# Properties of Matter

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Mr. Patrick J Camilleri B.Ed (Hons) M.Ed Science (Sheffield) Department of Physics JC Malta Properties of Matter Basics You Should Know Elasticity. Young modulus 1. Hooke's law. Extension α tension (force or load) if the proportional (or elastic approximately) limit not exceeded. 2. Tensile Stress σ = F (Force) Unit: Pa or N m -2 A ( Area). 3. Tensile strain ε = extension e Unit: none original length I. 4. Young modulus E = tensile stress σ Unit: Pa or N m -2 tensile strain. ε E = F/A = F L e/l A e 5. To find Young modulus value E from load (F) against extension (e) straight line graph, use E = (L/A) x (F/e) = L/A x gradient of line. 6. Energy in stretched wire is due to work done against molecular forces. Within proportional or elastic limit, Energy or Strain Energy = ½ Force x Extension AND Energy per unit volume = ½ Stress x Strain 7. Polymers are organic compounds. Their long chains of molecules are made from a basic unit called a "monomer'. (a) Polymer molecules may be linear, branched or cross-linked. Thermoset polymers such as bakelite are cross-linked and can not be re-moulded after heating. Thermoplastic polymers such as nylon are not cross linked and can be re-moulded after heating. (b) Plastics have low Young modulus, large elongation and do not obey Hooke s Laws

2 8. Rubber (a) Molecules are coiled. With increased tension, molecules uncoil and high strain obtained. After all molecules uncoiled, low strain obtained. (b) When rubber heated, molecules coil up and rubber contracts. Young modulus then increases. (c) On loading and then unloading, rubber does not fully recover. Hysteresis is shown by loop in stress-strain graph. Energy lost as heat is proportional to area of loop. Synthetic rubber used for car tyres have low hysteresis. Force F (N) Loading Unloading Extension e (m)

3 Questions (Assume g = 10Nkg -1 ) 1 (i) State Hooke's law, (ii) define tensile stress, tensile strain, Young modulus and state the units of each quantity. 2. A load of 20N on a wire of cross-section area 8 x 10-7 m 2 produces an extension of 0.1mm. Calculate (i) the tensile stress and strain, (ii) the Young modulus for the metal if its length is 3.0 m. Answers: i. 2.5 X 10 7 Pa, 3.3 X ii. 7.5 X Pa. 3 The Figure A below shows the force (F)-extension (e) graphs for two materials X and Y. The cross-section area of X is twice that of Y and the length of X is three times that of Y. From the graphs OP and OQ, calculate the ratios of (i) the Young modulus values of X and Y, (ii) the energies stored in X and Y for extensions of 1 mm and 1.5 mm respectively as shown. Answers i ii Figure A Figure B

4 4 In Figure B, OABC is the force (F)-extension (e) graph obtained for a length of wire. (i) Over what range of load is Hooke's law obeyed? (ii) Calculate the energy stored in the wire for an extension (a) from 0 to 0.5mm, (b) from 0.5 mm to l.0 mm. In each case, can the energy be recovered? (iii) If the 30N load is taken off, what would be the extension of the wire approximately? Give a reason for your answer. Answers: ii. (a) 2.5 X 10-3 J (b) 7.5 X 10-3 J 5. What force will produce an extension of 0.3 mm in a steel wire 4 m long and area of cross-section of 2 x 10-6 m 2? Calculate the energy stored in the stretched wire. (Young modulus for steel = 2 x Pa (Nm -2 ). Answers: 30N 4.5 X 10-3 J 6. A load of 15 N produces an extension of 0.1 mm in a wire 10m long. If the Young modulus is 1.8 x N m - 2 or Pa, find the cross-sectional area and diameter of the wire. Answers: 8.3 X 10-6 m X 10-3 m 7. A steel rod of cross-section 0.2 cm 2 is fixed at both ends. The rod is heated from 12 C to 100 C. Calculate the force required to prevent the rod expanding. (Young modulus of steel = 2 x N m - 2 ; linear expansivity = 1.1 x 10-5 K -1.) 8. Define the terms proportional limit, elastic limit, elasticity, yield point. Draw a graph showing how the extension of a wire varies with the applied force, and mark the elastic limit and yield point on it. Explain how the magnitude of the Young modulus is obtained from the graph. 9. Draw a labelled diagram of the apparatus to measure the Young modulus for a wire, and describe the experiment. Show how the Young modulus is calculated after a graph of load F against extension e is plotted. 10. What is meant by the stiffness and the tensile strength of glass and steel? Illustrate your answer with a graph of stress against strain for each and state their differences in stiffness and tensile strength. 11. What is the difference between (i) elastic deformation and plastic deformation, (ii) ductile and brittle materials? Give examples in your answer.

