order of which end of the battery is connected, or of which end of the bulb is connected, make any difference to your observations? Generalize what you find in terms of the concept of a closed electric circuit or complete circuit. Describe what is happening from the point of view of the hydraulic analogue. Write down, in your lab notebook, your successful circuit diagrams, your observations and generalizations. If you don't know how to draw a schematic diagram of your circuit, ask your demonstrator. Can you now define the terms open circuit and short circuit? Some examples of configurations you might try are shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 2. Lamps in Series: The connection for two bulbs in series, connected to the battery, is shown in Figure 4. By series we mean that the two lamps are strung in a line, with one wire coming out of one lamp and going into one side of the next lamp. Figure 4 Connect the circuit of Figure 4. From your observation of the brightness of the lamps, what can you conclude about the current through each lamp compared to the case of the successful single bulb and battery circuit of Figure 3? What can you say about the current through one lamp compared to that through the other in this configuration? We have heard students say that, with two lamps in series, the second lamp should get less current as the charge carriers (electrons) should get "tired" after going through the first. Do you agree? Comment on this statement, particularly in the light of the hydraulic analogue. With the circuit of Figure 4, try taking an extra wire and connecting it across the two terminals of one lamp. What happens to that lamp? What happens to the other lamp?

5 [Note: before using the meter as an ammeter, see the instructions for its use in Appendix 1; use only the 20A range in this experiment] 5 Now, with the circuit of Figure 4, measure the current into and out of each lamp, using your meters as ammeters. Comment on the three values you can measure - between the "+" battery terminal (red) and a bulb, between the two bulbs, and between the a bulb and the "-" battery terminal (black). Do the numbers you observe agree with your conclusions? Now, with the circuit of Figure 4, measure the voltage across each of the lamps separately, using a meter as a voltmeter. Also measure the voltage across the battery. What can you say about the way the voltage distributes itself across these identical lamps in series? Repeat the "lamps in series" observations above with three lamps in series instead of two, and write down your observations. 3. Lamps in Parallel: The connection for two bulbs in parallel, connected to the battery, is shown in Figure 5. By parallel we mean that the lamps are connected side-by-side, with corresponding sides of both lamps connected together. Figure 5 Connect the circuit of Figure 5. From your observation of the brightness of the lamps, what can you conclude about the current through each lamp compared to the case of the single bulb and battery circuit? Now, with the circuit of Figure 5, measure the current into and out of each lamp, and the current out of the battery. How do these currents appear to be related? Do the numbers you observe agree with your conclusions? With the circuit of Figure 5, measure the voltage across each of the lamps separately. Also measure the voltage across the battery. What can you say about the way the voltage distributes itself across these lamps in parallel? Repeat the "lamps in parallel" observations above with three lamps in parallel instead of two.

7 Now add a third parallel branch, as in Figure 7. What happens to the brightness of the lamps of Figure 6 when the additional branch is added? Generalize on the independence of parallel branches of a circuit connected to a constant voltage source. (b) Series Behaviour: Using the current supply as the source, consider the series circuit that is shown in Figure 8. 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 What do you predict will happen to the light bulbs when a wire connecting to lamp B is disconnected and then reconnected? What do you predict will happen if a wire is added, connected across the terminals of B? Try it our and see if your predictions are correct. Does the intensity of lamp A change with any of these changes? Now add a third cluster in series, as in Figure 9. What happens to the brightness of the lamps of Figure 8 when the additional cluster is added? Generalize on the independence of series components in a circuit connected to a constant current source. (c) Other Combinations: Try out the combinations of light bulbs shown in Figure 10. In each case you will find some lamps don't appear to light, some are bright, some are less bright. Try to predict what you will see before you turn them on and work out why you predictions work or do not work. Use the ammeter and voltmeter to help you figure out what is going on. Figure 10

