Polymer Analysis with MCR Rheometers. MCR Series

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Polymer Analysis with MCR Rheometers. MCR Series"

Transcription

1 Polymer Analysis with MCR Rheometers MCR Series

2 Polymer Analysis Today, polymers are among the most important materials in existence as the properties of polymers can be adapted in a very wide range to fit the field of application. Some polymers are hard and brittle or tough and shock-resistant, while other polymers are soft and flexible. The manufacturing and characterization of polymers is therefore the focus of activity for numerous industrial companies and research institutes. Introduction Plastics are organic or semi-organic substances with a high molecular weight. The length of the molecular chains and the entanglement between them are decisive parameters which influence the properties of the material. Many of the relevant properties can be characterized using rheological tests. Polymers have complex chemical and morphological structures and a wide range of variation in the composition and possibility of modifying the material. Therefore they show complex behaviors which need to be taken into consideration when using or manufacturing these materials, e.g. the viscoelasticity, non-newtonian flow behavior, anisotropy (dependent on orientation or modification), complex aging behavior and much more. Describing the properties of polymers requires versatile procedures in order to obtain the needed information. Many methods are used for processing and manufacturing plastics. The majority are forming and reforming procedures (compression molding, calendering, film extrusion, blow & injection molding, etc.). Optimizating these procedures and their quality control is therefore extremely important in the production of plastics.

3

4 Rheological Tests on Polymers Process Simulation Correlation to manufacturing conditions Measurements at low shear rates are mainly used for analyzing manufacturing problems. Whereas manufacturing processes such as extrusion or injection molding occur at high shear rates, differences between the materials are usually seen at low shear rates. Manufacturing problems often occur at low shear rates, e.g. delayed die swell with extrusion or delay due to irregular relaxation during the cooling phase of injection molded parts. Polymer melts show pronounced shear thinning behavior, i.e. the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. Flow curves are important for the manufacturing of polymers to determine the energy required for the process. Oscillatory measurements also reveal information about the elasticity of the melt, which can be correlated with die swell. Material characterization Molar Mass Distribution Recently, mathematical models have been developed which allow the determination of the molar mass distribution via rheological measurement. Correlations to molar mass distribution or material branching can be seen in the viscoelastic behavior, which influence both, the manufacturing process and the properties of the end product. The molar mass is the most important structural parameter which affects the flow behavior of polymers. The viscosity curve becomes flatter with decreasing shear rate and the polymer melt shows Newtonian behavior with a constant viscosity. This region at low shear rates is called the terminal relaxation zone or the 1st newtonian plateau. The constant viscosity in this range is called the zeroshear viscosity η 0 and represents an important temperature dependent material parameter. For most technical polymers, the zero-shear viscosity is directly proportional to the average molar mass. The rheological measurement therefore clearly shows small differences in the molar mass. At a constant average molar mass, the energy required for shear thinning in the manufacturing process can be correlated with the molar mass distribution. Polymers with a wide molar mass distribution have more of a tendency to shear thinning, even at low shear rates, than more narrowly distributed materials with the same average molar mass. Broadening the molar mass distribution aids extrusion and shaping. This means, for example, that the surface quality of molded plastic parts can be improved by varying the distribution width. The width of the molar mass distribution correlates with the cross-over point between the storage modulus G and the loss modulus G in a frequency sweep.

5 Branching The number, length and mobility of side chains influence the rheological properties. If the side chains are not very long, this leads to increased viscosity at low shear rates and more pronounced shear thinning compared to the corresponding linear polymer. If a polymer has long-chain branching, it will display low viscosity at low shear rates. The extent of branching can therefore be used to control manufacturing and product characteristics. Fillers Fillers also influence the manufacturing process and the properties of the end product. Important factors are size, form and concentration of the fillers and the interactions between the particles. Fillers usually lead to an increase in the melting viscosity and a reduction of die swell. From a rheological standpoint an increasing filler content results in a smaller so-called linear visco-elastic (LVE) range, which can be determined in an amplitude or strain sweep. Measurements on solids With the appropriate accessories, a rheometer can be used to perform dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) on solid samples by measuring the samples in torsion and tension. The solid properties are usually determined as a function of the temperature and the results give insight into the morphological properties and behavior of the polymer when in use. Measurement of the glass transition temperature (T g ) and storage modulus (G or E ) below the glass transition temperature gives information on the maximum service temperature and the impact strength, embrittlement and stiffness of the material. For crystalline or partially-crystalline polymers the melting temperature (T m ) is another important material parameter accessible with such a DMA test. Conversion and analysis methods

6 Applications Fig. 1: GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS finding the application temperature of thermoplastics Glass transition temperature with DMA can be determined with three different analysis methods. The onset temperature of G (red) shows the beginning of the decreasing storage modulus. The maximum of G (black) shows the maximum change in polymer mobility and is therefore the chemical definition of T g (grey). The maximum of tan(δ) shows the maximum of mechanical damping and is often used due to historical reasons. Further methods are the midpoint and endpoint of the G. All analysis methods are included in the Anton Paar software. Fig. 2: TIME-TEMPERATURE SUPERPOSITION (TTS) AND MASTERCURVE FOR SOLIDS how to determine the storage and loss moduli at high frequencies Polymers are used in high-frequency applications. It is not possible to measure the storage and loss moduli at very high and low frequencies with DMA and rheology devices. Polymer behavior at low temperatures is equal to the behavior at high frequencies. Due to this reason a time-temperature superposition is used to generate a mastercurve for a broad frequency range over several decades. Fig. 3: EXTENSIONAL RHEOLOGY CURVE how to determine branching of thermoplastics Extensional rheology can be used to characterize the polymer in terms of its molecular branching. This is one of the critical properties in polymer manufacturing, e.g. blown-film extrusion. Furthermore, extensional rheology can be used for polymer identification in quality control. High stress in large macromolecules leads to rearrangement of the molecular entanglements. The strain-hardening effect of polymers at higher elongation shows evidence of branched molecular chains because rearrangement is disabled, as shown by the red curve.

