Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn

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1 TRAINING IN THE FIELD OF POLYMER MATERIALS / PLASTICS Influence of material data on injection moulding simulation Application examples Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn 24 th April 2014 Otto Gloeckel-Straße 2, A-8700 Leoben, Tel.:

2 Content Introduction Melt Flow Rate (MFR) as reference value for viscosity Pressure dependence of viscosity Transition temperature Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity pvt-data at different cooling rates Summary Thomas Lucyshyn 2

3 Content Introduction Melt Flow Rate (MFR) as reference value for viscosity Pressure dependence of viscosity Transition temperature Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity pvt-data at different cooling rates Summary Thomas Lucyshyn 3

4 Required material data Viscosity as a function of Shear rate, temperature and optionally pressure Transition temperature T trans Thermal conductivity (ideally temperature dependent) Specific heat (ideally temperature dependent) pvt-data Mechanical properties Young s modulus, Poisson ratio, shear modulus, coefficient of linear thermal expansion Fibre properties Thomas Lucyshyn 4

5 Material data for injection moulding simulation Source: Internet Thomas Lucyshyn 5

6 Content Introduction Melt Flow Rate (MFR) as reference value for viscosity Pressure dependence of viscosity Transition temperature Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity pvt-data at different cooling rates Summary Thomas Lucyshyn 6

7 Measuring method of MFR Weight Nozzle: Weight (mass): Shear stress: Piston Sample Heating Nozzle Shear rate: MFR: Melt mass flow rate in g/10min MVR: Melt volume flow rate in cm³/10min Viscosity: Source according to: Waßner, E.: Rheologische Grundlagen für die Auslegung von Extrusionswerkzeugen, VDI-Praktikum: Werkzeugauslegung mit Excel, Paderborn, Thomas Lucyshyn 7

8 MFR as reference value for viscosity? Thomas Lucyshyn 8

9 log MFR for comparing materials? Material A Material B MFR MFR of A = MFR of B log Rheological behaviour of A = Rheological behaviour of B? Thomas Lucyshyn 9

10 Example: pressure calculation at same MFR 2 unfilled POM-grades of same supplier Thomas Lucyshyn 10

11 Viscosity curves of the two POM-grades Thomas Lucyshyn 11

12 Part for simulation Square box 100 x 100 x 40 mm³ (1 mm wall thickness) Hot runner with central gate at the bottom Thomas Lucyshyn 12

13 Pressure at swich over point (filling pressure) Hostaform s % Celcon M bar 1476 bar Thomas Lucyshyn 13

14 Content Introduction Melt Flow Rate (MFR) as reference value for viscosity Pressure dependence of viscosity Transition temperature Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity pvt-data at different cooling rates Summary Thomas Lucyshyn 14

15 Cross-WLF-equation in Moldflow Thomas Lucyshyn 15

16 Cross-WLF-equation in Moldflow 0 0 1n 0 (8) 1 D 1 exp A A1 T T * T T * 2 T* D2 D3 p A 2 ~ A2 D3 p Pressure dependence! Approx thermoplastics in Moldflow 2014, of which about 100 materials with D3 Thomas Lucyshyn 16

17 Cross-WLF-equation in Moldflow 0 pressure A 0 1 B C 0 1 1n temperature 1-n * 0 Thomas Lucyshyn 17

18 Part: thin walled bush Injection pressure at the injection moulding machine: 2400 bar Wall thickness about 0,4 to 0,8 mm Thomas Lucyshyn 18

19 Viscosity in Pa*s Measuring results of pressure dependent viscosity 1000 bar 1 bar Shear rate in s -1 Thomas Lucyshyn 19

20 Calucations with and without pressure dependence Without pressure dependence With pressure dependence Thomas Lucyshyn 20

21 Pressure at switch-over point (injection pressure) Without pressure dependence With pressure dependence 1284 bar 85% 2368 bar Thomas Lucyshyn 21