8 8 The observations that you have been making in these experiments, of currents flowing in circuits and of voltages distributed around circuits, are formalized in two laws, called Kirchhoff's Laws. Consult the introductory electric circuits chapter of your first year textbook for details. 6. Resistance - Ohm's Law for Constant Resistance. When a current flows through a conductor, the carriers (electrons) do not move entirely freely and they lose energy due to collisions within the conductor. Thus the electrical potential at one side of the conductor is different from the other. Resistance (R) is defined as the ratio of the voltage across the conductor (V) to the current through it (I). (Resistance is measured in Ohms - 6.) This definition is known as Ohm's Law, R = V/I. R is a constant which depends on the material of the conductor, its dimensions, and its temperature. Connect up one of the two "unknown" resistors in series with the variable voltage power supply. Arrange the meters in your circuit to read the current through the resistor and the voltage across it. Vary the voltage and make a plot of the voltage vs. the current. From this graph, calculate the resistance of the resistor. Compare it to the value you obtain by direct measurement using the meter. 7. Internal Resistance of the Battery. A battery approximates a constant voltage source. However, when current is drawn from the battery, its voltage does drop. For new or fully charged batteries, this drop is usually small. However, for a worn-out or discharged battery, drawing current from it can considerably reduce the voltage it supplies. A measure of the size of this drop is called the internal resistance of the battery. The internal resistance can be defined as minus the slope of the curve of voltage across the battery vs. the current drawn from it. (Check out whether this definition is dimensionally correct.) Obtain data of battery voltage as you draw various values of current from it. Use various numbers and configurations of light bulbs to vary the current drawn. Plot the current vs. voltage curve for the data you obtained. Obtain a value of internal resistance for your battery and compare it to values obtained by other students. Include in your graph a value of the voltage when no current is drawn from the battery. (This value is often referred to as the emf or the open circuit voltage of the battery.) 8. Resistance - Ohm's Law for Varying Resistance. The conductor in the light bulb is the filament which then gets heated and gives off light. This implies that if your light bulb is connected to the battery, the greater the voltage of the battery, the greater the current that passes through it. In the case of metallic conductors such as the tungsten filament in the light bulb, the resistance increases considerably as the metal is heated. (Note that this would also apply to the resistance of the wires you use in this experiment. However the resistance of the wires is very small so that there is virtually no voltage drop along the wires. Also, as the wires remain at room temperature, their (low) resistance stays constant). You should work out what the hydraulic equivalent of resistance is, and whether a greater pressure difference produces greater current flow.

9 9 Measure the voltage across and current through one of your light bulbs when it shows no light, when it is dim, when it somewhat bright, when it is very bright. (If you think carefully before starting this experiment, you can design your experiment in such a way that you do not need to re-connect the meters from one measurement to the next). Using the following qualitative table of colour of a tungsten body as a function of temperature, plot a graph of resistance as a function of temperature for your light bulb. You may vary the brightness (colour) of the bulb you are using by connecting it to the battery in series with various configurations of other light bulbs. Colour Description Temperature ( o C) dark <420 faint red 440 dull red 480 cherry red 600 orange 750 yellow 1100 low white 1300 bright white 1500 melting point 3410 Appendix The use of voltmeters and ammeters Ammeters: An ammeter, as it measures the total current flowing in a wire, has to be placed in series with that wire. In other words, the circuit connection to the wire must be cut and the ammeter placed in that cut. Note that an ammeter must have two terminals, one for the current in and the other for the current out. A one-wire ammeter is an illogical entity. Your multimeters have various range scales that you can select with the selector switch. For the ranges below 200mA maximum reading, use the two terminals marked "COM" and "ma". Through these connections, any current greater than 200mA will blow the fuse inside the meter, thus protecting the meter. For larger currents, use the 20A range selection and use the two terminals marked "COM" and "20A". These terminals are protected by a 20A fuse. We recommend, for these light bulb experiments, that you always use the 20A range. (If you do blow a meter fuse, take the meter to a technician in the lab.)