7 Fig. 4: FLOW AND VISCOSITY CURVE or how to get information about the flowability of a thermoplastic: Flow and viscosity curves give information about the flowability of thermoplastics under different shear and process conditions. The zero-shear viscosity η 0 at low shear rates is an important material property and is directly proportional to the average molar mass M w. In order to determine a viscosity curve over a broad range of shear rates a master curve can be constructed using time temperature superposition in combination with the conversion method according to Cox Merz. In addition, conversions from transient tests and a direct measurement with controlled shear rate provides the whole spectrum of shear rates. Powerful regression methods may help to calculate the zero-shear viscosity η 0 and the infinite-shear viscosity η inf in a shear range where all the molecules are totally disentangled and oriented. Fig. 5: TIME TEMPERATURE SUPERPOSITION TTS or looking deep into the macromolecular structure of a polymer melt: The Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) in torsion, determined via time temperature superposition TTS, provides shear and time dependent information about the viscoelastic properties of a material. Predictions regarding Die Swell are possible. All the information about the polymeric macro-structure and its short and long term behavior is already included in the Master Curve. Comparative average molar mass and molar mass distribution, as well as the calculation of their absolute values, are supported. Conversions into transient and oscillatory material functions are applicable. Fig. 6: CROSS OVER POINT G x or how to compare the molar mass of thermoplastics within 10 minutes: Within 10 minutes, the molecular structure can be analyzed with respect to the average molar mass M w and the molar mass distribution MMD. A powerful and model free method is given for a relative comparison of thermoplastics. A qualitative measure for the average molar mass is expressed by the horizontal position of the cross-over point G x while the vertical position of G x indicates the MMD. In addition the degree of branching can lead to a horizontal shift of G x while comparing polymers of the same type.

8 Applications Fig. 7: MOLAR MASS CALCULATION a method used not only for short or narrow distributed polymer melts: Processability and product performance depend very much on the molecular structure of the polymer melt, so it is important to analyze thermoplastics with respect to their molecular structure. A rheological dynamic mechanical measurement (DMA) in combination with the latest sophisticated MMD analysis methods has major advantages and is still easy to use. The thermoplastic material can be measured as molten material and does not need to be diluted in an aggressive solvent. The method has no upper limits regarding length and distribution of the molecules; rather there are advantages due to the higher sensitivity with increasing average molar mass M w. Input data for the method include a frequency sweep showing zero-shear viscosity and cross-over point G x. Fig. 8: DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS (DMTA) in TORSION or how to determine phase transitions of thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers: This test provides the essential information about the material s phase transitions. Glass transition (T g ), melting (T m ) and crystallization temperature (T c ) can be determined with high precision using the environmental chamber CTD 450. Information about the degree of crystallinity or cross-linking is expressed in the slope of the material functions G and G. With the film and fibre fixture, DMA and DMTA tests in tension can be performed even on soft polymeric films and fibres. In figure 5, a multiwave experiment is presented with the determination of the glass transition temperature, expressed as the maximum in tan(δ). As can be seen, T g is a function of the applied frequency. Fig. 9: TRANSIENT TEST TYPES (Creep, Stress Relaxation and Stress Growth Tests) find out more about the time response of your material: Step stress (creep & recovery), step strain (stress relaxation) and step rate (stress growth / start up flow) experiments are typically performed to measure the time (transient) response of a material to a given constant shear stress, shear strain or shear rate. Analysis methods enable the calculation of important material constants such as zero-shear viscosity, plateau modulus, creep compliance and the conversion from the transient material functions to oscillatory material functions - G (ω), G (ω). In Figure 6, a stress growth experiment is presented.

9 Measurement Systems for Polymer Testing Parallel-Plate System Shear rheology of melts A flow curve over a wide range of shear rates can also be generated from a mastercurve using the Cox-Merz transformation. Regression models such as Carreau-Yasuda allow the calculation of important material parameters such as the relaxation time and power law index. The polymer s zero-shear viscosity is directly proportional to the molar mass. Solid rectangular fixture (SRF) - Solid circular fixture (SCF) DMA in torsion A main application of the system is the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of thermoplastics, thermosets or elastomers in torsion. The measurement is performed in the destruction-free linear viscoelastic range using the SRF (Solid Rectangular Fixture). The SRF is used to determine the shear moduli G and G and the loss or damping factor tan(δ) of solid bars. Universal Extensional Fixture (UXF) DMA in extension The UXF (Universal Extensional Fixture) enables the measurement of the storage and loss moduli E and E as well as the damping factor tan(δ) of thin film sheets and fibers in the glass transition region. The system can be used to characterize multi-layer laminates as well as coating films. Shrinkage and expansion measurement By applying a constant tensile stress or strain to a film or fiber, its shrinkage or expansion is measured depending on time and temperature. Sentmanat Extensional Rheology (SER) Extensional viscosity Extensional rheology is an excellent method for morphologically investigating elastomers or polymers. By measuring extensional viscosity under a preset constant strain rate, a distinction between linear and branched polymers is easily made.