22 Content Introduction Melt Flow Rate (MFR) as reference value for viscosity Pressure dependence of viscosity Transition temperature Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity pvt-data at different cooling rates Summary Thomas Lucyshyn 22

23 Transition temperature (No-Flow) Experimental determination DSC-Measurement (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) In cooling mode at -20 K/min Determination of the onset temperature Capillary rheometer (not used any more) Melt polymer turn off heating piston with constant load squeeze out melt until strand speed = 2mm/min (equals 0,033 mm/s!) Further (less frequent) methods: Adapted injection moulding machine Pressure measurement at capillary rheometer Cone-plate-rheometer Thomas Lucyshyn 23

24 Transition temperature with DSC oven chamber DSC sample and reference Source: Mettler Toledo AG, CH Thomas Lucyshyn 24

25 H (mw) Transition temp. of a semi-crystalline polymer Cooling mode PP cooling rate -20 K/min T ( C) Hostacom BR 735 G Transition temperature Heat flow H as a function of temperature T Source: T. Lucyshyn, G. Knapp, M. Kipperer, C. Holzer: Determination of the Transition Temperature at Different Cooling Rates and Its Influence on Prediction of Shrinkage and Warpage in Injection Molding Simulation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2012, 123, S Thomas Lucyshyn 25

26 Transition temp. of an amorphous polymer Cooling mode ABS (cooling rate -20 K/min) Transition temperature (point of inflection) Source: T. Lucyshyn, G. Knapp, M. Kipperer, C. Holzer: Determination of the Transition Temperature at Different Cooling Rates and Its Influence on Prediction of Shrinkage and Warpage in Injection Molding Simulation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2012, 123, S Thomas Lucyshyn 26

27 H (mw) Heat flux at different cooling rates for PP 80 5 K/min K/min 20 K/min K/min 50 K/min T ( C) Hostacom BR 735 G Source: T. Lucyshyn, G. Knapp, M. Kipperer, C. Holzer: Determination of the Transition Temperature at Different Cooling Rates and Its Influence on Prediction of Shrinkage and Warpage in Injection Molding Simulation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2012, 123, S Thomas Lucyshyn 27

28 Ttrans (K) Transition temp. as a function of cooling rate for PP Ttrans T trans a T t b Parameter PP Hostacom BR 735 G a (min b K (1-b) ) 415,4 b (-) -0, Cooling rate (K/min) Hostacom BR 735 G Correlation coefficient R 2 0,983 Source: T. Lucyshyn, G. Knapp, M. Kipperer, C. Holzer: Determination of the Transition Temperature at Different Cooling Rates and Its Influence on Prediction of Shrinkage and Warpage in Injection Molding Simulation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2012, 123, S Thomas Lucyshyn 28

29 Box for simulation and experiments 100 x 100 x 40 mm³ Source: T. Lucyshyn, G. Knapp, M. Kipperer, C. Holzer: Determination of the Transition Temperature at Different Cooling Rates and Its Influence on Prediction of Shrinkage and Warpage in Injection Molding Simulation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2012, 123, S Thomas Lucyshyn 29

30 Deformation (%) Results for warpage simulation for PP 4,0 3,5 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 L1 experiment L2 experiment L3 experiment H1 experiment H2 experiment L1 simulation L2 simulation L3 simulation H1 simulation H2 simulation 1,0 0,5 Box: 1 mm wall thickness 0, Cooling rate (K/min) Hostacom BR 735 G 3D Source: T. Lucyshyn, G. Knapp, M. Kipperer, C. Holzer: Determination of the Transition Temperature at Different Cooling Rates and Its Influence on Prediction of Shrinkage and Warpage in Injection Molding Simulation. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2012, 123, S Thomas Lucyshyn 30

31 Content Introduction Melt Flow Rate (MFR) as reference value for viscosity Pressure dependence of viscosity Transition temperature Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity pvt-data at different cooling rates Summary Thomas Lucyshyn 31

