Immune system. B cells and T cells. B cells and T cells. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins (antibodies) stem cell

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Immune system. B cells and T cells. B cells and T cells. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins (antibodies) stem cell"

Transcription

1 Immune system - many different types of cells mediate the to destroy bacteria and viruses as well as pre-cancerous cells - all cells in the immune system, as well as all the red blood cells, arise from totipotent stem cells in the bone marrow r.b.c cells and cells myeloid progenitor stem cell lymphoid progenitor stem cell cells and cells pre cell cell Effector cells lymphoid progenitors cell Plasma cells pre cell Immunoglobulins (antibodies) cell Effector cells IgA, IgE, IgG cell Plasma cells IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM Immunoglobulins lass [IgX]/ml structure function IgG 12 mg K 2 2 bind antigens which invade body IgA 1 mg K 2 2 in tears, saliva, mucus; resp., intestinal tracts Immunoglobulins lass [IgX]/ml structure function IgM 1 mg K 2 2 immature Ab IgD 1 mg K 2 2 unknown IgE * K 2 2 -stimulates mast cells * IgE levels are elevated during allergic response to release histamine

2 Immunoglobulins (antibodies) - antibody molecules (Ab) are large globular proteins located on surfaces of lymphocytes light chain heavy chain Antibody structure L L variable region - oligo saccharide chains of specific seq. of sugars is attached to some a.a., generally asn, ser and thr residues carbohydrate constant region Light chains Heavy chains 109 HO chains 1 variable 109 constant 214 a.a. seq. a.a. seq. - variable a.a. sequence is different in each antibody - constant a.a. sequence is same in each antibody 1 variable constant 446 a.a. seq. a.a. seq. - variable a.a. sequence is different in each antibody - constant a.a. sequence is same in each antibody Functions of different regions 1. variable region = site of antigen binding - hypervariable segments of both chains are extremely variable in a.a. sequences Functions of different regions 2. constant regions - recognize cell membrane glycoproteins of host cells antigen binding site recognizes host cell membranes antigen binding site oligosaccharide chains

3 Immunogenetics Healthy adults have about 500,000 different antibody molecules circulating in blood. - each antibody has a unique H chain and L chain Is there one gene for each unique H protein and L protein in the human body? O! Does a new antigen (foreign protein) cause a new antibody to be formed specifically against it? O! Different regions of the different V,D,J and genes in the DA of lymphocytes are selected A RADOM to form the mra. DA Heavy chain formation in cell V genes D J genes genes genes 10 families genes his mra is modified and translated into an immature antibody protein (Ab). DA joining randomly selected V, D, J and regions new gene for antibody Formation of heavy chain mra DA RA polymerase removal of intervening sequences V D J gene for antibody immature m RA m RA Modifications are made to nascent protein (pre-pro IgG Heavy chain) 1. -terminal seq. is removed at membrane 2. 2 H chains and 2 L chains associate 3. sugars are added

4 lonal selection theory of lonal selection theory of 1. RADOM selection of specific V, D, J, and genes to produce recombinant gene for antibody 2. Each mature lymphocyte produces only OE specific antibody protein. lonal selection theory of 3. Mature cells die unless activated by an antigen binding to V region cell - V region of antibody projects out of cell membrane lonal selection theory - each Ab protein recognizes a specific chemical grouping on antigen surface - if antigen binds Ab, then cell divides rapidly producing millions of cell clones cells cells Immune repertoire Many different antibodies are formed against one virus coat or one bacterial cell wall. Antigens such as virus coat proteins and bacterial cell walls may be bound by different antibodies. ew viruses and bacteria are usually bound by one or more old antibodies. one marrow Immune system otipotent stem cells are dividing continuously and the daughter cells are differentiating into red and white blood cells.

