# So, the semantic type of an adjective can be either <e, t> or <<e, t>, <e, t>>?

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "So, the semantic type of an adjective can be either <e, t> or <<e, t>, <e, t>>?"

## Transcription

1 1 Semantics I April 16 Lambda and Relative Clause Adjectives Two ways to combine an adjective and a noun red book (1) via Functional Application: Px[red'(x) P(x)]y[book'(y)]) = x[red'(x) y[book'(y)](x)] = x[red'(x) book'(x)] <e, t> Px[red'(x) P(x)] y[book'(y)] <<e, t>, <e, t>> <e, t> (2) via Generalized Conjunction (a.k.a. variable identification): x[red'(x) book'(x)] <e, t> x[red'(x)] y[book'(y)] <e, t> <e, t> So, the semantic type of an adjective can be either <e, t> or <<e, t>, <e, t>>? Adjective of the type <e, t> is predicative. (3) This book is red. Adjective of the type <<e, t>, <e, t>> is strictly prenominal. (4) This is a red book. Some adjectives are not predicative. (5) a. John is a former teacher. b. *John is former. (6) a. John is an alleged thief. b. *John is alleged.

2 2 Nonpredicative adjectives are always <<e, t>, <e, t>>. Other adjectives, such as red, round, blond, etc. can be either <e, t> or <<e, t>, <e, t>>, but if generalized conjunction is available, then these adjectives might as well be just <e, t>. So we could say that there are two sets of adjectives with different types: - <e, t> (red, round, blond, etc.) - <<e, t>, <e, t>> (former, alleged, etc.) Or, we could also say that all adjectives are of the type <<e, t>, <e, t>>; they type-shift whenever necessary. (We ll look at different types of NPs and type-shifting principles next week) c.f. Another kind of adjective classification (Kamp and Partee, 1995; Partee, 1995) (7) a. Intersective adjectives: red, blond, rectangular, French, etc. [[red N]] = [[red]] [[N]] b. Subsective adjectives: skillful, typical, recent, perfect, etc. [[skillful N]] [[N]] c. Non-subsective adjectives: former, alleged, questionable, potential, etc. [[former N]] [[former]] [[N]] [[former N]] [[N]] d. Privative adjectives: fake, counterfeit, imaginary, fictitious, etc. [[fake N]] [[N]] = Relative clauses Introduction A relative clause is a predicate derived from a sentence. Deriving a predicate from a sentence is essentially what the lambda operator is designed to do. (8) a. a teacher whom Mary likes b. the woman who lives next door Restrictive relative clauses are like adjectives. They involve predicate conjunction (i.e. set intersection). cf. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive relative clause (9) a. The train that arrived at 11 was behind schedule. (restrictive) b. The train, which arrived at 11, was behind schedule. (non-restrictive) Restrictive, like adjectives are predicate conjunction: (10) x[train'(x) arrived.at.11'(x)] Non-restrictive is like sentential conjunction: (11) [The train arrived at 11] [The train was behind schedule]

3 3 Back to restrictive relative clauses One analysis: (12) a teacher whom Mary likes NP Det N <e, t> y[teacher'(y) like'(mary', y)] (generalized conjunction) a N <e, t> CP <e, t> x i [like'(mary', x i )] teacher whom i C y[teacher'(y)] C S t like'(mary', x i ) that NP e VP <e, t> Mary V <e, <e, t>> NP e likes e i like'(mary', x i ) xlike'(mary', x i ) This is the same type-shift we saw for quantifiers, although this time it has a possible overt reflex (i.e. the relative pronoun). At PF, either the complementizer or the relative pronoun is deleted. Above is the analysis presented in the textbook but there is no problem adopting the following syntax instead. (13) a. a teacher [ CP whom i [ IP Mary likes e i ]] b. a teacher [ CP OP i that [ IP Mary likes e i ]] c.f. Complementizer contraction for subject relative (14) a. This is the letter [ CP OP i that [ IP e i will surprise Poirot]]. b. This is the letter [ CP that i [ IP e i will surprise Poirot]]. In (14a), the trace in the subject position cannot be properly governed by its antecedent because of the intervening C. Pesetsky (1982) proposes a special coindexation mechanism to account for the grammaticality. The empty operator and the complementizer are collapsed into one constituent which has all the relevant features of the operator.

