Introduction p. 1. p. 11

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1 Introduction p. 1 Fundamentals p. 3 Introduction p. 3 What are Fluoropolymers? p. 4 Fundamental Properties of Fluoropolymers p. 4 Developmental History of Fluoropolymers p. 5 Examples of Uses of Fluoropolymers p. 6 References p. 8 Fluoropolymers: Properties and Structure p. 9 Introduction p. 9 Impact of F and C-F Bond on the Properties of PTFE p. 9 Disturbing the PTFE Structure: Perfluorinated Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer (FEP) and Polychlorotrifluoroethylene p. 11 Disturbing the PTFE Structure: Perfluorinated Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer (FEP) p. 11 Disturbing the PTFE Structure: Polychlorotrifluoroethylene p. 12 Reaction Mechanism p. 12 Effect of Solvents on Fluoropolymers p. 13 Molecular Interaction of Fluoropolymers: Low Friction and Low Surface Energy p. 14 Conformations and Transitions of Polytetrafluoroethylene p. 15 Conformations and Transitions of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) p. 16 References p. 17 Operational Classification of Fluoropolymers p. 19 Introduction p. 19 TFE Homopolymers p. 22 TFE Copolymers p. 23 CTFE Polymers p. 23 Vinylidene Fluoride Polymers p. 23 Vinyl Fluoride Polymers p. 23 Process Classification p. 23 References p. 24 Fluoropolymer Monomers p. 25 Introduction p. 25 Synthesis of Tetrafluoroethylene p. 25 Properties of Tetrafluoroethylene p. 26 Synthesis of Hexafluoropropylene p. 27 Properties of Hexafluoropropylene p. 27 Synthesis of Perfluoroalkylvinylethers p. 28 Properties of Perfluoroalkylvinylethers p. 29 Synthesis of Chlorotrifluoroethylene p. 30 Properties of Chlorotrifluoroethylene p. 30 References p. 31

2 Homofluoropolymer Polymerization and Finishing p. 33 Introduction p. 33 Polymerization Mechanism p. 33 Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers p. 33 Preparation of Polytetrafluoroethylene by Suspension Polymerization p. 35 Preparation of Polytetrafluoroethylene by Dispersion Polymerization p. 40 Chlorotrifluoroethylene Polymers and Polymerization p. 46 Characterization of Polytetrafluoroethylene p. 48 Characterization of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene p. 54 References p. 56 Commercial Grades of Homofluoropolymers p. 59 Introduction p. 59 Granular PTFE p. 59 PTFE Dispersions p. 59 Fine Powder PTFE p. 59 PCTFE Dispersions p. 60 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene Polymers p. 60 Fluoropolymer Manufacturers p. 60 References p. 73 Fabrication and Processing of Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene p. 76 Introduction p. 76 Resin Selection p. 76 Compression Molding p. 78 Equipment p. 79 Mold Design p. 79 Presses p. 80 Ovens p. 81 Densification and Sintering Mechanism p. 81 Billet Molding p. 82 Preforming p. 82 Sintering p. 92 Cooling p. 95 Sintering Cycles p. 97 Hot Compression-Molding p. 97 Automatic Molding p. 97 Isostatic Molding p. 97 Introduction to Isostatic Molding p. 103 Comparison of Isostatic with Other Fabrication Techniques p. 103 Basic Isostatic Process p. 105 Complex Isostatic Molding p. 105

3 Wet and Dry Bag Isostatic Molding p. 107 Isostatic Mold Design p. 107 Preform Shape p. 107 Surface Finish of Preform p. 110 Pressurization Direction p. 110 Other Design Factors p. 111 Mold Configuration and Dimensions p. 111 Mold and Bag Sealing p. 113 Tooling and Material: Rigid Part p. 115 Tooling and Material: Flexible Bag p. 115 Design Procedure p. 116 PTFE Resin Selection p. 116 Isostatic Processing of PTFE Resins p. 116 Ram Extrusion p. 118 Introduction to Ram Extrusion p. 118 Ram Extrusion: Basic Technology p. 119 Ram Extrusion: Resin Feed p. 119 Ram Extrusion: Compaction p. 121 Ram Extrusion: Sintering and Cooling p. 121 Ram Extrusion: Heat Requirements of Sintering p. 121 Ram Extrusion: Pressure Requirements p. 123 Ram Extrusion: Cooling p. 127 Ram Extrusion: Die Skin Formation p. 127 Ram Extrusion Equipment Design p. 128 Drive System p. 130 Extrusion Ram p. 130 Extrusion Die p. 131 Resin Feed System p. 131 Other Ram Extrusion p. 131 Typical Resin, Process and Property Data p. 132 References p. 134 Fabrication and Processing of Fine Powder Polytetrafluoroethylene p. 135 Introduction p. 135 Resin Handling and Storage p. 135 Paste Extrusion Fundamentals p. 136 Extrusion Aid or Lubricant p. 138 Wire Coating p. 138 Extrusion of Tubing p. 150 Unsintered Tape p. 157 Expanded PTFE Manufacturing p. 162 Fine Powder Resin Selection p. 165