5 bone marrow lymph tissue bone marrow lymph tissue virus Antigen independent Antigen dependent Antigen independent Antigen dependent bone marrow Antigen independent lymph tissue AIDS virus kills helper cells Antigen dependent ypical pattern of immune dysfunction after HIV infection 1000 concen. cells months after infection utrition and the Immune system - folate, vitamins, E, -6 and -12 are essential for optimal functioning of immune system - also a moderate to high protein diet increases immune efficiency Deficiencies and decreased deficiency of vitamin -6 causes reduced stimulation of lymphocytes by antigens u++ and Zn++ deficiencies lead to decreased number of lymphocytes deficiency of vitamins A, and E result in impaired -cell mediated immunity

6 ancer and immune surveillance - pre-cancerous cells arise in all humans every day - most pre-cancerous cells are identified by cells of the immune system and are destroyed before dividing ancer risks for Americans Risk factors for cancer Deaths / yr. per million Amer. alcohol abuse 714 food additives 612 diet quality 143 industrial waste 82 occupational hazards 61 pollution 41 sexual behavior < 20 tobacco use < 20 ancer risks for Americans Risk factors for cancer Deaths / yr. per million Amer. 1. diet quality (anti-oxidants) tobacco use sexual behavior alcohol pollution industrial waste occupational < food additives < 20

The Immune System: A Tutorial

The Immune System: A Tutorial The Immune System: A Tutorial Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems 21-366B Shlomo Ta asan Images taken from http://rex.nci.nih.gov/behindthenews/uis/uisframe.htm http://copewithcytokines.de/ The

More information

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51 The Immune System Chapter 51 Introduction Vertebrates have three levels of defenses -1. The Integumentary System -Skin and mucous membranes provide first line of defense -2. Nonspecific (innate) Immune

More information

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points)

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points) AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,

More information

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity Discussion: Introduction Our immune system protects our bodies from the harmful affects of a dizzying array of disease causing pathogens. Although our

More information

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic Bio 100 Guide 22 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on

More information

The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic

More information

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes

More information

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated

More information

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity 2. T and B Cell Production 3. Antigens & Antigen Presentation 4. Helper T cells 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity The Nature of Adaptive

More information

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability

More information

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS Knowledge of human blood types is necessary for successful transfusions. Recognition that blood types have relatively simple inheritance patterns led to their use in paternity

More information

Lymphatic System - Structures

Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides

More information

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability

More information

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity Immune system Body must resist disease in order to function Defends against pathogens, identifies and destroys abnormal cells. The primary pathogens are bacteria and viruses. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive

More information

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein

More information

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59 IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59.1 INTRODUCTION The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance of the body for pathogens or tumors. Whether disease develops depends on

More information

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II Immune System Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Which of the following best describes the immune system? a. the set of organs

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide

More information

Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope;

Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; Immunity The immune system Vaccination Learning Objective Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; The following micrographs show as to how different types of phagocytes and lymphocytes

More information

The Adaptive Immune System

The Adaptive Immune System Chapter 17 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case The Adaptive Immune System Learning Objectives 17-1 Differentiate innate from adaptive immunity.

More information

B Cells and Antibodies

B Cells and Antibodies B Cells and Antibodies Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Lecture outline Functions of antibodies B cell activation; the role of helper T cells in antibody production

More information

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells The Adaptive Immune Response B-cells FUNCTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Recognize, destroy and clear a diversity of pathogens. Initiate tissue and wound healing processes. Recognize and clear damaged self

More information

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors.

1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal A) Antibodies. B) Red blood cells. C) Transferrin. D) White blood cells. E) Receptors. Prof. Lester s BIOL 210 Practice Exam 4 (There is no answer key. Please do not email or ask me for answers.) Chapters 15, 16, 17, 19, HIV/AIDS, TB, Quorum Sensing 1) Siderophores are bacterial proteins

More information

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells.

