What is AfriNIC, IPv4 exhaustion & IPv6 transition

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1 AfriNIC What is AfriNIC, IPv4 exhaustion & IPv6 transition The RIR System What is AfriNIC Adiel A. Akplogan CEO, AfriNIC cctld Forum, Paille (MU) March2009 Internet resources Number resources? IP addresses Unique identifiers of equipment on the Internet. These resources are the basis of internet operation. ASN Unique identifier of networks falling under unique management with a unique routing policy. How IP Addresses work with Names Name resources: Names Names associated with IP address to make them easy to use. gtlds: Generic Top level domains (.com,.net, info,.org,.int etc) cctld: Country code Top level domain management (.ci,.za,.gh,.ly,.fr,.ru, etc.)

2 :42d0::200:80: :42d0::200:80: :0C00:8888::1 2001:42d0::200:80: IP Addresses vs Domain Names IP Address [Identifier] Computer-friendly Unique number identifies computer on Internet Used for routing Name [Reference] People-Friendly Maps host name to unique IP address Not used for routing IP addresses are mandatory for Internet Protocol communications, while domain naming facilitates communication and accessibility of the Internet to the end users 10 IP Addresses Necessary for Internet Routing IP addresses are mandatory for Internet Protocol communications, while domain naming facilitates communication and accessibility of the Internet to the end users A finite Common Resource Never owned by address users Are not property Cannot be bought, sold, traded Provided on non-permanent basis for use Returned to provider when no longer required On the Internet we are nothing but IP addresses What is AfriNIC The RIR System What is AfriNIC Challenges Initiatives to overcome some of the challenges Achievement Way forward

3 IP Addresses Managed How Are IP Addresses Managed? 196/8, 197/8, 41/8 2001:4200::/ C00:0000::/ Fair How Are IP Addresses Managed? How Are IP Addresses Managed? Aggregate Conserve Unique Fair Conserve Aggregate Fair Consistent Impartial Unique Neutral Policy Objectives Policy Objectives Administration Principles How Are IP Addresses Provisioned? Policy Development Process Need Address Meet Criteria? YES Apply OPEN NO Accreditation Inclusive Accessible NO Go to ISP Initial Application? NO Receive Resource 17 Community Establishes Criteria Through Policy Development Process YES Registration Service Agreement 18 BOTTOM UP Internet Community Proposes, Discusses, & Approves Policy TRANSPARENT Documented, Published & Accessible PDP, Policies, & Procedures

4 AfriNIC PDP Policies under discussion Policy IPv4 Soft Landing Policy IPv6 Allocations to Non-Profit Networks Global Policy Proposal for the Allocation of IPv4 Blocks to Regional Internet Registries Status Douglas Onyango Graham Beneke Adiel A. Akplogan The RIR System 2009 Budget: Operating cost: ~ USD 1,7 M Head count: 11 staff Administration: 4 Communication: 2 Technical: 5 Planned head count 12/2009: 19 (many recruitments) Membership 494 Members billed in January 2009 Growth in Resources allocation The RIR System 23

5 Current IPv4 Situation (global) Current IPv4 Exhaustion Situation (global) Source: NRO stats December 2008 Projected IANA Unallocated Address Pool Exhaustion: 02 May 2011 (18-Mar-2009). RIR pool is planed to exhausted on Jul-2012 Projection AfriNIC current pool is expected to last until End of 2011 New global policy to reserve one /8 per RIR: with our current usage rate of one /8 every two years then with the new /8 we will get sometime in 2011 we will be able allocate space until the end of What was planned 10 years ago? Size of the Internet IPv4 Pool Size IPv6 Transition using Dual Stack 6-10 years IPv6 Deployment New Soft Landing policy may allow us to extend this exhaustion time over Time What is happening today? The transition from IPv4 to IPv6 Different stages of grief for transition Size of the Internet IPv4 Pool Size Today Denial Negotiation Acceptance? IPv6 Transition IPv6 Deployment Depression Time Anger