32 Thermal conductivity (W/mK) Wärmeleitfähigkeit [W/mK] Thermal conductivity (W/mK) Wärmeleitfähigkeit [W/mK] Thermal conductivity Semi-crystalline thermoplastics Amorphous thermoplastics 0,4 0,3 PP PA POM 0,3 0,2 0,2 0,1 0,1 PS ABS Temperatur [ C] Temperature ( C) Temperatur [ C] Temperature ( C) PC Source: T. Kisslinger: Einfluss der thermischen Stoffdaten auf Berechnungsergebnisse in Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI), Studienarbeit am Institut für Kunststoffverarbeitung, Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 32

33 Cp [J/KgK] c p (J/kgK) c p (J/kgK) Cp [J/KgK] Specific heat capacity (c p ) Semi-crystalline thermoplastics Amorphous thermoplastics PP PA POM PS ABS Temperature [ C] ( C) PC Temperatur [ C] Temperature ( C) Source: T. Kisslinger: Einfluss der thermischen Stoffdaten auf Berechnungsergebnisse in Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI), Studienarbeit am Institut für Kunststoffverarbeitung, Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 33

34 Thermal conductivity (W/mK) Wärmeleitfähigkeit [W/mK] c p (J/kgK) Cp [J/KgK] Single values temperature dependent values Single value of specific heat at melt temperature (example for PP) Temperatur [ C] Temperature ( C) Single value of thermal conductivity at melt temperature (example for PP) 0,3 0,25 0,2 0,15 0,1 0, Temperatur [ C] Temperature ( C) Source: T. Kisslinger: Einfluss der thermischen Stoffdaten auf Berechnungsergebnisse in Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI), Studienarbeit am Institut für Kunststoffverarbeitung, Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 34

35 Influence on cycle time Temperature of hottest region in part over time Time to reach ejection temperature evaluated Investigated region of part Source: T. Kisslinger: Einfluss der thermischen Stoffdaten auf Berechnungsergebnisse in Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI), Studienarbeit am Institut für Kunststoffverarbeitung, Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 35

36 Time (s) Example PP, 3 mm wall thickness Influence on cycle time Mesh variations Source: T. Kisslinger: Einfluss der thermischen Stoffdaten auf Berechnungsergebnisse in Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI), Studienarbeit am Institut für Kunststoffverarbeitung, Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 36

37 Time (s) Zeit [sec] Example PS, 3 mm wall thickness Influence on cycle time 35,00 λ(t) cp(t) 30,00 25,00 20,00 λ(t) cp λ cp(t) λ cp 18,08 21,65 17,28 20,63 22,16 29,02 20,41 25,02 15,00 10,00 5,00 0,00 PS Fusion 3mm PS 3D 3mm Berechnungsvarianten Mesh variations Source: T. Kisslinger: Einfluss der thermischen Stoffdaten auf Berechnungsergebnisse in Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI), Studienarbeit am Institut für Kunststoffverarbeitung, Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 37

38 Content Introduction Melt Flow Rate (MFR) as reference value for viscosity Pressure dependence of viscosity Transition temperature Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity pvt-data at different cooling rates Summary Thomas Lucyshyn 38

39 pvt-data Amorphous polymer Specific volume (cm³/g) Semi-crystalline polymer Specific volume (cm³/g) melt melt solid solid Transition temperature Transition temperature Temperature ( C) Temperature ( C) Source according to: Kennedy, P.: Flow Analysis of Injection Molds; Carl Hanser Verlag, München, Thomas Lucyshyn 39

40 Standard measurement method for pvt-data Cooling rate of approx. 0,1 K/s (6 K/min) v p, T l r m 2 Thomas Lucyshyn 40

41 high cooling rate (hcr) pvt-device IR-sensor Oven Thermocouple Ejector piston IR-sensor Cooling channels Cooling rates up to 15 K/s Measuring cell Stroke transducer Polymer sample Cooling channels Piston Pressure transducer in hydraulic system Source: T. Lucyshyn: Messung von pvt-daten bei prozessnahen Abkühlraten und deren Einfluss auf die Simulation von Schwindung und Verzug mit Moldflow Plastics Insight, Dissertation an der Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 41