2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells. Immunology The immune system has specificity and memory. It specifically recognizes different antigens and has memory for these same antigens the next time they are encountered. The Cellular Components

More information

Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT

Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT Fogarty-IBRO School Nairobi-KENYA May 22 nd 25 th 2007 Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By Ahmed El-Gohary, M.D. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT The

More information

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24 CHAPTER 24 The Body s Defenses PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece,

More information

Lymph Transport and Immunity

Lymph Transport and Immunity Lymph Transport and Immunity Outline The Lymphatic System Lymph Vessels Lymphoid Organs Nonspecific Defenses Barriers Inflammatory Response Specific Defenses Antibodies T Cells Induced Immunity Active

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

MICROBIOLOGY - IMMUNOLOGY MODULE Dr Ronnie Russell

MICROBIOLOGY - IMMUNOLOGY MODULE Dr Ronnie Russell The Specific/Adaptive Immune Response The Third Line of Defence Is called specific immunity The body s ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products Is a smart system

More information

The Immune System. By: Ben, Varshitha and Peyton

The Immune System. By: Ben, Varshitha and Peyton The Immune System By: Ben, Varshitha and Peyton The Immune System Immunity Lymph Nodes Spleen Bone Marrow Cells (different types) Unique features Diseases Ways to strengthen it. Doctor name and places

More information

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003 KEY October 30, 2003 All questions have equal point value. You may keep the test questions. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Receptors associated with innate immunity recognize microbes by detecting:

More information

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types:

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: Immune system. One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen - disease causing organism) 1) Non specific. Anything foreign

More information

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Immunity - refers to the body s ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign material s or abnormal cells Mechanisms include: 1. Defense against invading pathogens

More information

Basics of Immunology

Basics of Immunology Basics of Immunology 2 Basics of Immunology What is the immune system? Biological mechanism for identifying and destroying pathogens within a larger organism. Pathogens: agents that cause disease Bacteria,

More information

HUMORAL IMMUNE RE- SPONSES: ACTIVATION OF B CELLS AND ANTIBODIES JASON CYSTER SECTION 13

HUMORAL IMMUNE RE- SPONSES: ACTIVATION OF B CELLS AND ANTIBODIES JASON CYSTER SECTION 13 SECTION 13 HUMORAL IMMUNE RE- SPONSES: ACTIVATION OF B CELLS AND ANTIBODIES CONTACT INFORMATION Jason Cyster, PhD (Email) READING Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System. Abbas,

More information

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts

More information

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna Biochemistry of the immune system Jana Novotna Immunity = protection The immune system integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and products that interact with many different pathogens. Specificity

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Bio40C schedule Lecture: Immune system Lecture exam 2 postponed to Tu Feb 23 covers Ch 22, 26, 27 Multiple choice and short answer Study guides posted on website Extra credit total of 15 pts Work sheets

More information

22. Immune System and the Body s Defense

22. Immune System and the Body s Defense 22. Immune System and the Body s Defense I. Overview of Diseases Caused by Infectious Agents Disease can be caused by a variety of factors, some have causes within our bodies (e.g., genetic disorders and

More information

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21)

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Name: Date: 1) The is the largest lymphoid organ. 1) A. lymph node B. spleen C. thymus D. tonsil 2) Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by. 2) A. secreting antibodies

More information

Immune System and Disease

Immune System and Disease Immune System and Disease Homeostasis Q: How does the body fight against invading organisms that may disrupt homeostasis? WHAT I KNOW WHAT I LEARNED 35.1 How do people catch infectious diseases? SAMPLE

More information

Antibody Structure, and the Generation of B-cell Diversity CHAPTER 4 04/05/15. Different Immunoglobulins

Antibody Structure, and the Generation of B-cell Diversity CHAPTER 4 04/05/15. Different Immunoglobulins Antibody Structure, and the Generation of B-cell Diversity B cells recognize their antigen without needing an antigen presenting cell CHAPTER 4 Structure of Immunoglobulin G Different Immunoglobulins Differences

More information

B cell activation and Humoral Immunity

B cell activation and Humoral Immunity B cell activation and Humoral Immunity Humoral immunity is mediated by secreted antibodies and its physiological function is defense against extracellular microbes (including viruses) and microbial exotoxins.

