IPv6 address allocation

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1 IPv6 Global Unicast Address Assignments [0] [last updated ] Global Unicast Prefix Assignment Date Note :0000::/23 IANA 01 Jul [1] :0200::/23 APNIC 01 Jul :0400::/23 ARIN 01 Jul :0600::/23 RIPE NCC 01 Jul :0800::/23 RIPE NCC 01 May :0A00::/23 RIPE NCC 02 Nov :0C00::/23 APNIC 01 May 02 [2] 2001:0E00::/23 APNIC 01 Jan :1200::/23 LACNIC 01 Nov :1400::/23 RIPE NCC 01 Feb :1600::/23 RIPE NCC 01 Jul :1800::/23 ARIN 01 Apr :1A00::/23 RIPE NCC 01 Jan :1C00::/22 RIPE NCC 01 May :2000::/20 RIPE NCC 01 May :3000::/21 RIPE NCC 01 May :3800::/22 RIPE NCC 01 May :3C00::/22 RESERVED 11 Jun 04 [3] 2001:4000::/23 RIPE NCC 11 Jun :4200::/23 AfriNIC 01 Jun :4400::/23 APNIC 11 Jun :4600::/23 RIPE NCC 17 Aug :4800::/23 ARIN 24 Aug :4A00::/23 RIPE NCC 15 Oct :4C00::/23 RIPE NCC 17 Dec :5000::/20 RIPE NCC 10 Sep :8000::/19 APNIC 30 Nov :A000::/20 APNIC 30 Nov :B000::/20 APNIC 08 Mar :0000::/16 6to4 01 Feb 01 [4] 2003:0000::/18 RIPE NCC 12 Jan :0000::/12 APNIC 03 Oct 06 [8] 2600:0000::/12 ARIN 03 Oct 06 [9] 2610:0000::/23 ARIN 17 Nov 05 IPv6 address allocation See for yourself! assignments/ ipv6-unicast-address-assignments IPv6 address allocation In 1999, IANA (under authority of ICANN) started allocating from 2000::/3 All addresses allocated were in 2001::/16 until 2005 when it expanded Currently almost 1% of 2000::/3 has been allocated to RIRs Regional Internet Registries IANA does not deal with ISPs directly; it deals with RIRs which deal with ISPs on its behalf In Asia, RIRs sometimes have to deal with NIRs (National Internet Registries) In the rest of the world, RIRs deal directly with ISPs ( LIRs : Local Internet Registries) Registry for Internet Registry for Internet APNIC (Asia-Pacific

2 RIPE NCC (Réseaux IP Européens Network Registry for Internet Coordination APNIC (Asia-Pacific RIPE NCC (Réseaux IP Européens Network Registry for Internet Coordination APNIC (Asia-Pacific LACNIC (Latin AfriNIC American and Caribbean Internet Address Registry) RIPE NCC (Réseaux IP Européens Network Registry for Internet Coordination APNIC (Asia-Pacific AfriNIC 2000::/3 allocation Allocated Unallocated 0.999% % Of stuff that s been allocated APNIC Other ARIN AfriNIC 19.55% RIPE NCC 6to4 LACNIC 1.22% ARIN s 19.59% Assigned Unassigned 0.049% 19.89% 0.03% 19.55% 19.59% 20.17% 20%!4.5 quadrillion /64s (85 undecillion addresses) % Note: less has been assigned than is depicted here

3 What do the RIRs do? ARIN, RIPE NCC and APNIC got together to come up with guidelines for allocating IPv6 addresses to ISPs ( LIRs ) Most are simple You must have a plan for making at least 200 assignments to other organizations within five years Assignment sizes ARIN, RIPE NCC and APNIC agreed that the minimum allowed assignment to an ISP is a /32 ISPs can get a network larger than a /32 if they provide documentation showing they need it Subsequent assignments If an ISP later decides it wants to expand its network size (e.g., beyond a /32), it must provide evidence that its HD-Ratio for its current network is greater than 0.94 Note: when calculating an HD-Ratio, only allocations of /56s are considered HDRatio = log(addresses allocated) log(addresses available) What do ISPs do? Technically ISPs should be able to allocate however they want Recommendations are that customers get: /56 if they expect to have multiple networks over the next 5 years /48 if they can prove that a /56 will be too small /64 otherwise One more thing IPv6 part II Any organization with a network larger than a /48 is required to register with its RIR