10 10 CAUTION: An ammeter is designed to pass all the current in the wire into which it is inserted without providing barriers to the flow of that current. Thus an ammeter should never be placed across the terminals of the battery, for such a connection would permit the maximum current available from the battery to flow through the ammeter. Please do not connect the ammeter ACROSS a voltage source, only connect it in series with the wire where you want to measure the current. Voltmeters: A voltmeter, as it measures the potential difference between two different wires, has to be placed in parallel with (across) those two wires. Unlike the ammeter, the circuit connection to the wires must be attached without breaking into the circuit. Note that a voltmeter must have two terminals as it is measuring a potential difference. A one-wire voltmeter is an illogical entity. Your multimeters have various range scales that you can select with the selector switch. All the voltage ranges use the two terminals marked "COM" and "V-6 ". In order that the introduction into the circuit does not change the voltages being measured, the voltmeter resistance is very large. As a result, there is not the danger of passing excessive current through the voltage terminals as there was for the current terminals. The placement of a voltmeter and an ammeter in a simple circuit is illustrated in Figure 11. Here the voltage across the light bulb and the current into the light bulb are being measured. Figure 11 jbv,jp,awk

### SIMPLE ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

-18- Preparatory Questions: (also read this guide sheet, which contains some of the answers!) 1. State Ohm s Law, defining every term in the equation. 2. If a bulb connected directly to a 6 V battery glows

### Electrical Fundamentals Module 3: Parallel Circuits

Electrical Fundamentals Module 3: Parallel Circuits PREPARED BY IAT Curriculum Unit August 2008 Institute of Applied Technology, 2008 ATE310- Electrical Fundamentals 2 Module 3 Parallel Circuits Module

### Chapter 11- Electricity

Chapter 11- Electricity Course Content Definition of Electricity Circuit Diagrams Series and Parallel Circuits Calculating total resistances Measurement of Electricity Ammeters and Voltmeters Ohm s Law

### very small Ohm s Law and DC Circuits Purpose: Students will become familiar with DC potentiometers circuits and Ohm s Law. Introduction: P31220 Lab

Ohm s Law and DC Circuits Purpose: Students will become familiar with DC potentiometers circuits and Ohm s Law. Introduction: Ohm s Law for electrical resistance, V = IR, states the relationship between

### PHYSICS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3 Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits

PHYSCS 111 LABORATORY Experiment #3 Current, Voltage and Resistance in Series and Parallel Circuits This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between current and potential in simple series

### Background: Electric resistance, R, is defined by:

RESISTANCE & OHM S LAW (PART I and II) - 8 Objectives: To understand the relationship between applied voltage and current in a resistor and to verify Ohm s Law. To understand the relationship between applied

### Science AS90191 Describe Aspects of Physics.

Circuits and components Science AS90191 Describe Aspects of Physics. An electric current is the movement of electrons (negatively charged particles). A circuit is made up of components connected together

### EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - D.C. CIRCUITS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME - D.C. CIRCUITS Be able to use circuit theory to determine voltage, current and resistance in direct

### Chapter 13: Electric Circuits

Chapter 13: Electric Circuits 1. A household circuit rated at 120 Volts is protected by a fuse rated at 15 amps. What is the maximum number of 100 watt light bulbs which can be lit simultaneously in parallel

### Electrostatics. Electrostatics Version 2

1. A 150-watt lightbulb is brighter than a 60.-watt lightbulb when both are operating at a potential difference of 110 volts. Compared to the resistance of and the current drawn by the 150-watt lightbulb,

### Lab 3 - DC Circuits and Ohm s Law

Lab 3 DC Circuits and Ohm s Law L3-1 Name Date Partners Lab 3 - DC Circuits and Ohm s Law OBJECTIES To learn to apply the concept of potential difference (voltage) to explain the action of a battery in

### Measuring Electric Phenomena: the Ammeter and Voltmeter

Measuring Electric Phenomena: the Ammeter and Voltmeter 1 Objectives 1. To understand the use and operation of the Ammeter and Voltmeter in a simple direct current circuit, and 2. To verify Ohm s Law for

### TOPIC 3.1: ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

TOPIC 3.1: ELECTRIC CIRCUITS S4P-3-1 S4P-3-2 S4P-3-3 S4P-3-4 S4P-3-5 S4P-3-6 Describe the origin of conventional current and relate its direction to the electron flow in a conductor. Describe the historical

### Q1. (a) The diagram shows the voltage-current graphs for three different electrical components.

Q. (a) The diagram shows the voltage-current graphs for three different electrical components. Which one of the components A, B or C could be a 3 volt filament lamp? Explain the reason for your choice...................