More information

Immune System. Chapter 24

Immune System. Chapter 24 Immune System Chapter 24 Chapter Outline Immunology Lymphatic System Non-specific defense a. Defense at body surface b. Inflammation c. Phagocytosis macrophages, neutrophils d. Opsonins Ig and C 3 b e.

More information

Unit 9: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems NURSING PHYSIOLOGY (NRSG237)

Unit 9: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems NURSING PHYSIOLOGY (NRSG237) Unit 9: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Dr. Moattar Raza Rizvi NURSING PHYSIOLOGY (NRSG237) Functions: Transports Excess Interstitial Fluid Back to Bloodstream Lymphatic vessels collect lymph from loose

More information

CHAPTER 9 IMMUNOGLOBULIN BIOSYNTHESIS

CHAPTER 9 IMMUNOGLOBULIN BIOSYNTHESIS CHAPTER 9 IMMUNOGLOBULIN BIOSYNTHESIS Although the process by which a functional gene for immunoglobulin HEAVY and LIGHT CHAINS is formed is highly unusual, the SYNTHESIS, POST- TRANSLATIONAL PROCESSING

More information

IMMUNOGLOBULINS: TYPES, FUNCTIONS STRUCTURE AND BIOMEDICAL IMPORTANCE.

IMMUNOGLOBULINS: TYPES, FUNCTIONS STRUCTURE AND BIOMEDICAL IMPORTANCE. IMMUNOGLOBULINS: TYPES, FUNCTIONS STRUCTURE AND BIOMEDICAL IMPORTANCE. Immunoglobulins (Igs) are glycoprotein molecules also called antibodies(abs), that are produced in response to foreign substances

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions Chapter 19: Disorders of the Immune System 1. Hypersensitivity 2. Autoimmunity 3. Transplant Rejection 1. Hypersensitivity What is Hypersensitivity? Hypersensitivity is an immunological state in which

More information

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key Term Acquired Immunity Adenoids Antibody Antigen Axillary nodes B cell (B lymphocyte) Cervical nodes Complement system Cytokines Cytotoxic T cell Dendritic cell Helper T cell Immunity Immunoglobulins Immunotherapy

More information

Immunology. Lecture- 3

Immunology. Lecture- 3 Immunology Lecture- 3 Complement System complement system is a part of the immune system that helps or complements the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to destroy and clear pathogens and viruses.

More information

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity CHAPTER SUMMARY Elements of Specific Immunity (pp. 462-472) The body augments the mechanisms of nonspecific defense with another line of defense that destroys invaders

More information

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity I. Lymphatic System A. Functions of the Lymphatic System - list and describe: 1. 2. 3. B. Lymphatic Vessels 1. What are lymphatic capillaries? 2. Lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries in

More information

LESSON 3: ANTIBODIES/BCR/B-CELL RESPONSES

LESSON 3: ANTIBODIES/BCR/B-CELL RESPONSES Introduction to immunology. LESSON 3: ANTIBODIES/BCR/B-CELL RESPONSES Today we will get to know: The antibodies How antibodies are produced, their classes and their maturation processes Antigen recognition

More information

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Devastation Caused by Pathogens Influenza epidemic 1918-1919 Killed 22 million people in 18 months. Three million people will die from malaria this year.

More information

Composition of Blood. Composition of Blood

Composition of Blood. Composition of Blood Composition of Blood Blood = Plasma + Formed elements. Plasma is the ground substance of blood. Slightly higher density than water. Contains dissolved proteins, some dissolved gases. Formed elements consist

More information

Immunity. Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity

Immunity. Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Immunity Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection. Many of the germs that affect

More information

Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer

Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Name: Part A: Components of Blood 1. List the 3 plasma proteins and describe the function of each Albumins osmotic balance Globulins antibodies,

More information

Functions of Blood. Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis

Functions of Blood. Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis Blood Objectives Describe the functions of blood Describe blood plasma Explain the functions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets Summarize the process of blood clotting What is Blood?