10 MCR Accessories for Polymer Testing MCR: The 2-in-1 solution - Rheometry and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Whatever your rheological and dynamic mechanical requirements are and will be in the future, MCR rheometers are efficiently and comfortably adapted to meet your needs. The patented normal force sensor inside the air bearing measures the normal force. This enables a separate pretension and compensation of thermal expansion by the stepper motor and oscillatory signal measured by the EC motor, without superposition of a pretension force. The optimal measuring signal can be achieved, especially in borderline areas at the extremely low temperatures below the glass temperature (below T g ) and the high temperatures close to the melting point. Changing a parallel-plate measuring system for a solid rectangular fixture system is just as easy as integrating a new temperature device or extending your rheometer s testing capabilities with a wide range of application-specific accessories. MCR 302 and MCR 502 The EC motor technology of the MCR rheometer series Air bearing and normal force sensor Nanorheometry: Nano torque and strain resolution TruStrain - Real-time position control oscillation Toolmaster - Automatic recognition of measuring systems and accessories TruGap - The innovative and patented gap measurement system Polymer Package SRF Convection Temperature Device: CTD 450 TD ready Solid rectangular fixture (SRF) Parallel-plate system: PP25 Polymer analysis software package SRF sample package Polymer accessory box Polymer Package UXF Convection Temperature Device: CTD 450 TD ready Universal Extensional Fixture: UXF L-PP50/SS/CTD Parallel-plate system: PP25 Polymer analysis software package Polymer accessory box

11 Environmental Systems Since temperature has a great influence on the rheological behavior of all polymeric samples, precise temperature control is crucial to obtaining reliable rheological data. Convection Temperature Device CTD 450 TDR/CTD 180 Temperature control based on combined convection and radiation Suitable for DMA in torsion, DMA in extension, Photo DMA (UV curing), extensional rheology (SER) Digital Eye CCD camera option for capturing images and videos during the measurement TruGap support T-Ready feature Gas consumption heating: 25 L/min Total gas consumption: 48 L/min Liquid nitrogen consumption: 3 L/h to 6 L/h Humidity option Helpful accessories Included: Filling ring for melting and molding polymer granuls Simple to remove before measurement Included: Scraper for fast and effective cleaning Included: Trimming tool for easy sample trimming on all sides Option: Stamping press This press enables the production of sample discs in a thickness up to 2 mm and in diameters of 25, 12 and 8 mm.

12 2016 Anton Paar GmbH All rights reserved. Specifications subject to change without notice. B61IP008EN-J

Understanding Rheology of Thermoplastic Polymers

Understanding Rheology of Thermoplastic Polymers Understanding Rheology of Thermoplastic Polymers Keywords: polymers-thermoplastics, adhesives, DMA, melt, glass transition, viscosity, viscoelasticity, modulus, elasticity, normal force GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

More information

Thermal Analysis Excellence

Thermal Analysis Excellence Thermal Analysis Excellence DMA/SDTA861 e STAR e System Innovative Technology Versatile Modularity Swiss Quality Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Sets New Standards DMA/SDTA861 e Precise Measurement Technology

More information

Notes on Polymer Rheology Outline

Notes on Polymer Rheology Outline 1 Why is rheology important? Examples of its importance Summary of important variables Description of the flow equations Flow regimes - laminar vs. turbulent - Reynolds number - definition of viscosity

More information

Thermoplastic composites

Thermoplastic composites Thermoplastic composites Definition By definition, a thermoplastic is a material based on polymer (macromolecular compound) which can be shaped, in a liquid (viscous) state at a temperature either higher

More information

TA INSTRUMENTS DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYZER

TA INSTRUMENTS DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYZER TA INSTRUMENTS DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYZER THE TA INSTRUMENTS DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYZER The TA Instruments Q800 is the culmination of years of engineering expertise in Dynamic Mechanical Analyzers. TA

More information

Developments in Low Temperature Testing of Rubber Materials

Developments in Low Temperature Testing of Rubber Materials Developments in Low Temperature Testing of Rubber Materials Technical report 01/4, 2nd edition Nov 2010 Göran Spetz Elastocon AB SWEDEN Introduction The low temperature properties of rubber materials are

More information

M n = (DP)m = (25,000)(104.14 g/mol) = 2.60! 10 6 g/mol

M n = (DP)m = (25,000)(104.14 g/mol) = 2.60! 10 6 g/mol 14.4 (a) Compute the repeat unit molecular weight of polystyrene. (b) Compute the number-average molecular weight for a polystyrene for which the degree of polymerization is 25,000. (a) The repeat unit

More information

Physica MCR. The Modular Rheometer Series. ::: Intelligence in Rheometry

Physica MCR. The Modular Rheometer Series. ::: Intelligence in Rheometry Physica MCR The Modular Rheometer Series ::: Intelligence in Rheometry Physica MCR Modular Compact Rheometer At Anton Paar we have a close relationship with our customers, are constantly searching for

More information

A Beginner s Guide DMA

A Beginner s Guide DMA FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) A Beginner s Guide This booklet provides an introduction to the concepts of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). It is written for the materials

More information

INVESTIGATION OF VISCOELASTICITY AND CURE SHRINKAGE IN AN EPOXY RESIN DURING PROCESSING

INVESTIGATION OF VISCOELASTICITY AND CURE SHRINKAGE IN AN EPOXY RESIN DURING PROCESSING TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS INVESTIGATION OF VISCOELASTICITY AND CURE SHRINKAGE IN AN EPOXY RESIN DURING PROCESSING T. Shimizu *, H. Koinuma, K. Nagai Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,

More information

CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS BY TMA. W.J. Sichina, National Marketing Manager

CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS BY TMA. W.J. Sichina, National Marketing Manager PERKIN ELMER Polymers technical note CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS BY W.J. Sichina, National Marketing Manager Thermomechanical analysis () is one of the important characterization techniques in the field

More information

4 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA)

4 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) 172 4 Thermomechanical Analysis 4 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) 4.1 Principles of TMA 4.1.1 Introduction A dilatometer is used to determine the linear thermal expansion of a solid as a function of temperature.