4 References p. 166 Fabrication and Processing of PTFE Dispersions p. 168 Introduction p. 168 Applications p. 168 Storage and Handling p. 169 Principles of Coating Technology p. 169 Dispersion Formulation and Characteristics p. 173 Glass Cloth Coating p. 175 Impregnation of Flax and Polyaramide p. 178 Coating Metal and Hard Surfaces p. 179 PTFE Yarn Manufacturing p. 180 Film Casting p. 180 Anti-Drip Applications p. 182 Filled Bearings p. 182 De-Dusting Powders p. 182 Other Applications p. 183 References p. 183 Processing of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene p. 185 Introduction p. 185 Processing Considerations p. 185 Compression Molding p. 187 Injection Molding p. 187 Extrusion p. 189 Machining and Bonding p. 189 Processing PCTFE Dispersions p. 189 References p. 190 Fluoroadditives p. 191 Introduction p. 191 Feedstock p. 191 Degradation of Polytetrafluoroethylene p. 191 Production Methods p. 193 Production of Fluoroadditives by Thermal Cracking (Pyrolysis) p. 193 Production of Fluoroadditives by Electron Beam Irradiation p. 193 Grinding Irradiated PTFE p. 196 Commercial Products p. 197 Applications p. 199 Thermoplastic Modification p. 200 Elastomers p. 200 Printing Inks p. 200 Paints and Coatings p. 201 Oils and Greases p. 201

5 Dry Lubricant p. 203 Regulatory Compliance p. 203 References p. 204 Filled Fluoropolymer Compounds p. 206 Introduction p. 206 Granular-based Compounds p. 206 Fillers p. 206 Polytetrafluoroethylene Selection p. 208 Filled PTFE--Production Techniques p. 208 Fine Powder-Based Compounds p. 209 Fillers and Compounding Methods p. 210 Fabrication of Reinforced Gasketing Material p. 210 Process Background p. 211 Process Description p. 211 Co-Coagulated Compounds p. 214 Processing Compounds p. 214 Typical Properties of Filled Fluoropolymers p. 216 Mechanical Properties p. 217 Thermal Properties p. 222 Electrical Properties p. 222 Chemical Properties p. 222 Tribological Properties of Filled PTFE p. 223 Commercial Products p. 227 References p. 232 Chemical Properties of Fluoropolymers p. 233 Introduction p. 233 Chemical Compatibility of Polytetrafluoroethylene p. 233 Effect of Ozone with Polytetrafluoroethylene p. 236 Oxygen Compatibility of PTFE p. 236 Chemical Compatibility of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene p. 237 Permeation Fundamentals p. 237 Permeation Measurement and Data p. 239 Environmental Stress Cracking p. 241 References p. 242 Properties of Tetrafluoroethylene Homopolymers p. 243 Introduction p. 243 Influence of Processing p. 243 Measurement of Flaws p. 244 Mechanical Properties p. 246 Deformation Under Load (Creep) and Cold Flow p. 249

6 Fatigue Properties p. 254 Impact Strength p. 254 Hardness p. 255 Friction p. 255 PV Limit p. 256 Abrasion and Wear p. 256 Electrical Properties p. 258 Thermal Behavior p. 259 Thermal Stability p. 259 Thermal Expansion p. 259 Thermal Conductivity and Heat Capacity p. 263 Heat Deflection Temperature p. 263 Irradiation Behavior p. 264 Standard Measurement Methods p. 265 Reference p. 266 Properties of Chlorotrifluoroethylene Homopolymers p. 267 Introduction p. 267 Crystallinity p. 267 Mechanical Properties p. 267 Electrical Properties p. 267 Thermal Properties p. 267 Irradiation Behavior p. 268 Properties of PCTFE Films p. 268 References p. 275 Fabrication Techniques for Fluoropolymers p. 276 Introduction p. 276 Machining p. 276 Sawing and Shearing p. 277 Drilling, Tapping and Threading p. 277 Skiving p. 277 Adhesive Bonding Methods p. 277 Contact Adhesives p. 277 Bonding Adhesives p. 278 Sodium Etching p. 278 Plasma Treatment p. 279 Welding and Joining p. 281 Welding Technique p. 281 Thermoforming p. 283 Other Processes p. 283 Reference p. 284 Typical Applications of Fluoropolymers p. 285

7 Chemical Processing p. 285 Piping p. 285 Vessels p. 286 CPI Components p. 288 Seals and Gaskets p. 288 Self-Supporting Components p. 289 Trends in Using Fluoropolymers in Chemical Service p. 289 Semiconductor Processing p. 289 Trends for the Use of Fluoropolymers in the Semiconductor Industry p. 290 Electrical and mechanical p. 290 Electrical Applications p. 290 Mechanical Applications p. 293 Automotive p. 294 Safety, Disposal, and Recycling of Fluoropolymers p. 296 Introduction p. 296 Toxicology of Fluoropolymers p. 296 Thermal Properties of Fluoropolymers p. 296 Emission During Processing p. 297 Safety Measures p. 297 Ventilation p. 297 Processing and Fabrication p. 299 Sintering p. 300 Paste Extrusion p. 300 Dispersion Coating p. 300 Melt Processing p. 300 Machining p. 300 Soldering and Melt Stripping p. 301 Welding Fluoropolymer p. 301 Welding and Flame-Cutting Fluoropolymer-lined Metals p. 301 Spillage Cleanup p. 301 Equipment Cleaning and Maintenance p. 301 Protective Clothing p. 301 Personal Hygiene p. 301 Fire Hazard p. 301 Material Incompatibility p. 301 Food Contact and Medical Applications p. 302 Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling p. 302 Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods p. 303 Reference p. 304 Polytetrafluoroethylene p. 305 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene p. 311

8 Trademarks p. 319 Glossary p. 320 Index p. 347 Table of Contents provided by Blackwell's Book Services and R.R. Bowker. Used with permission.

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