5 12. Rubber shows hysteresis. Explain, with the help of diagrams, what this means. Synthetic rubbers, which have a small hysteresis loop, are used for car tyres. Explain the advantage of the synthetic rubber. 13. A steel wire AB, length 1.000m and cross-section area 8 x 10-7 m 2, is joined to an iron wire BC, length m and cross-section area 6 x 10-7 m 2. Wire BC Wire AB The total length increases by 0.020m when a tensile force is applied along ABC. If Young modulus of steel is 2.0 x Pa and that of Iron is 1.2 x l0 11 Pa, find: (i) (ii) the extensions of AB and of BC, the common tensile force applied. Answers: i. 4.6 X 10-3m, 1.5 X 10-2m ii. 738N

### Unit 2: Science for Engineering LO4: Understand properties of materials - Force-extension graphs Instructions and answers for teachers

Unit 2: Science for Engineering LO4: Understand properties of materials - Force-extension graphs Instructions and answers for teachers These instructions should accompany the OCR resource Force-extension

### Stress-Strain Relationship

(Strength of Materials) Dave Morgan Stress-Strain Relationship p. 1/21 The tension test: Stress-Strain Relationship p. 2/21 The tension test: Is a common standardised test that can

### MAE 20 Winter 2011 Assignment 5

MAE 20 Winter 2011 Assignment 5 6.7 For a bronze alloy, the stress at which plastic deformation begins is 275 MPa (40,000 psi), and the modulus of elasticity is 115 GPa (16.7 10 6 psi). (a) What is the

### Problem P5.2: A 1 Mg container hangs from a 15 mm diameter steel cable. What is the stress in the cable?

Problem P5.: A 1 Mg container hangs from a 15 mm diameter steel cable. What is the stress in the cable? Find the cross sectional area in terms of diameter using Equation (5.1). Calculate the tensile stress

### Chapter 4 Strain and Material Relations

CIVL 222 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Chapter 4 Strain and Material Relations Terminology 1. Displacement 2. Deformation 3. Strain 4. Average Axial Strain 5. Shearing Strain 6. Poisson s Ratio 7. Mechanical Properties

### BEYOND ELASTICITY. Sub-topics. Plasticity Toughness Hardness Design problems

BEYOND ELASTICITY Sub-topics 1 Plasticity Toughness Hardness Design problems PLASTICITY The stress is no longer proportional to strain 2 STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR: PLASTICITY Tensile strength is the stress

### Stress Strain Relationships

Stress Strain Relationships Tensile Testing One basic ingredient in the study of the mechanics of deformable bodies is the resistive properties of materials. These properties relate the stresses to the

### There are three principle ways a load can be applied:

MATERIALS SCIENCE Concepts of Stress and Strains Stress-strain test is used to determine the mechanical behavior by applying a static load uniformly over a cross section or a surface of a member. The test

### Adam Zaborski handouts for Afghans

Tensile test Adam Zaborski handouts for Afghans Outline Tensile test purpose Universal testing machines and test specimens Stress-strain diagram Mild steel : proportional stage, elastic limit, yielding

### Chapter 12 Elasticity

If I have seen further than other men, it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants. Isaac Newton 12.1 The Atomic Nature of Elasticity Elasticity is that property of a body by which it experiences

### EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

ENGINEERING COMPONENTS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Structural members: struts and ties; direct stress and strain,

### ME 215 Engineering Materials I

ME 215 Engineering Materials I Chapter 3 Properties in Tension and Compression (Part III) Mechanical Engineering University of Gaziantep Dr. A. Tolga Bozdana www.gantep.edu.tr/~bozdana True Stress and

### Objectives. Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity and ductility of given materials.

Lab 3 Tension Test Objectives Concepts Background Experimental Procedure Report Requirements Discussion Objectives Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity

### MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS. IE-114 Materials Science and General Chemistry Lecture-6

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS IE-114 Materials Science and General Chemistry Lecture-6 Overview 1) ELASTIC DEFORMATION - Elastic Behavior - Anelasticity - Elastic Properties of Materials 2) PLASTIC

### CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Concepts of Stress and Strain 6.1 Using mechanics of materials principles (i.e., equations of mechanical equilibrium applied to a free-body diagram),

### Structures and Stiffness

Structures and Stiffness ENGR 10 Introduction to Engineering Ken Youssefi/Thalia Anagnos Engineering 10, SJSU 1 Wind Turbine Structure The Goal The support structure should be optimized for weight and

### CHAPTER 4 TENSILE TESTING

CHAPTER 4 TENSILE TESTING EXERCISE 28, Page 7 1. What is a tensile test? Make a sketch of a typical load/extension graph for a mild steel specimen to the point of fracture and mark on the sketch the following:

### Stress and Strain Fundamentals of Tissue Injury

Readings: and Strain Fundamentals of Tissue Injury Chapter 2 [course text] Nordin & Frankel, Chapter 1 [on reserve] Hall, Chapter 4 [on reserve] 1 Learning Objectives By the end of this lecture, you should

### CHAPTER 9 :- MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS ONE MARK QUESTIONS: 1. What is elasticity of a body? 2. What is plasticity? 3. Which property of a body

1 CHAPTER 9 :- MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS ONE MARK QUESTIONS: 1. What is elasticity of a body? 2. What is plasticity? 3. Which property of a body is responsible for regaining original shape and size

### MSE200 Lecture 7 (CH ) Mechanical Properties I Instructor: Yuntian Zhu Objectives/outcomes: You will learn the following:

MSE200 Lecture 7 (CH. 6.2-6.4) Mechanical Properties I Instructor: Yuntian Zhu Objectives/outcomes: You will learn the following: Stresses and strains in solids. Normal and shear stresses. Elastic and

### Physics 3 Summer 1989 Lab 7 - Elasticity

Physics 3 Summer 1989 Lab 7 - Elasticity Theory All materials deform to some extent when subjected to a stress (a force per unit area). Elastic materials have internal forces which restore the size and

### Stress Strain Behavior (I) Stress Strain Behavior (II) Stress Strain Behavior (III)

Chapter Outline: Characteristics, Applications, and Processing of Polymers Mechanical properties Stress-Strain Behavior Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers Crystallization, Melting, Glass Transition

### Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility

### MSE 527L - Testing of Materials in Tension

MSE 527L - Testing of Materials in Tension Object: The object of this experiment is to measure the tensile properties of steel, copper and aluminum at a constant strain rate on the tension testing machine

### Pin jointed structures are often used because they are simple to design, relatively inexpensive to make, easy to construct, and easy to modify.

4. FORCES in PIN JOINTED STRUCTURES Pin jointed structures are often used because they are simple to design, relatively inexpensive to make, easy to construct, and easy to modify. They can be fixed structures

### Material Types and Properties

Material Types and Properties 1 Material Types There are many kinds of materials, but most of them can be divided into four groups: Metals - Metals are composed of one or more metallic elements and often

### σ = F / A o Chapter Outline Introduction Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? and Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Chapter Outline Introduction To understand and describe how materials

### ENGINEERING COUNCIL CERTIFICATE LEVEL

ENGINEERING COUNCIL CERTIICATE LEVEL ENGINEERING SCIENCE C103 TUTORIAL - BASIC STUDIES O STRESS AND STRAIN You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises. These may be sent

### Plastic Behaviour - Tensile Strength

Plastic Behaviour - Tensile Strength Transition of mechanical behaviour from elastic to plastic depends upon the material type and its condition as tested (hot-rolled, cold-rolled, heat treated, etc.).