More information

Elastic Properties of Polymer Melts Filled with Nanoparticles

Elastic Properties of Polymer Melts Filled with Nanoparticles Elastic Properties of Polymer Melts Filled with Nanoparticles Helmut Münstedt and Christian Triebel Citation: AIP Conf. Proc. 1375, 21 (211); doi: 1.163/1.364479 View online: http://dx.doi.org/1.163/1.364479

More information

INNOVATIVE PLASTICS HIGH & LOW SHEAR RATE RHEOLOGY

INNOVATIVE PLASTICS HIGH & LOW SHEAR RATE RHEOLOGY INNOVATIVE PLASTICS HIGH & LOW SHEAR RATE RHEOLOGY A SABIC COMPANY Innovative Plastics is a strategic business unit of SABIC. Founded in 1976, SABIC is today the first public, global multinational enterprise

More information

A Guide to Thermoform Processing of Polypropylene. Introduction

A Guide to Thermoform Processing of Polypropylene. Introduction A Guide to Thermoform Processing of Polypropylene Introduction Thermoforming is the process of heating plastic sheet to a pliable state and forming it into shape. Thermoforming offers processing advantages

More information

Thermal Analysis Option

Thermal Analysis Option Thermal Analysis Option The TGA-Sorption System is available in two versions. Each consists of a thermoanalyzer, a humidity generator, and an interface. In the simpler version, the humidified gas produced

More information

A8 Thermal properties of materials

A8 Thermal properties of materials A8 Thermal properties of materials Thermal properties the melting temperature, T m, and the glass temperature (temperatura de transição vítrea), T g, relate directly to the strength of the bonds in the

More information

Long term performance of polymers

Long term performance of polymers 1.0 Introduction Long term performance of polymers Polymer materials exhibit time dependent behavior. The stress and strain induced when a load is applied are a function of time. In the most general form

More information

PROCESSING OF VARIOUS MATERIALS

PROCESSING OF VARIOUS MATERIALS 4 PROCESSING OF VARIOUS MATERIALS CHAPTER CONTENTS 4.1 Shaping Processes for Polymers Polymers Manufacturing Processes for Polymers 4.2 Rubber Processing Technology Processing of rubber into finished good

More information

The AR-G2 Magnetic Bearing Rheometer

The AR-G2 Magnetic Bearing Rheometer The AR-G2 Magnetic Bearing Rheometer Bernard Costello TA Instruments Ltd, Fleming Way, Crawley, West Sussex RH10 9NB TA Instruments new rheometer, the AR-G2, was launched at the Society of Rheology meeting

More information

Table 1 Typical Physical and Thermal Properties of Mylar Polyester Film. Property Typical Value Unit Test Method

Table 1 Typical Physical and Thermal Properties of Mylar Polyester Film. Property Typical Value Unit Test Method Product Information Mylar polyester film Physical-Thermal Properties Mylar polyester film retains good physical properties over a wide temperature range ( 7 to 15 C [ 9 to 3 F]), and it is also used at

More information

Polymer Melt Rheology. Introduction to Viscoelastic Behavior. Time-Temperature Equivalence

Polymer Melt Rheology. Introduction to Viscoelastic Behavior. Time-Temperature Equivalence Topics to be Covered Polymer Melt Rheology Introduction to Viscoelastic Behavior Time-Temperature Equivalence Chapter 11 in CD (Polymer Science and Engineering) Polymer Melt Rheology δ τ xy Newton s Law

More information

Non-Newtonian Flows. R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University. τ = ηθ

Non-Newtonian Flows. R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University. τ = ηθ Non-Newtonian Flows R. Shankar Subramanian Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Clarkson University Fluids such as water, air, ethanol, and benzene are Newtonian. This means that a plot

More information

Dielectric Analysis Permittivity and dielectric loss 100. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Mechanical strength and energy loss 200

Dielectric Analysis Permittivity and dielectric loss 100. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis Mechanical strength and energy loss 200 Relative Signal Technique Property Measured Change at Tg Differential Scanning Calorimetry Heat flow (heat capacity) 0.2 Thermomechanical Analysis Expansion coefficient or softening 3 Dielectric Analysis

More information

Welding of Plastics. Amit Mukund Joshi. (B.E Mechanical, A.M.I.Prod.E)

Welding of Plastics. Amit Mukund Joshi. (B.E Mechanical, A.M.I.Prod.E) Welding of Plastics Amit Mukund Joshi (B.E Mechanical, A.M.I.Prod.E) Introduction Mechanical fasteners, adhesives, and welding processes can all be employed to form joints between engineering plastics.

More information

Thermal cover:layout 1 1/18/11 3:56 PM Page 2 TA Instruments

Thermal cover:layout 1 1/18/11 3:56 PM Page 2 TA Instruments TA Instruments Thermomechanical Analysis Sensitive Measurement, Unmatched Versatility TMA Q400EM/Q400 SPECIFICATIONS 98 The Q400EM is the industry s leading research-grade thermomechanical analyzer with

More information

DMTA: Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis. by Thomas A. Luckenbach, Ph.D. Rheometrics, Inc. Piscataway, NJ, 08854, U.S.A.

DMTA: Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis. by Thomas A. Luckenbach, Ph.D. Rheometrics, Inc. Piscataway, NJ, 08854, U.S.A. DMTA: Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis by Thomas A. Luckenbach, Ph.D. Rheometrics, Inc. Piscataway, NJ, 08854, U.S.A. In the 50 s, the term "thermal analysis" meant simply heating a sample in a capillary

More information

HW 10. = 3.3 GPa (483,000 psi)

HW 10. = 3.3 GPa (483,000 psi) HW 10 Problem 15.1 Elastic modulus and tensile strength of poly(methyl methacrylate) at room temperature [20 C (68 F)]. Compare these with the corresponding values in Table 15.1. Figure 15.3 is accurate;

More information

DETERMINATION OF TIME-TEMPERATURE SHIFT FACTOR FOR LONG-TERM LIFE PREDICTION OF POLYMER COMPOSITES

DETERMINATION OF TIME-TEMPERATURE SHIFT FACTOR FOR LONG-TERM LIFE PREDICTION OF POLYMER COMPOSITES DETERMINATION OF TIME-TEMPERATURE SHIFT FACTOR FOR LONG-TERM LIFE PREDICTION OF POLYMER COMPOSITES K. Fukushima*, H. Cai**, M. Nakada*** and Y. Miyano*** * Graduate School, Kanazawa Institute of Technology