### Resistance, Ohm s Law, and the Temperature of a Light Bulb Filament

Resistance, Ohm s Law, and the Temperature of a Light Bulb Filament Name Partner Date Introduction Carbon resistors are the kind typically used in wiring circuits. They are made from a small cylinder of

### People s Physics Book

The Big Ideas: The name electric current is given to the phenomenon that occurs when an electric field moves down a wire at close to the speed of light. Voltage is the electrical energy density (energy

### Ohm's Law and Circuits

2. Conductance, Insulators and Resistance A. A conductor in electricity is a material that allows electrons to flow through it easily. Metals, in general, are good conductors. Why? The property of conductance

### Experiment #6, Series and Parallel Circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws

Physics 182 Spring 2013 Experiment #6 1 Experiment #6, Series and Parallel Circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws 1 Purpose Our purpose is to explore and validate Kirchhoff s laws as a way to better understanding

### The current that flows is determined by the potential difference across the conductor and the resistance of the conductor (Ohm s law): V = IR P = VI

PHYS1000 DC electric circuits 1 Electric circuits Electric current Charge can move freely in a conductor if an electric field is present; the moving charge is an electric current (SI unit is the ampere

### Circuits and Resistivity

Circuits and Resistivity Look for knowledge not in books but in things themselves. W. Gilbert OBJECTIVES To learn the use of several types of electrical measuring instruments in DC circuits. To observe

### Circuit symbol. Each of the cells has a potential difference of 1.5 volts. Figure 1. Use the correct answer from the box to complete the sentence.

Q.(a) Draw one line from each circuit symbol to its correct name. Circuit symbol Name Diode Light-dependent resistor (LDR) Lamp Light-emitting diode (LED) (3) Figure shows three circuits. The resistors

### How Does it Flow? Electricity, Circuits, and Motors

How Does it Flow? Electricity, Circuits, and Motors Introduction In this lab, we will investigate the behavior of some direct current (DC) electrical circuits. These circuits are the same ones that move

### AP1 Electricity. 1. A student wearing shoes stands on a tile floor. The students shoes do not fall into the tile floor due to

1. A student wearing shoes stands on a tile floor. The students shoes do not fall into the tile floor due to (A) a force of repulsion between the shoes and the floor due to macroscopic gravitational forces.

### Electrical Measurements

Electrical Measurements Experimental Objective The objective of this experiment is to become familiar with some of the electrical instruments. You will gain experience by wiring a simple electrical circuit

### ELECTRICITY: CIRCUIT QUESTIONS

ELECTRICITY: CIRCUIT QUESTIONS Resistors in a DC circuit (2014;2) Sandra is investigating electrical circuits in the lab. She connects various resistors in combination. The current drawn from the supply

### Lab 5: Simple Electrical Circuits

Lab 5: Simple Electrical Circuits Introduction: In this laboratory you will explore simple DC (direct current) electrical circuits. The primary goal of the lab will be to develop a model for electricity.

### Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits

E1.1 Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits The purpose of the this lab is to introduce you to some basic instrumentation used in electrical circuits. You will learn to use a DC power supply, a digital multimeter

### 7. What is the current in a circuit if 15 coulombs of electric charge move past a given point in 3 seconds? (1) 5 A (3) 18 A (2) 12 A (4) 45 A

1. Compared to the number of free electrons in a conductor, the number of free electrons in an insulator of the same volume is less the same greater 2. Most metals are good electrical conductors because

### R A _ + Figure 2: DC circuit to verify Ohm s Law. R is the resistor, A is the Ammeter, and V is the Voltmeter. A R _ +

Physics 221 Experiment 3: Simple DC Circuits and Resistors October 1, 2008 ntroduction n this experiment, we will investigate Ohm s Law, and study how resistors behave in various combinations. Along the

### Series and Parallel Resistive Circuits Physics Lab VIII

Series and Parallel Resistive Circuits Physics Lab VIII Objective In the set of experiments, the theoretical expressions used to calculate the total resistance in a combination of resistors will be tested