More information

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work Chapter 3 Immunity and how vaccines work 3.1 Objectives: To understand and describe the immune system and how vaccines produce immunity To understand the differences between Passive and Active immunity

More information

T h. Immunity. Why? Model 1 Cell Mediated Response. How does our immune system protect us from disease?

T h. Immunity. Why? Model 1 Cell Mediated Response. How does our immune system protect us from disease? Why? Immunity How does our immune system protect us from disease? One way in which organisms maintain homeostasis is by detecting foreign cells and particles like pathogens and cancer cells. Once the pathogen

More information

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins.

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins. Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins Requires both lymph and immune systems to be effective Three levels of defense 1.Skin,

More information

Immune System Memory Game

Immune System Memory Game Immune System Memory Game Recommended Age: 12 years old Time: 45 minutes Everyday our bodies come in contact with millions of tiny organisms and particles that could potentially make us sick. Despite this,

More information

I. Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics) 1. Lymphatic Capillaries (Terminal Lymphatics) a. Absent in the following areas: 1) Avascular

I. Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics) 1. Lymphatic Capillaries (Terminal Lymphatics) a. Absent in the following areas: 1) Avascular I. Lymphatic System A. Lymphatic Vessels (Lymphatics) 1. Lymphatic Capillaries (Terminal Lymphatics) a. Absent in the following areas: 1) Avascular Tissue 2) Central Nervous System 3) Bone 4) Bone Marrow

More information

ME 411 / ME 511. Biological Frameworks for Engineers

ME 411 / ME 511. Biological Frameworks for Engineers ME 411 / ME 511 Biological Frameworks for Engineers Class Organization Lab 1 due today Hw 3 due on Friday Lab 2 Lab-on-a-Chip Fri, More 320 Sign up for 2:00-3:15, 3:15-4:30 slots Read the pre-lab instructions

More information

Antibody Function & Structure

Antibody Function & Structure Antibody Function & Structure Specifically bind to antigens in both the recognition phase (cellular receptors) and during the effector phase (synthesis and secretion) of humoral immunity Serology: the

More information

Recognition of T cell epitopes (Abbas Chapter 6)

Recognition of T cell epitopes (Abbas Chapter 6) Recognition of T cell epitopes (Abbas Chapter 6) Functions of different APCs (Abbas Chapter 6)!!! Directon Routes of antigen entry (Abbas Chapter 6) Flow of Information Barrier APCs LNs Sequence of Events

More information

The Immune System and Disease

The Immune System and Disease Chapter 40 The Immune System and Disease Section 40 1 Infectious Disease (pages 1029 1033) This section describes the causes of disease and explains how infectious diseases are transmitted Introduction

More information

1/26/11. VDJ Recombination - Diversity. Review - Immunoglobin structure. Multiple Functions. Lecture 4 Finish antibody subclasses

1/26/11. VDJ Recombination - Diversity. Review - Immunoglobin structure. Multiple Functions. Lecture 4 Finish antibody subclasses Recombination - Diversity Lecture 4 Finish antibody subclasses Review - Immunoglobin structure 2 Heavy & Light Chains Disulfide bonds Inter-chain Intra-chain Variable & Constant Regions V L & C L V H &

More information

Lecture 3a: Adaptive immunity Antigen recognition by B and T cell receptors

Lecture 3a: Adaptive immunity Antigen recognition by B and T cell receptors Lecture 3a: Adaptive immunity Antigen recognition by B and T cell receptors HLS 4806 Lisa Kalischuk-Tymensen Summary: Innate immunity 6 7 5b8 9 Bacterium Pathogen Host Immune Response Innate Immunity Humoral

More information

IMMUNOLOGY. An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity

IMMUNOLOGY. An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity IMMUNOLOGY An Overview of Immunity: Innate And Adaptive Immunity Tapasya Srivastava and Subrata Sinha Department of Biochemistry All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029 CONTENTS Concept

More information

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL

More information

Assignment. Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity

Assignment. Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity Assignment Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity 1 The Immune System 2 I. Immunity A. defense against invading parasites and abnormal cells B. Types:

More information

Cardiovascular System. Blood Components

Cardiovascular System. Blood Components Cardiovascular System Blood Components 1 Components of Blood Formed elements: erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets Plasma: water, proteins, other solutes The components of blood can be divided into two

More information

Selective IgA deficiency (slgad) hello@piduk.org 0800 987 8986 www.piduk.org

Selective IgA deficiency (slgad) hello@piduk.org 0800 987 8986 www.piduk.org Selective IgA deficiency (slgad) hello@piduk.org 0800 987 8986 www.piduk.org About this booklet This booklet provides information on selective IgA deficiency (sigad). It has been produced by the PID UK

More information

Immune response is a response by your immune system to some type of pathogen. A pathogen is a disease causing organism.

Immune response is a response by your immune system to some type of pathogen. A pathogen is a disease causing organism. Immune system. This is one of the more complex systems we re looking at, mostly because we need to look at the cellular level to really understand what's going on. First some definitions: Immune response

More information

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1. Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: 2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts.

More information

Lecture 7 Immunology

Lecture 7 Immunology Slide 1 Lecture 7 Immunology Structure Components Leukocytes Lymphoid tissue Recognition of self Innate Immunity Physical and chemical barriers Phagocytosis Inflammation Adaptive immunity Humoral responses

More information

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 SECTION 1 - Infectious Disease 1.Identify the causes of infectious disease. 2.Explain how infectious diseases are spread. Causes

More information

B Cell Generation, Activation & Differentiation. B cell maturation

B Cell Generation, Activation & Differentiation. B cell maturation B Cell Generation, Activation & Differentiation Naïve B cells- have not encountered Ag. Have IgM and IgD on cell surface : have same binding VDJ regions but different constant region leaves bone marrow

More information

Chapter 5: Organization and Expression of Immunoglobulin Genes

Chapter 5: Organization and Expression of Immunoglobulin Genes Chapter 5: Organization and Expression of Immunoglobulin Genes I. Genetic Model Compatible with Ig Structure A. Two models for Ab structure diversity 1. Germ-line theory: maintained that the genome contributed

More information

The Cardiovascular System: Blood

The Cardiovascular System: Blood Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew The Cardiovascular System: Blood PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Slides 1 to 54 The Functions of

More information

Immuno-Oncology Therapies to Treat Lung Cancer

Immuno-Oncology Therapies to Treat Lung Cancer Immuno-Oncology Therapies to Treat Lung Cancer What you need to know ONCHQ14NP07519 Introduction: Immuno-oncology represents an innovative approach to cancer research that seeks to harness the body s own

More information

Chapter 5. Genetic Models. Organization and Expression of Immunoglobulin Genes. The two-gene model: Models to Explain Antibody Diversity

Chapter 5. Genetic Models. Organization and Expression of Immunoglobulin Genes. The two-gene model: Models to Explain Antibody Diversity Chapter 5 Organization and Expression of Immunoglobulin Genes 3 4 5 6 Genetic Models How to account for : ) Vast diversity of antibody specificities ) Presence of Variable regions at the amino end of Heavy

More information

Ig Heavy chain class (isotype) switching

Ig Heavy chain class (isotype) switching Mechanisms of helper T cell-mediated activation of B lymphocytes Ig Heavy chain class (isotype) switching Neutralization Eosinophil and Neutralization Neutralization Spend some time on this one! Neonatal

More information

The Immune System. Albert Urwyler University Hospital Basel, Switzerland

The Immune System. Albert Urwyler University Hospital Basel, Switzerland The Immune System Albert Urwyler University Hospital Basel, Switzerland albert.urwyler@unibas.ch Outline Invaders and Physical Barriers Innate Immune System AdapAve Immune System AnAbodies B Cells Clonal

More information

4. is an increased rate of red blood cell destruction. A) Sickle-cell disease B) Hemolytic anemia C) Pernicious anemia Ans: B

4. is an increased rate of red blood cell destruction. A) Sickle-cell disease B) Hemolytic anemia C) Pernicious anemia Ans: B Chapter 11: Blood 1. The hematocrit is composed mainly of A) plasma. B) white blood cells. C) platelets. D) red blood cells. 2. Fifty-five percent of blood is A) liquid. B) plasma. C) formed elements.