6 v6/v4 Ratio 1.2% Acceptance??? Few challenges for IPv6 in Africa 0.6% IPv6 adoption is an important challenge worldwide but more importantly in our region: 0.0% Graph: Geoff Huston - Measuring IPv6 Deployment Ratio AfriNIC-8/AfNOG Meeting Ratio Perception of lack of demand from the users Lack of end-users applications Perception of huge costs related to transitioning Lack of awareness on real IPv6 development cases Lack of transparent compatibility with IPv4 People are still straggling to properly deploy IPv4 Networks: Too extensive usage of NAT in the region Nov-07 Jan-08 Feb-08 Apr-08 Jun-08 Jul-08 Sep-08 Oct-08 Killer application? IPv6 is NOT a feature! While everyone wants a source of additional revenue, fundamental transport is difficult to monetize (Tony Hain Cisco System)). Carriers use IPv6 deployment cost as a defensive play but the reality is that they will still have to absorb the costs of an IPv4 routing system (that will be growing unconstrained once the central pool is gone and addresses may started to be traded) and this until they can get their customers to leave IPv4 behind. Revenue generating applications are most likely to be peer-to-peer, because client-server can be hacked in using nat. Or Killer constraint? Google Maps opens ~ 70 parallel connections itunes store has been shown to open as many as 300 parallel connection (itune) IPv4/nat multiplexes multiple users through the port range, so 64k divided by 300 parallel connections results in ~200 customers per ISP based NAT address (assuming each customer is only allowed to run one simultaneous instance of itunes or similar apps). New apps that have not emerged yet??? Cost of deployment The largest cost for most network managers will be training. It is packet based (IP), but other than that it is a different protocol. Another major cost will be retooling custom apps and scripts. Frequent shortcuts assuming an address will always be 32 bits. Is IPv6 deployment could be seen as an opportunity to integrate other engineering changes that have not been large enough to justify by themselves? What costs will be attributed to IPv6 vs. general evolution? Africa & IPv6 As requested by the community during AfriNIC-2 meeting (Maputo), the project aims to create an environment which favors smooth transition to IPv6 in Africa through: Creation of an environment which allows exchange within IPv6 initiatives throughout the Continent. Creation of an IPv6 Forum for Africa. (3 rd during AfriNIC-9) Conducting IPv6 Training across the Continent. Providing Lab and Internships to Engineers to play live with IPv6 Supporting research based on IPv6 and Mobile Infrastructure Creation of an IPv6 ready platform to offer v6 support to the community (IPV6 ready at IXP to offer tunnels). Bringing major African connectivity/content providers to the game by encouraging them to provide v6 ready services. Developing a case study documentation for the use of African operators (based on local experiences).

7 Africa & IPv6 (con t) Result: IPv6 allocation growth We have identified in 2005 that training is one of the key factors that will support IPv6 deployment. EG, 4 MU, 4 TZ, 3 CI, 2 MA, 2 AO, 1 BJ, 1 More than 35 trainings conducted in different countries throughout Africa (1-3 day events) KE, 6 CM, 1 DJ, 1 DZ, 1 GH, 1 Policy proposal to ease IPv6 allocation in our region has been proposed and adopted by the community in No need to justify 200 end-users allocation to get IPv6 addresses. Waived any additional fee for IPv6 allocations. Integrate IPv6 into AfriNIC training program. End User assignment Policy proposed and adopted in 2007 ZA, 26 Other, 16 From these allocations, only 33% are announced and visible in the global routing table.(46% in AP, 33.6% in ARIN, 32% in LAC, 49% RIPE) ML, 1 MZ, 1 NG, 1 RW, 1 SC, 1 SD, 1 SN, 1 SZ, 1 TN, 1 ZW, 1 There is a clear need for further assistance to deploy. So how Africa is preparing for IPv6? Very slowly Following the trend of the rest of the world Trying to understand what is on stake We need to Push for more action from Operators (Train, Plan and implement Dualstack, allow user to access v6 network) Be innovative and explore the opportunity of developing application that can directly benefit from IPv6 and its features. Involve Research and Education community into the game. Governments need to lead by making sure: their own internet based services are IPv6 ready (early adopters) The public is aware and educated on the transition Appropriate policies are developed to foster national transition to IPv6. Education seems to be the critical part of this long journey AfriNIC is a Number Resource Registry IPv6 is an opportunity for Africa (innovation and sustainable growth) With our initiatives we are hoping to make Operators in Africa not be the one who are always catching up with other. We would like to bring this campaign to another level and create an environment for an exchange of information, training, and for sharing best practices. Having our own Regional Internet Number Registry, we have the opportunity to define policies and plans that will allow a smooth management of IPv4 exhaustion and help IPv6 adoption which is need for a sustainable Internet growth in Africa g{tç~ çéâ Acknowledgment: Some of the content of this presentation are borrowed from Geoff Huston (APNIC) and Tony Hain (Cisco System) work on IPv6

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