### Lab 3 Ohm s Law and Resistors

` Lab 3 Ohm s Law and Resistors What You Need To Know: The Physics One of the things that students have a difficult time with when they first learn about circuits is the electronics lingo. The lingo and

### Experiment #5, Series and Parallel Circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws

Physics 182 Summer 2013 Experiment #5 1 Experiment #5, Series and Parallel Circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws 1 Purpose Our purpose is to explore and validate Kirchhoff s laws as a way to better understanding

### Pre-Lab 7 Assignment: Capacitors and RC Circuits

Name: Lab Partners: Date: Pre-Lab 7 Assignment: Capacitors and RC Circuits (Due at the beginning of lab) Directions: Read over the Lab Handout and then answer the following questions about the procedures.

### Chapter 7 Direct-Current Circuits

Chapter 7 Direct-Current Circuits 7. Introduction...7-7. Electromotive Force...7-3 7.3 Resistors in Series and in Parallel...7-5 7.4 Kirchhoff s Circuit Rules...7-7 7.5 Voltage-Current Measurements...7-9

### Student Content Brief Advanced Level

Student Content Brief Advanced Level Electric Circuits Background Information There are a variety of forces acting on the body of the Sea Perch. One important force is pushing electrons through the wires

### Lab 9: Energy Conservation in Circuits & Charge on a Capacitor

Part (1) Energy Conservation in Circuits OBJECTIVES In this part of the lab you will Write the energy conservation equation (loop rule) for several pairs of circuits Predict the relation between the currents

### ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS. Electrical Circuits

Electrical Circuits A complete path, or circuit, is needed before voltage can cause a current flow through resistances to perform work. There are several types of circuits, but all require the same basic

### Shining a Light. Design & Technology. Year 9. Structure of an electric torch. Shining a Light

Looking at electronic circuits and what is meant by current, voltage, and resistance. Shining a Light Have you ever taken an electric torch to pieces to find out how it works? Look at the diagram below

### Current Electricity Lab Series/Parallel Circuits. Safety and Equipment Precautions!

Current Electricity Lab Series/Parallel Circuits Name Safety and Equipment Precautions! Plug in your power supply and use ONLY the D.C. terminals of the power source, NOT the A. C. terminals. DO NOT touch

### Two kinds of electrical charges

ELECTRICITY NOTES Two kinds of electrical charges Positive charge Negative charge Electrons are negatively charged Protons are positively charged The forces from positive charges are canceled by forces

### Experiment NO.3 Series and parallel connection

Experiment NO.3 Series and parallel connection Object To study the properties of series and parallel connection. Apparatus 1. DC circuit training system 2. Set of wires. 3. DC Power supply 4. Digital A.V.O.

### Objectives 200 CHAPTER 4 RESISTANCE

Objectives Explain the differences among conductors, insulators, and semiconductors. Define electrical resistance. Solve problems using resistance, voltage, and current. Describe a material that obeys

### Chapter 18: Circuits and Circuit Elements 1. Schematic diagram: diagram that depicts the construction of an electrical apparatus

Chapter 18: Circuits and Circuit Elements 1 Section 1: Schematic Diagrams and Circuits Schematic Diagrams Schematic diagram: diagram that depicts the construction of an electrical apparatus Uses symbols

### Solutions to Bulb questions

Solutions to Bulb questions Note: We did some basic circuits with bulbs in fact three main ones I can think of I have summarized our results below. For the final exam, you must have an understanding of

### Kirchhoff s Voltage Law and RC Circuits

Kirchhoff s oltage Law and RC Circuits Apparatus 2 1.5 batteries 2 battery holders DC Power Supply 1 multimeter 1 capacitance meter 2 voltage probes 1 long bulb and 1 round bulb 2 sockets 1 set of alligator

### Student Exploration: Circuits

Name: Date: Student Exploration: Circuits Vocabulary: ammeter, circuit, current, ohmmeter, Ohm s law, parallel circuit, resistance, resistor, series circuit, voltage Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these

### Question Bank. Electric Circuits, Resistance and Ohm s Law

Electric Circuits, Resistance and Ohm s Law. Define the term current and state its SI unit. Ans. The rate of flow of charge in an electric circuit is called current. Its SI unit is ampere. 2. (a) Define