4 Transitioning from IPv4 to IPv6 The Internet is too big and disorganized for a flag day We must get IPv4 and IPv6 to live in harmony Dual stacking In order for IPv6 to get any sort of hold, we need routers which are dual stacked Speak both IPv4 and IPv6 Are addressable both in IPv4 and IPv6 Most hosts these days are dual stacked*, but routers are a different matter

5 B3 0B : : B3 0B ::/48 Allows IPv6 hosts to talk to other IPv6 hosts when there are some IPv4 routers inbetween Any router which speaks both IPv6 and IPv4 advertises itself as handling 2002::/ ::/16 is reserved for 6to4 use S IPv4 address: S IPv6 address: 2001::5:1234:56ff:fe78:9abc S 6to4 address: 2002:8164:b30b::1234:56ff:fe78:9abc D IPv4 address: D IPv6 address: 2fff::3:fedc:baff:fe98:76 D 6to4 address: 2002:304:506::246:8aff:fece: Construct an IPv6 packet Source: 2002:8164:b30b::1234:56ff:fe78:9abc Destination: 2002:304:506::246:8aff:fece:1357 S IPv4 address: S IPv6 address: 2001::5:1234:56ff:fe78:9abc S 6to4 address: 2002:8164:b30b::1234:56ff:fe78:9abc D IPv4 address: D IPv6 address: 2fff::3:fedc:baff:fe98:76 D 6to4 address: 2002:304:506::246:8aff:fece: Construct an IPv4 packet Source: Destination: Payload: the IPv6 packet we constructed in step #1

6 S IPv4 address: S IPv6 address: 2001::5:1234:56ff:fe78:9abc S 6to4 address: 2002:8164:b30b::1234:56ff:fe78:9abc D IPv4 address: D IPv6 address: 2fff::3:fedc:baff:fe98:76 D 6to4 address: 2002:304:506::246:8aff:fece: Route packet via IPv4 4.Destination host unpacks IPv4 packet to see IPv6 packet Native IPv6 addresses were never used Actually the hosts wouldn t even need any! We can communicate between a 6to4 host and a native (not-6to4) IPv6 host There are public 6to4 relay routers Speak IPv4 and IPv6 and advertise themselves as routing between them If we want to get a packet to real IPv6, we use the IPv4 address as our destination /24 has been reserved in the IPv4 world as IPv6 to IPv4 relay It will never refer to an actual IPv4 host IPv4 routers would have to have this in their routing tables as a special entry In the IPv6 world, 2002:C058:6301:: is an anycast address which always refers to the nearest 6to4 relay router Teredo tunnelling Problem: most people these days are behind a NAT Problem: most consumer-grade routers these days could not care less about IPv6 Problem: 6to4 requires your host be globally addressable over IPv4 Problem: :( Teredo tunnelling We use NAT traversal much like we talked about before This requires public Teredo servers Relatively low-bandwidth We re communicating with Teredo relays Extremely high-bandwidth

7 Teredo address Bits 0 through 31 are 2002:0000 Reserved for Teredo addressing Bits 32 through 63 are the IPv4 address of the Teredo server Bits 64 through 79 are flags and are boring Bits 80 through 95 are the (bit-flipped) UDP port number used at the NAT router Bits 96 through 127 are the (bit-flipped) IPv4 address of the NAT router Teredo tunnelling The Teredo server must keep in constant communication with the client to keep the hole in the NAT open Very little data is actually sent back and forth IPv6 and IPv4 = bff? Via 6to4 and Teredo, IPv6 can talk to IPv6 over IPv4 Via 6to4, if an IPv4 host is dual-stacked, IPv6 can talk to IPv4 For IPv6 to really take off, we need people to start using IPv6

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