42 Spezifisches Volumen in cm³/g Specific volume (cm³/g) Results of hcr-pvt-device for ABS 1,06 1,04 ABS 1,02 1,00 0,98 0, bar hcr-pvt 400 bar hcr-pvt 600 bar hcr-pvt 800 bar hcr-pvt 200 bar MPI 400 bar MPI 600 bar MPI 800 bar MPI Ca. 13 K/s Ca. 0,1 K/s 0,94 0, Temperature in ( C) 2,3 mm sample Source: T. Lucyshyn: Messung von pvt-daten bei prozessnahen Abkühlraten und deren Einfluss auf die Simulation von Schwindung und Verzug mit Moldflow Plastics Insight, Dissertation an der Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 42

43 Spez. Volumen in cm³/g Specific volume (cm³/g) Results of hcr-pvt-device for PP 1,12 1,10 PP 1,08 1,06 1,04 1,02 1,00 0, bar hcr-pvt 600 bar hcr-pvt 800 bar hcr-pvt 400 bar MPI 600 bar MPI 800 bar MPI Ca. 15 K/s Ca. 0,1 K/s 0,96 0, Temperature in ( C) 2 mm Probe Source: T. Lucyshyn: Messung von pvt-daten bei prozessnahen Abkühlraten und deren Einfluss auf die Simulation von Schwindung und Verzug mit Moldflow Plastics Insight, Dissertation an der Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 43

44 Deformation in % Simulation results for ABS 2,0 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0 L1 L2 L3 H1 H2 Reference Vergleichsmaße dimensions ABS, 3D-Model Standard pvt hcr-pvt Experiment Source: T. Lucyshyn: Messung von pvt-daten bei prozessnahen Abkühlraten und deren Einfluss auf die Simulation von Schwindung und Verzug mit Moldflow Plastics Insight, Dissertation an der Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 44

45 Deformation in % Simulation results for PP 2,0 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1,0 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0,0 L1 L2 L3 H1 H2 Vergleichsmaße Reference dimensions Standard pvt hcr-pvt Experiment PP, 3D-Model Source: T. Lucyshyn: Messung von pvt-daten bei prozessnahen Abkühlraten und deren Einfluss auf die Simulation von Schwindung und Verzug mit Moldflow Plastics Insight, Dissertation an der Montanuniversität Leoben, Thomas Lucyshyn 45

46 Content Introduction Melt Flow Rate (MFR) as reference value for viscosity Pressure dependence of viscosity Transition temperature Thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity pvt-data at different cooling rates Summary Thomas Lucyshyn 46

47 Summary 1 Complex material data required for simulation Melt Flow Rate (MFR) as reference value for viscosity? Good orientation for limitation of potential similar materials Important: compare viscosity curves! Example: pressure difference of 25% at same MFR Pressure dependence of viscosity Viscosity increases with increasing pressure Especially important for thin walled parts Relevant at expected injection pressures > 1000 bar Example: pressure difference of 85% Thomas Lucyshyn 47

48 Transition temperature Summary 2 Determined with DSC measurement Cooling rate has influence on transition temperature Transition temperature has influence on warpage results Temperature dependent thermal data Significant differences between single point data and temperature dependent data Especially cycle time differs by up to 15% pvt-data Cooling rate has influence on pvt-curves Improved shrinkage simulation with pvt-data obtained at process near cooling rates Thomas Lucyshyn 48

49 Thank you for your attention! Contact: Ass.Prof. Dr. Thomas Lucyshyn Chair of Polymer Processing Montanuniversitaet Leoben Otto Gloeckel-Str Leoben / Thomas Lucyshyn 49

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