### AP Physics Electricity and Magnetism #4 Electrical Circuits, Kirchoff s Rules

Name Period AP Physics Electricity and Magnetism #4 Electrical Circuits, Kirchoff s Rules Dr. Campbell 1. Four 240 Ω light bulbs are connected in series. What is the total resistance of the circuit? What

### Lab #2: Non-Ideal Sources and Renewable Energy Sources

Lab #2: Non-Ideal Sources and Renewable Energy Sources Theory & Introduction Goals for Lab #2 The goals for this lab are to introduce you to the limitations of real power sources and compare them to the

### Objectives. to understand how to use a voltmeter to measure voltage

UNIT 10 MEASUREMENTS OF VOLTAGE (from Lillian C. McDermott and the Physics Education Group, Physics by Inquiry Volume II, John Wiley and Sons, NY, 1996) Objectives to understand how to use a voltmeter

### Experiment #3, Ohm s Law

Experiment #3, Ohm s Law 1 Purpose Physics 182 - Summer 2013 - Experiment #3 1 To investigate the -oltage, -, characteristics of a carbon resistor at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature,

### Unit 7: Electric Circuits

Multiple Choice Portion 1. The diagram below shows part of an electrical circuit. Unit 7: Electric Circuits 4. A 12 V battery supplies a 5.0 A current to two light bulbs as shown below. What are the magnitude

### Experiment 3 ~ Ohm's Law, Measurement of Voltage, Current and Resistance

Experiment 3 ~ Ohm's Law, Measurement of Voltage, Current and Resistance Objective: In this experiment you will learn to use the multi-meter to measure voltage, current and resistance. Equipment: Bread

### Lab 5 RC Circuits. What You Need To Know: Physics 226 Lab

Lab 5 R ircuits What You Need To Know: The Physics In the previous two labs you ve dealt strictly with resistors. In today s lab you ll be using a new circuit element called a capacitor. A capacitor consists

### Name: Lab Partner: Section:

Chapter 6 Capacitors and RC Circuits Name: Lab Partner: Section: 6.1 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the physics of capacitors in circuits. The charging and discharging of a capacitor

### EXPERIMENT 7 OHM S LAW, RESISTORS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL

260 7- I. THEOY EXPEIMENT 7 OHM S LAW, ESISTOS IN SEIES AND PAALLEL The purposes of this experiment are to test Ohm's Law, to study resistors in series and parallel, and to learn the correct use of ammeters

### DC Circuit Fundamentals

Electricity and Electronics DC Circuit Fundamentals Courseware Sample 20316-F0 A First Edition Published May 2014 2014 by Lab-Volt Ltd. Printed in Canada All rights reserved ISBN 978-2-89747-076-0 (Printed

### Capacitors. Goal: To study the behavior of capacitors in different types of circuits.

Capacitors Goal: To study the behavior of capacitors in different types of circuits. Lab Preparation A capacitor stores electric charge. A simple configuration for a capacitor is two parallel metal plates.

### Electric circuits, Current, and resistance (Chapter 22 and 23)

Electric circuits, Current, and resistance (Chapter 22 and 23) Acknowledgements: Several Images and excerpts are taken from College Physics: A strategic approach, Pearson Education Inc Current If electric

### Equipotential and Electric Field Mapping

Experiment 1 Equipotential and Electric Field Mapping 1.1 Objectives 1. Determine the lines of constant electric potential for two simple configurations of oppositely charged conductors. 2. Determine the

### Lab 1: DC Circuits. Student 1, student1@ufl.edu Partner : Student 2, student2@ufl.edu

Lab Date Lab 1: DC Circuits Student 1, student1@ufl.edu Partner : Student 2, student2@ufl.edu I. Introduction The purpose of this lab is to allow the students to become comfortable with the use of lab

### Electrical Circuit Calculations

Electrical Circuit Calculations Series Circuits Many circuits have more than one conversion device in them (i.e. toaster. heater. lamps etc.) and some have more than one source of electrical energy. If