More information

THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE REPAIR METHODOLOGY

THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE REPAIR METHODOLOGY THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE REPAIR METHODOLOGY On the stage of the repair project, repairing and operating the repaired object arises a number of issues in material science and technology

More information

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations

Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Natti S. Rao Nick R. Schott Understanding Plastics Engineering Calculations Hands-on Examples and Case Studies Sample Pages from Chapters 4 and 6 ISBNs 978--56990-509-8-56990-509-6 HANSER Hanser Publishers,

More information

RHEOTEST Messgeräte Medingen

RHEOTEST Messgeräte Medingen RHEOTEST Messgeräte Medingen Series RHEOTEST RN Traditions Rheometers with the mark name RHEOTEST are in use in many countries for more than 40 years and represent constancy of Medingen's traditions in

More information

Effect of Pressure and UV Intensity on the Rheological Cure Profile and Dimensional Change of Developing Networks

Effect of Pressure and UV Intensity on the Rheological Cure Profile and Dimensional Change of Developing Networks by Jared A. Tatum, Tien T. Dao, Nick Roye, and Kaj Hedman Effect of Pressure and UV Intensity on the Rheological Cure Profile and Dimensional Change of Developing Networks Rheology is defined as the study

More information

Discovery HR brochure_final_layout 1 8/29/11 5:00 PM Page 1 TA Instruments

Discovery HR brochure_final_layout 1 8/29/11 5:00 PM Page 1 TA Instruments TA Instruments New Castle, DE USA Lindon, UT USA Pittsburgh, PA USA Elstree, United Kingdom Shanghai, China Beijing, China Taipei, Taiwan Tokyo, Japan Seoul, South Korea Bangalore, India Paris, France

More information

Low Temperature Properties of Polymers

Low Temperature Properties of Polymers TECHNICAL WHITEPAPER Low Temperature Properties of Polymers Introduction Most plastics at room temperature show their familiar properties of flexibility (a low Young s modulus) and high resistance to cracking

More information

Capillary Rheometry: Analysis of Low-Viscosity

Capillary Rheometry: Analysis of Low-Viscosity Reprinted from American Laboratory October 2009 Technical Article by Tien T. Dao, Allan X. Ye, Ali A. Shaito, Nick Roye, and Kaj Hedman Capillary Rheometry: Analysis of Low-Viscosity Fluids, and Viscous

More information

Analytical Testing Services Commercial Price List ManTech International Corporation January 2016

Analytical Testing Services Commercial Price List ManTech International Corporation January 2016 Analytical ing Services Commercial List ManTech International Corporation January 2016 TABLE OF CONTENTS MECHANICAL TENSILE TESTING... 1 DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY (DSC)... 2 THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS

More information

TIE-31: Mechanical and thermal properties of optical glass

TIE-31: Mechanical and thermal properties of optical glass PAGE 1/10 1 Density The density of optical glass varies from 239 for N-BK10 to 603 for SF66 In most cases glasses with higher densities also have higher refractive indices (eg SF type glasses) The density

More information

σ = F / A o Chapter Outline Introduction Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

σ = F / A o Chapter Outline Introduction Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? and Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Chapter Outline Introduction To understand and describe how materials

More information

Two main components of extruder are Barrel and Screw Die is not a component of extruder; it is a special tool that is fabricated for the particular

Two main components of extruder are Barrel and Screw Die is not a component of extruder; it is a special tool that is fabricated for the particular Two main components of extruder are Barrel and Screw Die is not a component of extruder; it is a special tool that is fabricated for the particular profile to be produced Internal diameter of barrel typically

More information

Characterization of Polymers Using TGA

Characterization of Polymers Using TGA application note Characterization of Polymers Using TGA W.J. Sichina, Marketing Manager Introduction Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is one of the members of the family of thermal analysis techniques

More information

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility

More information

Thermoplastic and Thermoset Processing Methods

Thermoplastic and Thermoset Processing Methods CIENCIA DE LOS POLÍMEROS Thermoplastic and Thermoset Processing Methods There are a variety of different processing methods used to convert polymers into finished products. Some include: Extrusion - This

More information

VISCOTECH Research Rheometer Performance on a QC Rheometer Budget

VISCOTECH Research Rheometer Performance on a QC Rheometer Budget * Rheometers from REOLOGICA Instruments represent the latest technology in controlled strain and stress rheometers. Designed for research, yet with ease of use allowing for routine testing, all instruments

More information

Effects of Tg and CTE on Semiconductor Encapsulants

Effects of Tg and CTE on Semiconductor Encapsulants Effects of Tg and CTE on Semiconductor Encapsulants Dr. Mark M. Konarski Loctite Corporation www.loctite.com Abstract As the role of direct-chip-attachment increases in the electronics industry, the reliability

More information

Effect of Index on Curing Kinetics and Viscoelastic Properties of Polyurethane Gels

Effect of Index on Curing Kinetics and Viscoelastic Properties of Polyurethane Gels Effect of Index on Curing Kinetics and Viscoelastic Properties of Polyurethane Gels Lifeng Wu* and Rafael E. Camargo *Contact information: Lifeng Wu, Ph.D. Sr. Technical Specialist Huntsman Polyurethanes

More information

Drive market-winning innovation, without risk

Drive market-winning innovation, without risk SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION Drive market-winning innovation, without risk Ensure adequate exit duct sizing with Flow simulation Check resonance between the fan and the motor Truck Mount SnowBlower Wausau Everest

More information

Understanding Rheology of Thermosets

Understanding Rheology of Thermosets Understanding revised by A.J. Franck, TA Instruments 2 Rheological Testing of Thermosetting Polymers AAN015 General Considerations Thermoset Polymer Uses Thermoset polymers form the matrix in filled plastics

More information

XII. 3.2 Determining Bulk Material Properties 40. 3.3 Determining the Properties of Fluids 42

XII. 3.2 Determining Bulk Material Properties 40. 3.3 Determining the Properties of Fluids 42 Table of Contents Nomenclature (Selection) Terminology Symbols and Abbreviated Terms XXI XXIX XXXIII 1 Introduction 1 1.1 The Genesis of Polymer Testing as a Science 1 1.2 Factors Influencing Data Acquisition

More information

Measuring Extruders and Extrusiograph. ... where quality is measured.