### Strength and Stiffness

Strength and Stiffness Stress = load/area is applied to a material by loading it Strain = deformation/length a change of shape (dimensions and twist angles) is its response Stiffness = stress/strain is

### SAMPLE OF THE STUDY MATERIAL PART OF CHAPTER 1 STRESS AND STRAIN

SAMPLE OF THE STUDY MATERIAL PART OF CHAPTER 1 STRESS AND STRAIN 1.1 Stress & Strain Stress is the internal resistance offered by the body per unit area. Stress is represented as force per unit area. Typical

### MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES HNC/D PRELIMINARY LEVEL TUTORIAL 1 BASIC STUDIES OF STRESS AND STRAIN

MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES HNC/D PRELIMINARY LEVEL TUTORIAL 1 BASIC STUDIES O STRESS AND STRAIN This tutorial is essential for anyone studying the group of tutorials on beams. Essential pre-requisite knowledge

### Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied

Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied Stress and strain fracture or engineering point of view: allows to predict the

### M n = (DP)m = (25,000)(104.14 g/mol) = 2.60! 10 6 g/mol

14.4 (a) Compute the repeat unit molecular weight of polystyrene. (b) Compute the number-average molecular weight for a polystyrene for which the degree of polymerization is 25,000. (a) The repeat unit

### Episode 229: Stress-strain graphs

Episode 229: Stress-strain graphs A stress-strain graph includes a great deal of information about a material. Your students may need to learn to extract this information, and to compare one material with

### Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility

### Review from Mechanical Properties of Materials

Fall 24 Review from Mechanical Properties of Materials Concept of Stress and Strain Figure 1 shows the behavior of a clindrical bod subjected to tension and compression. Tension specimen etends along its

### EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 3 LOADED COMPONENTS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQ LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 3 LOADED COMPONENTS 1. Be able to determine the effects of loading in static engineering

### Question 6.5: A steel bar 100 mm (4.0 in.) long and having a square cross section 20 mm

14:440:407 Ch6 Question 6.3: A specimen of aluminum having a rectangular cross section 10 mm 12.7 mm (0.4 in. 0.5 in.) is pulled in tension with 35,500 N (8000 lb f ) force, producing only elastic deformation.

### Monday 20 May 2013 Afternoon

Monday 20 May 2013 Afternoon AS GCE PHYSICS A G481/01 Mechanics *G411700613* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied materials: Data, Formulae and Relationships Booklet (sent with general

### 1.103 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS LABORATORY (1-2-3) Dr. J.T. Germaine Spring 2004 TENSILE TESTING AND STRESS STRAIN PROPERTIES OF STEEL

1.103 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS LABORATORY (1-2-3) Dr. J.T. Germaine MIT Spring 2004 Purpose: LABORATORY ASSIGNMENT NUMBER 2 TENSILE TESTING AND STRESS STRAIN PROPERTIES OF STEEL You will learn about:

### Chapter 13 - Elasticity. A PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University

Chapter 13 - Elasticity PowerPoint Presentation by Paul E. Tippens, Professor of Physics Southern Polytechnic State University 2007 Chapter 13. Elasticity Photo Vol. 10 PhotoDisk/Getty BUNGEE jumping utilizes

### Mechanics of Materials-Steel

Mechanics of Materials-Steel Structural Steel Structural steel considered one of the predominant materials for construction of buildings, bridges, towers and other structures. The preferable physical properties

### Strength of Materials

FE Review Strength of Materials Problem Statements Copyright 2008 C. F. Zorowski NC State E490 Mechanics of Solids 110 KN 90 KN 13.5 KN A 3 = 4.5x10-3 m 2 A 2 = 2x10-3 m 2 A 1 = 5x10-4 m 2 1. A circular

### Tensile Testing Laboratory

Tensile Testing Laboratory By Stephan Favilla 0723668 ME 354 AC Date of Lab Report Submission: February 11 th 2010 Date of Lab Exercise: January 28 th 2010 1 Executive Summary Tensile tests are fundamental

### ME 105 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Spring Quarter Tensile Test

ME 105 Mechanical Engineering Lab Page 1 ME 105 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Spring Quarter 2003 3. Tensile Test Introduction In this lab, you will study the deformation and fracture characteristics

### Structural materials Characteristics, testing, strength evaluation

Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department of Mechanics and Materials of Structures English courses General course /2013 Fundamentals of Structures BMEEPSTG201 Lecture no. 3: Structural

### Strength of materials

Strength of materials 1. General concepts All structures, both natural and man-made, are composed of materials that are arranged and assembled in a way that will fulfill the purpose of the structure. Buildings,