### Experiment 9 ~ RC Circuits

Experiment 9 ~ RC Circuits Objective: This experiment will introduce you to the properties of circuits that contain both resistors AND capacitors. Equipment: 18 volt power supply, two capacitors (8 µf

### HOW TO USE MULTIMETER. COMPILE BY: Dzulautotech

HOW TO USE MULTIMETER COMPILE BY: Dzulautotech 1. GENERAL Electricity is absolutely necessary for an automobile. It is indispensable when the engine is started, the air fuel mixture is ignited and exploded,

### Resistors in Series and Parallel Circuits

69 Resistors in Series and Parallel Circuits E&M: Series and parallel circuits Equipment List DataStudio file: Not Required Qty s Part Numbers 1 C/DC Electronics Lab EM-8656 2 D cell 1.5 volt Introduction

### Circuits. PHY2049: Chapter 27 1

Circuits PHY2049: Chapter 27 1 What You Already Know Nature of current Current density Drift speed and current Ohm s law Conductivity and resistivity Calculating resistance from resistivity Power in electric

### Electricity CHAPTER 12 12.1 ELECTRIC CURRENT AND CIRCUIT

CHAPTER 12 Electricity Electricity has an important place in modern society. It is a controllable and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools, hospitals, industries and so on.

### CHAPTER 19: DC Circuits. Answers to Questions

HAPT 9: D ircuits Answers to Questions. The birds are safe because they are not grounded. Both of their legs are essentially at the same voltage (the only difference being due to the small resistance of

### The diagram shows a negatively charged plastic rod held near to a thin stream of water. The water is attracted towards the rod.

Current electricity exam qs C grade Madeley High School Q.(a) The diagram shows a negatively charged plastic rod held near to a thin stream of water. The water is attracted towards the rod. Which one of

### Series and Parallel Circuits

Series and Parallel Circuits Components in a circuit can be connected in series or parallel. A series arrangement of components is where they are inline with each other, i.e. connected end-to-end. A parallel

### Parallel Circuits. Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to answer these questions: 1. How are electrical components connected

This sample chapter is for review purposes only. Copyright The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. All rights reserved. Electricity Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to answer these questions:.

### Kirchhoff's Rules and Applying Them

[ Assignment View ] [ Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 26. DC Circuits Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, February 21, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the deadline has passed.

### OHM S LAW AND RESISTANCE

OHM S LAW AND RESISTANCE Resistance is one of the basic principles of Ohm s law, and can be found in virtually any device used to conduct electricity. Georg Simon Ohm was a German physicist who conducted

### Physics Worksheet Electric Circuits Section: Name: Series Circuits

Do Now: (1) What is electric circuit? (2) Convert the following picture into schematic diagram. Series Circuits 4. Label every component of the circuit; identify each of the voltage and current. 5. Relation

### Electricity Review-Sheet

Name: ate: 1. The unit of electrical charge in the MKS system is the. volt. ampere. coulomb. mho 2. Which sketch best represents the charge distribution around a neutral electroscope when a positively

### Lab 5 RC Circuits: Charge Changing in Time Observing the way capacitors in RC circuits charge and discharge.

Print Your Name Lab 5 RC Circuits: Charge Changing in Time Observing the way capacitors in RC circuits charge and discharge. Print Your Partners' Names Instructions October 15, 2015October 13, 2015 Read

### LAB 5 - CAPACITORS AND RC CIRCUITS(TPL2)

LAB 5 - CAPACITORS AND RC CIRCUITS(TPL2) Objectives To define capacitance. To discover how the charge on a capacitor and the electric current change with time when a charged capacitor is placed in a circuit

### Basic Ohm s Law & Series and Parallel Circuits

2:256 Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold that never breaks. And Allah heareth

### FIRST PERIOD TECHNICAL TRAINING ELECTRICIAN TRADE COURSE OUTLINE

FIRST PERIOD TECHNICAL TRAINING ELECTRICIAN TRADE COURSE OUTLINE UPON SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THIS PROGRAM THE LEARNER SHOULD BE ABLE TO PERFORM THE FOLLOWING OUTCOMES AND OBJECTIVES. COURSE ONE... CIRCUIT

### `Ohm s Law III -- Resistors in Series and Parallel

`Ohm s Law III -- esistors in Series and Parallel by Dr. ames E. Parks Department of Physics and Astronomy 40 Nielsen Physics Building he University of ennessee Knoxville, ennessee 7996-00 Copyright August,

### Light Bulbs in Parallel Circuits

Light Bulbs in Parallel Circuits In the last activity, we analyzed several different series circuits. In a series circuit, there is only one complete pathway for the charge to travel. Here are the basic

### Maximum value. resistance. 1. Connect the Current Probe to Channel 1 and the Differential Voltage Probe to Channel 2 of the interface.