4 4 Quantifiers (15) a. [[every teacher]] Px[teacher'(x) P(x)] b. [[some teacher]] Px[teacher'(x) P(x)] c. [[a teacher]] Px[teacher'(x) P(x)] d. [[three teachers]] Px[teacher'(x) P(x)x 3] <<e, t>, t> (16) a. [[every]] QPx[Q(x) P(x)] b. [[some]] QPx[Q(x) P(x)] c. [[a]] QPx[Q(x) P(x)] d. [[three]] QPx[Q(x) P(x)x 3] <<e, t>, <<e, t>, t>> Back to the tree: NP <<e, t>, t> Px[teacher'(x) like'(mary', x) P(x)] Det <<e, t>, <<e, t>, t>>> N <e, t> y[teacher'(y) like'(mary', y)] a N <e, t> CP <e, t> x[like'(mary', x i )] QPx[Q(x) P(x)] teacher y[teacher'(y)] References: Haegeman, Liliane Introduction to Government and Binding Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. Kamp, Hans, and Barbara Partee Prototype theory and compositionality. Cognition 57: Partee, Barbara. (1995). Lexical semantics and compositionality. In An Invitation to Cognitive Science (Second Edition). Volume 1: Language, eds. Lila Gleitman and Mark Liberman, Cambridge: MIT Press. Pesetsky, David Complementizer-trace Phenomena and the Nominative Island Condition. The Linguistic Review 1:

5 5 Homework 8 Give the derivations (syntax, semantics) of 1. a girl who has three books 2. Every man loves a girl who has three books. Since the complete tree for (2) will get enormous, treat [ NP a girl who has three books] as a single chunk in (2). Instead, give a full analysis of the NP in (1). For your reference, here s what we went over before the spring break: John loves every woman TP Px[woman'(x) P(x)](x i [love'(j, x i )]) = x[woman'(x) x i [love'(j, x i )] (x)] = x[woman'(x) love'(j, x)] every woman i TPx[love'(x, x i )](j) = love'(j, x i ) x i [love'(j, x i )] Px[woman'(x) P(x)] John VP y[x[love'(x, y)]](x i ) = x[love'(x, x i )] John' loves e i yx[love'(x, y)] x i

### Chapter 5 Relative Clauses. (Part 1)

Chapter 5 Relative Clauses (Part 1) 5.1 5.2.3 Roberto Herrera, Anna Sykorova May 7, 2013 Definitions Different relativization strategies (Comrie and Kuteva 2011) Definitions cont. For Indo-European languages

### WH-MOVEMENT: ISLANDS, BARRIERS AND SUCCESSIVE-CYCLICITY

Anagnostopoulou / Fox Advanced Syntax, Spring 2007 WH-MOVEMENT: ISLANDS, BARRIERS AND SUCCESSIVE-CYCLICITY Part II. CED, ECP [The handout incorporates a lot of material included in David Pesetsky s previous

### Ling 130 Notes: English syntax

Ling 130 Notes: English syntax Sophia A. Malamud March 13, 2014 1 Introduction: syntactic composition A formal language is a set of strings - finite sequences of minimal units (words/morphemes, for natural

### A Scope Freezing Effect with Negated Quantifiers Chris Collins September 2016

A Scope Freezing Effect with Negated Quantifiers Chris Collins September 2016 Abstract: I document a scope freezing effect found with negated quantifiers (distinct from the scope freezing effect discussed

### Lab session on relative clauses

1 Lab session on relative clauses Angelika Kratzer November 2, 2007 1. Class exercise The domain of investigation for this exercise are relative clauses, as discussed in Heim & Kratzer, chapter 5, but

### What is a sentence? What is a sentence? What is a sentence? Morphology & Syntax Sentences

2 What is a sentence? Morphology & Syntax Sentences Sentence as a informational-discursive unit A complete thought, generally including a topic and a comment about the topic Boys are naughtier. Boys will

### Semantics and Generative Grammar. Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1

Quantificational DPs, Part 3: Covert Movement vs. Type Shifting 1 1. Introduction Thus far, we ve considered two competing analyses of sentences like those in (1). (1) Sentences Where a Quantificational

### Possessive case pronouns are my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, your, yours, their and theirs. They are used to show ownership.

Lesson 136 - Parts of the Sentence - Pronouns 1. (I, Me) went to the movie. 2. (Him, He) is my best friend. 3. (They, Them) will be here soon. 4. (She, Her) ran happily down the street. 5. There (we, us)

### Independent and Dependent Clauses

Independent and Dependent Clauses Definition A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. There are two kinds of clauses: 1. An independent clause is a complete thought, a sentence.

### GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses

GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses A relative (or adjective) clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, or that) or occasionally

### Bound and Referential Pronouns and Ellipsis. Heim and Kratzer Chapter 9

Bound and Referential Pronouns and Ellipsis Heim and Kratzer Chapter 9 1 9.1 Referential pronouns as free variables 2 9.1.1 Deictic versus anaphoric, referential versus bound-variable pronouns In traditional

### L130: Chapter 5d. Dr. Shannon Bischoff. Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 1 / 25

L130: Chapter 5d Dr. Shannon Bischoff Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 1 / 25 Outline 1 Syntax 2 Clauses 3 Constituents Dr. Shannon Bischoff () L130: Chapter 5d 2 / 25 Outline Last time... Verbs...

### A Problem of/for Tough Movement. Randall Hendrick University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill October 2013

A Problem of/for Tough Movement Randall Hendrick University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill October 2013 Abstract This paper aims to further our understanding of complements to tough movement predicates

### SLL 516: STRUCTURE OF MODERN RUSSIAN: MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX

SLL 516: STRUCTURE OF MODERN RUSSIAN: MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX Class information: Spring 2008 Tuesday 2-4:50 GFS 204 Instructor: Prof. Roumyana Pancheva GFS 301S, by appt. pancheva@usc.edu Class description:

### Satzbestandteile erkennen Theorie

I prepared this extra topic because I noticed that my gwapa has difficulties in the identification of the single parts of a sentence. However, this important so that you are able to handle the cases and

### Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar

Constraints in Phrase Structure Grammar Phrase Structure Grammar no movement, no transformations, context-free rules X/Y = X is a category which dominates a missing category Y Let G be the set of basic

### NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES

Universidad de Los Andes Facultad de Humanidades y Educación Escuela de Idiomas Modernos NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES In English, as in many other languages in the world, individual words

### 3.1 Grammatical Units

Lengua Inglesa II 2009-2010 Topic 3: Grammatical Units Subtopic 1: Units and Boundaries Subtopic 2: The Noun Phrase Mick O Donnell VI-bis 302 michael.odonnell@uam.es 1. Units and rank scale Unit: any stretch

### Contrasting English and German Grammar: An Introduction to Syntax and Semantics

Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2853521/ Contrasting English and German Grammar: An Introduction to Syntax and Semantics Description: This book offers an introduction

### Phrase Structure. A formal hypothesis for representing constituency

Phrase Structure A formal hypothesis for representing constituency Constituents are hierarchically organized TP NP VP The man eats at fancy restaurants. D N V PP the man eats P at AdjP Adj fancy NP N restaurants

### An introduction and motivation of X-bar theory in syntax

An introduction and motivation of X-bar theory in syntax A small gnome in the garden wiped Language: beads on a string? his hands S AdvP VP PP quickly prep V det adj N det N det N The small gnome in the

### Ling 201 Syntax 1. Jirka Hana April 10, 2006

Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all

### SYNTAX. Syntax the study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation.

SYNTAX Syntax the study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation. 1) Syntactic categories lexical: - words that have meaning (semantic content) - words that can be inflected

### The necessary entries of the dissertation: Contents:

The necessary entries of the dissertation: Contents: Abbreviations and symbols 0. Introductory remarks Land, People and Culture of the speech-community Previous studies (what is know as literature-survey,

### Diagramming Parts of Speech

NOUNS (E.O.W. 423-427) Depending on how a noun is used, it can be diagrammed six different ways. (E.O.W. 400-402) A noun being used as the subject of the sentence is place on the horizontal line in front

### Li8 Structure of English Word order and inversion

Li8 Structure of English Word order and inversion www.ling.cam.ac.uk/li8 1 LOCATIVE AND QUOTATIVE INVERSION 1.1 Locative inversion Locative inversion = inversion of subject and verb (normally lexical verb,

### Modifiers. PHIL October 22, Adjectives... 1

Modifiers PHIL 43916 October 22, 2012 1. Adjectives... 1 1.1. Intersective adjectives 1.2. on-predicative adjectives 1.3. ubsective adjectives 2. Adverbs... 4 When it comes to the grammatical categories

### IP PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS IN VSO TYPOLOGY: THE CASE OF ARABIC

The Buckingham Journal of Language and Linguistics 2013 Volume 6 pp 15-25 ABSTRACT IP PATTERNS OF MOVEMENTS IN VSO TYPOLOGY: THE CASE OF ARABIC C. Belkacemi Manchester Metropolitan University The aim of

### Privative Adjectives: Subsective plus Coercion 1 Barbara H. Partee, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Privative Adjectives: Subsective plus Coercion 1 Barbara H. Partee, University of Massachusetts, Amherst 0. Introduction Montague (1970a) presented a semantic treatment of adjectives which he credited

### Basic syntax of quantification in English

Basic syntax of quantifiion in English Jeff peaks phil 43916 eptember 15, 2014 1 The problem posed by quantified sentences.................... 1 2 Basic syntactic egories for quantifiion in English..............