### Chapter 15: Processing of Polymers

Chapter 15: Characteristics, Applications & Processing of Polymers ISSUES TO ADDRESS... What are the tensile properties of polymers and how are they affected by basic microstructural features? Hardening,

### Properties of Materials

CHAPTER 1 Properties of Materials INTRODUCTION Materials are the driving force behind the technological revolutions and are the key ingredients for manufacturing. Materials are everywhere around us, and

### Solid Mechanics. Stress. What you ll learn: Motivation

Solid Mechanics Stress What you ll learn: What is stress? Why stress is important? What are normal and shear stresses? What is strain? Hooke s law (relationship between stress and strain) Stress strain

### KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK. UNIT I STRESS STRAIN DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS PART- A (2 Marks)

KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK SUB CODE/NAME: CE1259 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS YEAR/SEM: II / IV 1. What is Hooke s Law? 2. What are the Elastic Constants?

### Tensile Testing. Objectives

Laboratory 1 Tensile Testing Objectives Students are required to understand the principle of a uniaxial tensile testing and gain their practices on operating the tensile testing machine. Students are able

### MUKAVEMET KIRILMA HİPOTEZLERİ

1 MUKAVEMET KIRILMA HİPOTEZLERİ 17. Theories of failure or yield criteria (1) Maximum shearing stress theory (2) Octahedral shearing stress theory (3) Maximum normal stress theory for brittle materials.

### Strength of materials

Strength of materials 1. General concepts All structures, both natural and man-made, are composed of materials that are arranged and assembled in a way that will fulfill the purpose of the structure. Buildings,

### Section 1: THE TEST CERTIFICATE

Section 1: THE TEST CERTIFICATE The objective of Section 1 is to explain the Metallurgical makeup of the Material Test Certificate. Introduction A material test certificate is used to report the chemical

### Introduction to Structure and Properties Winter 2005 Final Exam March 17, 2005 TOTAL POINTS 37

Materials 101 Introduction to Structure and Properties Winter 005 Final Exam March 17, 005 Solutions TOTAL POINTS 37 Problem 1: Tensile Test and Plastic Deformation (10 Points) A copper rod is deformed

### Stress and Strain Elasticity

Stress and Strain Elasticit Notation: A = area D = diameter dimension E = modulus of elasticit or Young s modulus f = stress F allow. = allowable stress F t = allowable tensile stress F.S. = factor of

### PLASTIC DEFORMATION AND STRESS-STRAIN CURVES

PLASTIC DEFORMATION AND STRESS-STRAIN CURVES Introduction Background Unit: Plastic Deformation and Stress-Strain Curves In the last unit we studied the elastic response of materials to externally applied

### Statics and Mechanics of Materials

Statics and Mechanics of Materials Chapter 4 Stress, Strain and Deformation: Axial Loading Objectives: Learn and understand the concepts of internal forces, stresses, and strains Learn and understand the

### SAMPLE OF THE STUDY MATERIAL PART OF CHAPTER 1 STRESS AND STRAIN

1.1 Stress & Strain SAMPLE OF THE STUDY MATERIAL PART OF CHAPTER 1 STRESS AND STRAIN Stress is the internal resistance offered by the body per unit area. Stress is represented as force per unit area. Typical

### METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING

METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING Met E 206 MATERIALS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 1 Prof. Dr. Rıza GÜRBÜZ Res. Assist. Gül ÇEVİK (Room: B-306) INTRODUCTION TENSION TEST Mechanical testing

### MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

CHAPTER 2 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. John T. DeWolf David F. Mazurek Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University Stress and Strain Axial Loading Normal Strain

### Strength of Materials

Strength of Materials 1. Strain is defined as the ratio of (a) change in volume to original volume (b) change in length to original length (c) change in cross-sectional area to original cross-sectional

### PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 1.1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Different materials possess different properties in varying degree and therefore behave in different ways under given conditions. These properties

### Stretching Rubber Bands Understanding Hooke's Law

Stretching Rubber Bands Understanding Hooke's Law Experimental Write-up Introduction The reason that we can see rubber bands stretch when we pull on them, but pulling as hard as you can on your table will