Series and Parallel Circuits Computer 23 Components in an electrical circuit are in series when they are connected one after the other, so that the same current flows through both of them. Components are

### Series and Parallel. How we wire the world

Series and Parallel How we wire the world Series vs Parallel Circuits Series Circuit Electrons only have one path to flow through. Parallel Circuit There are MULTIPLE paths for the current to flow through.

### Fig. 1 Analogue Multimeter Fig.2 Digital Multimeter

ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENT AND MEASUREMENT Electrical measuring instruments are devices used to measure electrical quantities such as electric current, voltage, resistance, electrical power and energy. MULTIMETERS

### Experiment: Series and Parallel Circuits

Phy203: General Physics Lab page 1 of 6 Experiment: Series and Parallel Circuits OBJECTVES MATERALS To study current flow and voltages in series and parallel circuits. To use Ohm s law to calculate equivalent

### CHAPTER 17 NOTES FOR EIGHTH GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCE ALL MATTER IS COMPOSED OF VERY SMALL PARTICLES CALLED ATOMS.

CHAPTER 17 NOTES FOR EIGHTH GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCE ALL MATTER IS COMPOSED OF VERY SMALL PARTICLES CALLED ATOMS. THE LAW OF ELECTRIC CHARGES STAES THAT LIKE CHARGES REPEL AND OPPOSITE CHARGES ATTRACT. BECAUSE

### Solar Energy Discovery Lab

Solar Energy Discovery Lab Objective Set up circuits with solar cells in series and parallel and analyze the resulting characteristics. Introduction A photovoltaic solar cell converts radiant (solar) energy

### What is a multimeter?

What is a multimeter? A multimeter is a devise used to measure voltage, resistance and current in electronics & electrical equipment It is also used to test continuity between to 2 points to verify if

### Lab #4 Capacitors and Inductors. Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response

Capacitor and Inductor Transient Response Capacitor Theory Like resistors, capacitors are also basic circuit elements. Capacitors come in a seemingly endless variety of shapes and sizes, and they can all

### Lab 4 Series and Parallel Resistors

Lab 4 Series and Parallel Resistors What You Need To Know: (a) (b) R 3 FIGURE - Circuit diagrams. (a) and are in series. (b) and are not in series. The Physics Last week you examined how the current and

### Series and Parallel Circuits

Series and Parallel Circuits Direct-Current Series Circuits A series circuit is a circuit in which the components are connected in a line, one after the other, like railroad cars on a single track. There

### Unit: Charge Differentiated Task Light it Up!

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

### EGR 278 Digital Logic Lab File: N278L3A Lab # 3 Open-Collector and Driver Gates

EGR 278 Digital Logic Lab File: N278L3A Lab # 3 Open-Collector and Driver Gates A. Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are to investigate: the operation of open-collector gates, including the

### Sample. What Electricity Can Do LESSON 2. Overview and Objectives. Background

What Electricity Can Do Overview and Objectives Background Light bulbs are such an integral part of everyday life that most people can t imagine being without them. Because people tend to take light bulbs

### Schematic diagrams depict the construction of a circuit Uses symbols to represent specific circuit elements Documents how elements are connected so

Circuits Schematic diagrams depict the construction of a circuit Uses symbols to represent specific circuit elements Documents how elements are connected so that anyone reading diagram can understand the

### Capacitance, Resistance, DC Circuits

This test covers capacitance, electrical current, resistance, emf, electrical power, Ohm s Law, Kirchhoff s Rules, and RC Circuits, with some problems requiring a knowledge of basic calculus. Part I. Multiple

### PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,