More information

What Leukemia Is. Understanding blood

What Leukemia Is. Understanding blood Leukemia is a malignant disease of the blood-forming cells. It involves white blood cells that do not mature and that reproduce too rapidly. Eventually, they replace the normal bone marrow, leaving insufficient

More information

AN OVERVIEW OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. Abbas et al. 4th ed. Chapter 1; Janeway et al., 5th ed. Chapter 1.

AN OVERVIEW OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. Abbas et al. 4th ed. Chapter 1; Janeway et al., 5th ed. Chapter 1. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.176: Cellular and Molecular Immunology Course Director: Dr. Shiv Pillai Recommended reading AN OVERVIEW OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Abbas et al. 4th

More information

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream

CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES. Transport excess tissue fluid back to blood stream CHAPTER 16: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY OBJECTIVES 1. Name the organs that compose the lymphatic system and give three general functions performed by this system. Control Disease Bone Marrow Thymus Transport

More information

Page 1. Name: 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body.

Page 1. Name: 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body. Name: 8931-1 - Page 1 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body. 5) One similarity between cell receptors and antibodies is that both A) are involved

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back

More information

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology - Definition The study of the link between

More information

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work Core Topic 2 The immune system and how vaccines work Learning outcome To be able to describe in outline the immune system and how vaccines work in individuals and populations Learning objectives Explain

More information

Chapter 6. Fig What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? Cardiovascular System: Blood

Chapter 6. Fig What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? Cardiovascular System: Blood Cardiovascular System: Blood Chapter 6 6.1 Blood: An overview What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens

More information

COMMON VARIABLE IMMUNODEFICIENCY

COMMON VARIABLE IMMUNODEFICIENCY COMMON VARIABLE IMMUNODEFICIENCY This booklet is intended for use by patients and their families and should not replace advice from a clinical immunologist. 1 Also available : CHRONIC GRANULOMATOUS DISEASES

More information

Blood. The only fluid tissue in the human body. Classified as a connective tissue

Blood. The only fluid tissue in the human body. Classified as a connective tissue Blood The only fluid tissue in the human body Classified as a connective tissue Blood If blood is centrifuged Erythrocytes sink to the bottom Buffy coat contains leukocytes and platelets Buffy coat is

More information

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS

KEY POINTS INFLAMMATION CELLS THE IMMUNE RESPONSE IN VARIOUS TISSUES HYPERSENSITIVE & AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSES KEY POINTS The immune system has two responses, cell mediated and humoral, Cell mediated involves T lymphocytes Humoral mediated

More information

BLOOD-Chp. Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? 3 major types of plasma proteins

BLOOD-Chp. Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? What is the composition of blood? 3 major types of plasma proteins 6.1 Blood: An overview BLOOD-Chp Chp.. 6 What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens Regulatory functions:

More information

Blood $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200 $300 $300 $300 $300 $300 $400 $400 $400 $400 $400 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500.

Blood $100 $100 $100 $100 $100 $200 $200 $200 $200 $200 $300 $300 $300 $300 $300 $400 $400 $400 $400 $400 $500 $500 $500 $500 $500. Blood Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells Hemostasis Blood Grouping Grab Bag $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $100 $100 $100 $100 $200 $200 $200 $200 $300 $300 $300 $300 $400 $400 $400 $400 $500 $500 $500 $500 FINAL

More information

Blood Practice Questions

Blood Practice Questions Blood Practice Questions Student: 1. The hematocrit is the volume of a blood sample made up of A. white blood cells. B. platelets. C. red blood cells. D. plasma. 2. Fifty-five percent of blood is A. plasma.

More information