Measuring Extruders and Extrusiograph. ... where quality is measured. Measuring s and... where quality is measured. Measuring s and Just Plug & Play The Plasti-Corder Lab-Station and Plastograph EC plus are the basic units for application oriented investigations or processing

More information

Three dimensional thermoset composite curing simulations involving heat conduction, cure kinetics, and viscoelastic stress strain response

Three dimensional thermoset composite curing simulations involving heat conduction, cure kinetics, and viscoelastic stress strain response Three dimensional thermoset composite curing simulations involving heat conduction, cure kinetics, and viscoelastic stress strain response Harrison Poon, Seid Koric, M. Fouad Ahmad National Center for

More information

Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations

Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations Rheological Properties of Topical Formulations Hemi Nae, PhD Hydan Technologies, Inc. Key Words Complex Modulus, Creep/Recovery, Dilatant Flow, Dynamic Viscosity, Flow, Flow Curve, Flow Models, Frequency

More information

Introduction to Aerospace Engineering

Introduction to Aerospace Engineering Introduction to Aerospace Engineering Lecture slides Challenge the future 1 Material types Metals, polymers, ceramics, composites Faculty of Aerospace Engineering 6-12-2011 Delft University of Technology

More information

Flow characteristics of microchannel melts during injection molding of microstructure medical components

Flow characteristics of microchannel melts during injection molding of microstructure medical components Available online www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(5):112-117 Research Article ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Flow characteristics of microchannel melts during

More information

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Polymer

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Polymer FOAMAZOL Chemical Foaming Agents INJECTION MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Polymer Foaming Agent INJECTION MOLDING WITH CHEMICAL FOAMING AGENTS Introduction The injection molding of structural foam molded parts

More information

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF FIBER- FILLED PLASTICS

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF FIBER- FILLED PLASTICS STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF FIBER- FILLED PLASTICS WITH MOULDING PROCESS INDUCED ANISOTROPY Abstract P. Satheesh Kumar 1, S. Srikari 2, N. S. Mahesh 3, S. Reddy 4 1 Student, M. Sc. [Engg.], 2 Professor, 3 Professor

More information

HOSTAFORM C 9021 POM Unfilled

HOSTAFORM C 9021 POM Unfilled Description Chemical abbreviation according to ISO 1043-1: POM Molding compound ISO 9988- POM-K, M-GNR, 03-002 POM copolymer Standard-Injection molding type with high rigidity, hardness and toughness;

More information

Content. Seminar on rheology. Viscometers, rheometers and measuring systems

Content. Seminar on rheology. Viscometers, rheometers and measuring systems Seminar on rheology Viscometers, rheometers and measuring systems 1 Content Overview Finger, Ford cup Capillary viscometer Falling ball viscometer Rotational viscometer Rotational rheometer Sensor systems

More information

Rheological properties of structural and pressure-sensitive adhesives and their impact on product performance

Rheological properties of structural and pressure-sensitive adhesives and their impact on product performance Rheological properties of structural and pressure-sensitive adhesives and their impact on product performance By Peter K.W. Herh, Senior Rheologist; Dharmesh H. Dalwadi, Staff Engineer REOLOGICA Instruments,

More information

TWIN-SCREW COROTATING EXTRUDER A FLEXIBLE SOLUTION FOR ADVANCED RECYCLING

TWIN-SCREW COROTATING EXTRUDER A FLEXIBLE SOLUTION FOR ADVANCED RECYCLING TWIN-SCREW COROTATING EXTRUDER A FLEXIBLE SOLUTION FOR ADVANCED RECYCLING By Icma San Giorgio SpA INTRODUCTION Due to its great use in diverse array of applications, plastics represent one of the main

More information

Basics for Bonding of Composites like SMC and BMC

Basics for Bonding of Composites like SMC and BMC KLEBTECHNIK Dr. Hartwig Lohse e.k. Fraunhoferstr. 3 D 25524 Itzehoe Basics for Bonding of Composites like SMC and BMC Tel. +49 (0)4822 95180 Fax +49 (0)4822 95181 E-Mail hlohse@hdyg.de Internet: www.how-do-you-glue.de

More information

Measurement of Residual Stress in Plastics

Measurement of Residual Stress in Plastics Measurement of Residual Stress in Plastics An evaluation has been made of the effectiveness of the chemical probe and hole drilling techniques to measure the residual stresses present in thermoplastic

More information

MODELING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND FREQUENCY ON BITUMEN-COATED HELICAL CABLE ELEMENTS

MODELING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND FREQUENCY ON BITUMEN-COATED HELICAL CABLE ELEMENTS MODELING THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND FREQUENCY ON BITUMEN-COATED HELICAL CABLE ELEMENTS Bjørn Konradsen 1 Technological Analyses Centre, Hybrid Underwater Cables, Nexans Norway Steinar V. Ouren Material

More information

Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn

Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn TRAINING IN THE FIELD OF POLYMER MATERIALS / PLASTICS Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn 24 th April 2014 Otto Gloeckel-Straße

More information

Materials and Structures. Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Materials and Structures. Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Introduction to Composite Materials and Structures Nachiketa Tiwari Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Lecture 13 Other Manufacturing Methods for Composites Composite Fabrication Using Preformed Molding

More information

ARES-G2 brochure cover_layout 1 1/19/12 9:55 AM Page 2 TA Instrument s

ARES-G2 brochure cover_layout 1 1/19/12 9:55 AM Page 2 TA Instrument s TA Instrument s New Castle, DE USA Lindon, UT USA Elstree, United Kingdom Shanghai, China Beijing, China Taipei, Taiwan Tokyo, Japan Seoul, South Korea Bangalore, India Paris, France Eschborn, Germany

More information

Solid shape molding is not desired in injection molding due to following reasons.