### Materials in Mechanical Design. Materials in Mechanical Design. Classes of Material

Materials in Mechanical Design Materials taken from Chapter 2 of Materials in Mechanical Design The designer must specify the required materials for each part of a mechanical device. Physical properties

### Lecture 4.1: Thermoplastics and Thermosets

Lecture 4.1: Thermoplastics and Thermosets The word plastic comes from the Greek word Plastikos, meaning able to be shaped and molded. Plastics can be broadly classified into two major groups on the basis

### Faculty of Engineering and Materials Science. Introduction to Materials Engineering (MATS-404) Tutorials 1

Faculty of Engineering and Materials Science Introduction to Materials Engineering (MATS-404) Tutorials 1 Exercise 1: Materials Characteristics Arrange e following materials according to eir main groups

### MCEN 2024, Spring 2008 The week of Apr 07 HW 9 with Solutions

MCEN 2024, Spring 2008 The week of Apr 07 HW 9 with Solutions The Quiz questions based upon HW9 will open on Thursday, Apr. 11 and close on Wednesday, Apr 17 at 1:30 PM. References to A&J: Chapters 13,

### EVERYDAY ENGINEERING EXAMPLES FOR SIMPLE CONCEPTS

EVERYDAY ENGINEERING EXAMPLES FOR SIMPLE CONCEPTS Simple Method to Calculate Young s Modulus Elasticity MECN 4600 - Mechanical Measurement and Instrumentation Dr. Omar Meza Copyright 2015 MSEIP Engineering

### Material Testing Lab

Focus: Material Testing Lab This laboratory includes three separate materials testing experiments to be done on spaghetti of 3 different diameters. See individual labs for respective objectives. Students

### Mechanical properties laboratory practice guide 2015

Mechanical properties laboratory practice guide 215 Hardness test methods Hardness is resistance of material to plastic deformation caused by indentation. 1. Brinell Hardness Test [1] Dr. J. A. Brinell

### MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Plastic Deformations of Members With a Single Plane of Symmetry

Plastic Deformations of Members With a Single Plane of Smmetr Full plastic deformation of a beam with onl a vertical plane of smmetr. The neutral axis cannot be assumed to pass through the section centroid.

### Physics 172H. Lecture 6 Ball-Spring Model of Solids, Friction. Read

Physics 172H Lecture 6 Ball-Spring Model of Solids, Friction Read 4.1-4.8 Model of solid: chemical bonds d radial force (N) 0 F linear If atoms don t move too far away from equilibrium, force looks like

### Rheology. Definition of viscosity. Non-newtonian behaviour.

Rheology. Definition of viscosity. Non-newtonian behaviour. Rheology Rheology is the science of the flow and deformation of matter (liquid or soft solid) under the effect of an applied force Deformation

### MATERIALS SELECTION FOR SPECIFIC USE

MATERIALS SELECTION FOR SPECIFIC USE-1 Sub-topics 1 Density What determines density and stiffness? Material properties chart Design problems LOADING 2 STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS Stress is applied to a material

### Torsion Testing. Objectives

Laboratory 4 Torsion Testing Objectives Students are required to understand the principles of torsion testing, practice their testing skills and interpreting the experimental results of the provided materials

### W2L2 Problems 11, 13

W2L2 roblems 11, 13 Bulk Stress and Bulk Modulus (French pg 57-59 This considers changes in the total volume associated with a uniform stress in the form of a pressure change think of a piston pushing

### Tensile Testing of Nanoscale and Macroscale Metal Samples

Tensile Testing of Nanoscale and Macroscale Metal Samples Instructions and Safety: Please read this lab handout and the required background reading before the Monday pre-lab lecture. You should also review

### FAILURE MODES and MATERIALS PROPERTIES. Component failures. Ductile and Brittle Fracture COMPONENT FAILURES. COMPONENT FAILURE MODES examples:

FAILURE MODES and MATERIALS PROPERTIES MECH2300 - Materials Lecture 10 R. W. Truss Materials Engineering R.Truss@uq.edu.au COMPONENT FAILURES Structures lectures es on component es cause response in component

### Fluids and fluid flow 1

Section: Unit Physics section name the go Fluids and fluid flow The term fluid refers to a substance that can flow. That includes both liquids and gases. Density The definition of density is the mass per

### , to obtain a way to calculate stress from the energy function U(r).

BIOEN 36 013 LECTURE : MOLECULAR BASIS OF ELASTICITY Estimating Young s Modulus from Bond Energies and Structures First we consider solids, which include mostly nonbiological materials, such as metals,

### Tensile Testing of Steel

C 265 Lab No. 2: Tensile Testing of Steel See web for typical report format including: TITL PAG, ABSTRACT, TABL OF CONTNTS, LIST OF TABL, LIST OF FIGURS 1.0 - INTRODUCTION See General Lab Report Format

### Solution for Homework #1

Solution for Homework #1 Chapter 2: Multiple Choice Questions (2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.11) 2.5 Which of the following bond types are classified as primary bonds (more than one)? (a) covalent bonding, (b) hydrogen

### Structural Nonlinearities

Lecture 5 Rate Independent Plasticity ANSYS Mechanical Structural Nonlinearities L5-1 ANSYS Mechanical Rate Independent Plasticity Chapter Overview The following will be covered in this Chapter: A. Background

### Mechanics of Materials

Mechanics of Materials Notation: a = acceleration A = area (net = with holes, bearing = in contact, etc...) ASD = allowable stress design d = diameter of a hole = calculus symbol for differentiation e

### σ y ( ε f, σ f ) ( ε f

Typical stress-strain curves for mild steel and aluminum alloy from tensile tests L L( 1 + ε) A = --- A u u 0 1 E l mild steel fracture u ( ε f, f ) ( ε f, f ) ε 0 ε 0.2 = 0.002 aluminum alloy fracture

### (10 4 mm -2 )(1000 mm 3 ) = 10 7 mm = 10 4 m = 6.2 mi

CHAPTER 8 DEFORMATION AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Basic Concepts of Dislocations Characteristics of Dislocations 8.1 To provide some perspective on the dimensions of atomic defects,

### Simple Stresses in Machine Parts

Simple Stresses in Machine Parts n 87 C H A P T E R 4 Simple Stresses in Machine Parts 1. Introduction.. Load. 3. Stress. 4. Strain. 5. Tensile Stress and Strain. 6. Compressive Stress and Strain. 7. Young's

### 15. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

Chapter 5 Modulus of Elasticity 5. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY The modulus of elasticity (= Young s modulus) E is a material property, that describes its stiffness and is therefore one of the most important

### MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

T dition CHTR MCHNICS OF MTRIS Ferdinand. Beer. Russell Johnston, Jr. John T. DeWolf ecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University Stress and Strain xial oading - Contents Stress & Strain: xial oading

### TENSILE TESTING PRACTICAL

TENSILE TESTING PRACTICAL MTK 2B- Science Of Materials Ts epo Mputsoe 215024596 Summary Material have different properties all varying form mechanical to chemical properties. Taking special interest in

### Rope Stretch Estimation

Haggie Hints by George Delorme Issue 16, 2015 Haggie North America Inc. - Meeting your hoisting needs! GEORGE DELORME Ph: 514-453-1283; Fax: 514-453-0631; Email: georgedelorme@sympatico.ca Toll Free: 1-888-HAGGIE-9

### Standard Test Procedures Manual

STP 203-19 Standard Test Procedures Manual Section: 1. SCOPE 1.1. Description of Test The Force Ductility test is a measure of the tensile properties of the polymer modified asphalt cement residue of a

### 1. Steel fasteners for the temperature range between 50 C and +150 C

1. Steel fasteners for the temperature range between 50 C and +150 C 1.1 Materials for fasteners The material that is used is of decisive importance for the quality of the fasteners (screws, nuts and fittings).

### Mechanics of bones. Skeletal system. Femur. Philippe GILLET (Chirurgie( Serge CESCOTTO (FSA, Ulg) de l appareil locomoteur,, CHU)

Mechanics of bones Philippe GILLET (Chirurgie( de l appareil locomoteur,, CHU) Serge CESCOTTO (FSA, Ulg) Skeletal system Femur 1 Example of the long bone 2 types of materials : Cortical bone Cancellous

### STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONS

STRSS-STRAIN RLATIONS Strain Strain is related to change in dimensions and shape of a material. The most elementar definition of strain is when the deformation is along one ais: change in length strain