Solid shape molding is not desired in injection molding due to following reasons. PLASTICS PART DESIGN and MOULDABILITY Injection molding is popular manufacturing method because of its high-speed production capability. Performance of plastics part is limited by its properties which

More information

Expansion and shrinkage of fibers

Expansion and shrinkage of fibers Expansion and shrinkage of fibers Introduction Fibers are produced worldwide in enormous quantities. More than 20 million tons of synthetic fibers and 20 million tons of natural fibers are manufactured

More information

How to reduce the cure time without damaging the rubber compound during injection molding?

How to reduce the cure time without damaging the rubber compound during injection molding? How to reduce the cure time without damaging the rubber compound during injection molding? 0Introduction This article aims at analyzing the rubber injection process and highlighting the limits that prevent

More information

THE COMPOSITE DISC - A NEW JOINT FOR HIGH POWER DRIVESHAFTS

THE COMPOSITE DISC - A NEW JOINT FOR HIGH POWER DRIVESHAFTS THE COMPOSITE DISC - A NEW JOINT FOR HIGH POWER DRIVESHAFTS Dr Andrew Pollard Principal Engineer GKN Technology UK INTRODUCTION There is a wide choice of flexible couplings for power transmission applications,

More information

Injection molding equipment

Injection molding equipment Injection Molding Process Injection molding equipment Classification of injection molding machines 1. The injection molding machine processing ability style clamping force(kn) theoretical injection volume(cm3)

More information

MDR 3000 Basic. Moving Die Rheometer. Testing instruments. Laboratory Equipment. Software systems. Service. Consulting

MDR 3000 Basic. Moving Die Rheometer. Testing instruments. Laboratory Equipment. Software systems. Service. Consulting MDR 3000 Basic Testing instruments Laboratory Equipment Software systems Service Consulting Contents MDR 3000 Basic Rotorless rotational shear vulcameter with closed test chamber system according to ISO

More information

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

More information

Introduction to Instrumented Indentation Testing (IIT)

Introduction to Instrumented Indentation Testing (IIT) Introduction to Instrumented Indentation Testing (IIT) Innovation Center Oak Ridge, Tennessee Pierre Morel OUTLINE 1. Instrumented indentation testing Theory 2. MTS Instruments technology 3. Test knowledge

More information

Differential Scanning Calorimetry theoretical background

Differential Scanning Calorimetry theoretical background Differential Scanning Calorimetry theoretical background Galina Kubyshkina Elektromaterial Lendava d.d., Slovenia Crystalline materials Typical features presence of a unit (cell), which is periodically

More information

METALLURGY STUDY OF MULTIPHASE MATERIAL USING NANOINDENTATION

METALLURGY STUDY OF MULTIPHASE MATERIAL USING NANOINDENTATION METALLURGY STUDY OF MULTIPHASE MATERIAL USING NANOINDENTATION 3 1 Prepared by Duanjie Li, PhD & Alexis Celestin 6 Morgan, Ste156, Irvine CA 9618 P: 949.461.99 F: 949.461.93 nanovea.com Today's standard

More information

TA Instruments Q SERIES THERMAL ANALYZERS

TA Instruments Q SERIES THERMAL ANALYZERS TA Instruments Q SERIES THERMAL ANALYZERS TA INSTRUMENTS, WORLDWIDE More worldwide customers choose TA Instruments than any competitor as their preferred thermal analysis or rheology supplier. We earn

More information

Determining the impact of electrical loss in coaxial cable

Determining the impact of electrical loss in coaxial cable Determining the impact of electrical loss in coaxial cable Here's a discussion on cable attenuation based on the differences in dielectric loss of low density polyethylene resins and quantify the consequent

More information

Part Design for Ultrasonic Welding

Part Design for Ultrasonic Welding Technical Information PW-3 Part Design for Ultrasonic Welding Ultrasonic energy has been used to join thermoplastics for over 35 years. Ultrasonic welding of thermoplastic materials is by far the most

More information

Authors: Levi Kishbaugh (Trexel Inc.), Uwe Kolshorn (Trexel GmbH), Gerard Bradley (Rhodia Engineering Plastics s.r.l.)

Authors: Levi Kishbaugh (Trexel Inc.), Uwe Kolshorn (Trexel GmbH), Gerard Bradley (Rhodia Engineering Plastics s.r.l.) Vibration and ultrasonic welding conditions and performance for glass fibre filled PA 6 and PA 6.6 injection moulded using the MuCell microcellular foaming process. Authors: Levi Kishbaugh (Trexel Inc.),

More information

1. Injection Molding (Thermoplastics)

1. Injection Molding (Thermoplastics) 1. Injection Molding (Thermoplastics) l Molding: Injection (thermoplastics) INJECTION MOLDING of thermoplastics is the equivalent of pressure die casting of metals. Molten polymer is injected under high

More information

AMPLITUDE AND FORCE PROFILING: STUDIES IN ULTRASONIC WELDING OF THERMOPLASTICS

AMPLITUDE AND FORCE PROFILING: STUDIES IN ULTRASONIC WELDING OF THERMOPLASTICS AMPLITUDE AND FORCE PROFILING: STUDIES IN ULTRASONIC WELDING OF THERMOPLASTICS David A. Grewell Branson Ultrasonics Corporation ABSTRACT This paper reviews effects of amplitude and force control during

More information

Tensile Testing. Objectives

Tensile Testing. Objectives Laboratory 1 Tensile Testing Objectives Students are required to understand the principle of a uniaxial tensile testing and gain their practices on operating the tensile testing machine. Students are able

More information

Rheology of polymer systems/ Reologia dos sistemas poliméricos

Rheology of polymer systems/ Reologia dos sistemas poliméricos Rheology of polymer systems/ Reologia dos sistemas poliméricos 1. Viscosity/Viscosidade Jorge Morgado, IST Polymers Molecular materials in nature COMPLEX behaviour Viscosity of concentrated solu1ons and

More information

Shelf Life Prediction Of Medical Gloves

Shelf Life Prediction Of Medical Gloves Shelf Life Prediction Of Medical Gloves Presented for the ASTM WG Committee for Medical Glove Expiration Dating Guidance By Uday Karmarkar Akron Rubber Development Laboratory, Inc. ardl@akron.infi.net

More information

3.3. Rheological Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resins

3.3. Rheological Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resins 3.3. Rheological Behavior of Vinyl Ester Resins 3.3.1. Introduction Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter 1. There has been significant appreciation of the importance of the rheological

More information

COMPOSITE FIBRE PLASTIC MATERIAL

COMPOSITE FIBRE PLASTIC MATERIAL COMPOSITE FIBRE 11 PLASTIC MATERIAL 81 82 GOOD INDUSTRY PRACTICES 11 COMPOSITE FIBRE PLASTIC MATERIAL Natural wood has certain qualities that predispose its use in buildings, especially in outdoor applications.

More information

SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION

SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION Drive market-winning innovation without risk ENSURE ADEQUATE EXIT DUCT SIZING WITH FLOW SIMULATION CHECK RESONANCE BETWEEN THE FAN AND THE MOTOR Truck Mount Snowblower Wausau Everest

More information

Solid Cellular Materials

Solid Cellular Materials Solid Cellular Materials Simon Cox University of Wales Aberystwyth foams@aber.ac.uk Define foam? First make a foam which Plateau would recognise, then freeze it. To make an open cell foam, remove the films.

More information

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Mechanics of Brittle Materials. τ xy 2σ y. σ x 3. τ yz 2σ z 3. ) 2 + ( σ 3. σ 3

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Mechanics of Brittle Materials. τ xy 2σ y. σ x 3. τ yz 2σ z 3. ) 2 + ( σ 3. σ 3 Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Mechanics of Brittle Materials Brittle materials are materials that display Hookean behavior (linear relationship between stress and strain) and which

More information

Plastic Injection Molding

Plastic Injection Molding Training Objective After watching this video and reviewing the printed material, the student/trainee will understand the principles and physical operations of the plastic injection molding process. An

More information

DIESEL EFFECT PROBLEM SOLVING DURING INJECTION MOULDING

DIESEL EFFECT PROBLEM SOLVING DURING INJECTION MOULDING RESEARCH PAPERS FACULTY OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN TRNAVA SLOVAK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY IN BRATISLAVA 2014 Volume 22, Special Number DIESEL EFFECT PROBLEM SOLVING DURING INJECTION MOULDING

More information

Unit 6: EXTRUSION. Difficult to form metals like stainless steels, nickel based alloys and high temperature metals can also be extruded.

Unit 6: EXTRUSION. Difficult to form metals like stainless steels, nickel based alloys and high temperature metals can also be extruded. 1 Unit 6: EXTRUSION Introduction: Extrusion is a metal working process in which cross section of metal is reduced by forcing the metal through a die orifice under high pressure. It is used to produce cylindrical

More information

Naue GmbH&Co.KG. Quality Control and. Quality Assurance. Manual. For Geomembranes

Naue GmbH&Co.KG. Quality Control and. Quality Assurance. Manual. For Geomembranes Naue GmbH&Co.KG Quality Control and Quality Assurance Manual For Geomembranes July 2004 V.O TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Quality Assurance and Control 2.1 General 2.2 Quality management acc. to

More information

Thermal Analysis Applications in the Semiconductor Packaging Industry

Thermal Analysis Applications in the Semiconductor Packaging Industry application Note Thermal Analysis Authors Tiffany Kang Taiwan Boon-Chun Tan Malaysia Thermal Analysis Applications in the Semiconductor Packaging Industry PerkinElmer can provide a complete solution of

More information

Material data sheet. EOS Aluminium AlSi10Mg_200C. Description

Material data sheet. EOS Aluminium AlSi10Mg_200C. Description EOS Aluminium AlSi10Mg_200C All information in this data sheet refers to the alloy EOS Aluminium AlSi10Mg_200C. This alloy is formed when the powder EOS Aluminium AlSi10Mg is processes at a building platform

More information

High Efficient Casting Machine for Biaxially Oriented Film Manufacturing Plant

High Efficient Casting Machine for Biaxially Oriented Film Manufacturing Plant 107 High Efficient Casting Machine for Biaxially Oriented Film Manufacturing Plant Hideo Kometani Hidetoshi Kitajima Hiroshi Tsuji Takuya Goto Masahiro Yoshizawa (MHI) has made incessant efforts to improve

More information

Investigating Methods of Prototyping with ABS

Investigating Methods of Prototyping with ABS Investigating Methods of Prototyping with ABS Ben Chapman, Shivam Desai, Mark Muraoka, Teodora Vidolova 1 Abstract In this comparative study of the mechanical properties of plastic parts produced by three

More information

Testing and appraisal of Lucobit polymer effect as an additive on asphalt mixture performance

Testing and appraisal of Lucobit polymer effect as an additive on asphalt mixture performance Abstract Testing and appraisal of polymer effect as an additive on asphalt mixture performance Hamid Sabbagh mollahosseini*,golazin Yadollahi**, Ershad Amoosoltani*** *, ***Executive of Engineering and

More information

Thermal Analysis. Application Handbook. Thermal Analysis of Polymers Selected Applications

Thermal Analysis. Application Handbook. Thermal Analysis of Polymers Selected Applications Thermal Analysis Application Handbook Thermal Analysis of Polymers Selected Applications Selected Applications Thermal Analysis Thermal Analysis of Polymers This application handbook presents selected

More information