### Basic Sentence Parts. Mr. Brasher

Basic Sentence Parts Mr. Brasher Subjects and Predicates Complete Subjects and Predicates Sentence- group of words with two main parts: complete subject and complete predicate. Together, express a complete

### Drawing Tree Diagrams: Problems and Suggestions

ISSN 1798-4769 Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 1, No. 6, pp. 926-934, November 2010 Manufactured in Finland. doi:10.4304/jltr.1.6.926-934 Drawing Tree Diagrams: Problems and Suggestions

### Extended Projections of Adjectives and Comparative Deletion

Julia Bacskai-Atkari 25th Scandinavian Conference University of Potsdam (SFB-632) in Linguistics (SCL-25) julia.bacskai-atkari@uni-potsdam.de Reykjavík, 13 15 May 2013 0. Introduction Extended Projections

### Summary of Basic Grammar

Page 1 of 8 Summary of Basic Grammar Prepared by Marjorie D. Lewis Part of Speech Noun = naming words Forms that can function as nouns: Common noun: names a thing (house), person (man), or concept (love)

### Basic English Grammar

Next graduate writing workshop Basic English Grammar University Learning Centre Writing Help Ron Cooley Department of English ron.cooley@usask.ca Grammar II: Common Writing Problems Wednesday, Nov. 7,

### Introduction to English Linguistics (I) Professor Seongha Rhee

Introduction to English Linguistics (I) Professor Seongha Rhee srhee@hufs.ac.kr 1 Ch. 2. Syntax (3) (109-127) 1. Structural Ambiguities 2. More Structures 3. Sentence Relatedness 4. Further Syntactic Dependencies

### English Descriptive Grammar

English Descriptive Grammar 2015/2016 Code: 103410 ECTS Credits: 6 Degree Type Year Semester 2500245 English Studies FB 1 1 2501902 English and Catalan FB 1 1 2501907 English and Classics FB 1 1 2501910

### I have eaten. The plums that were in the ice box

in the Sentence 2 What is a grammatical category? A word with little meaning, e.g., Determiner, Quantifier, Auxiliary, Cood Coordinator, ato,a and dco Complementizer pe e e What is a lexical category?

### Clause Types. A descriptive tangent into the types of clauses

Clause Types A descriptive tangent into the types of clauses Clause = subject+predicate phrase Clause = subject+predicate phrase subject: the NP being assigned a property Clause = subject+predicate phrase

### Double Genitives in English

Karlos Arregui-Urbina Department Linguistics and Philosophy MIT 1. Introduction Double Genitives in English MIT, 29 January 1998 Double genitives are postnominal genitive phrases which are marked with

### T-to-C Movement: Evidence from Code-switching Brad Hoot In/Between Conference April 23, 2010 University of Illinois at Chicago

T-to-C Movement: Evidence from Code-switching Brad Hoot (bhoot1@uic.edu) In/Between Conference April 23, 2010 University of Illinois at Chicago Outline 1. Introduction 2. Pesetsky & Torrego (2001) 3. The

### 2 nd Semester: Tuesday: :00; 13:30-14:00 Thursday: 9:45-10:30 Friday: 9:45-10:30; 13:30-15:00

COURSE INFORMATION GRAMMATICAL THEORIES OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Degree in English Philology Academic Year 2011-12 Optional course, 5 th year Annual course: 3 hours a week, 2 days a week. 9 credits TEACHING

Pg. 2 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION... 3 SUBJECT AND VERB... 4 OBJECTS AND COMPLEMENTS... 5 ADVERBS, ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES... 6 GENITIVES AND DATIVES... 7 APPOSITIONAL CONSTRUCTIONS...

### The Operation of Constraints in Passive Voice of English (The Syntactical Analysis)

The Operation of Constraints in Passive Voice of English (The Syntactical Analysis) Ye Yang Abstract With the development of the syntax, more and more different ideas and methods exited to solve the constraints

### 2. Nouns: Common Noun. Proper Noun. Concrete Noun. Abstract Noun. Compound Noun. Collective Noun. 1. What is our Learning Target?:

Name: Teacher: Class: Date: What is our Learning Target?: Nouns: Common Noun Proper Noun Concrete Noun Abstract Noun Compound Noun Collective Noun I. In the picture, name 3 Common Nouns and 3 Proper nouns

### The Writing Center Directed Learning Activities

The Writing Center Directed Learning Activities Adjective Clauses Student Name: Date: Instructor: Course: IMPORTANT NOTE: All the activities (3) in the DLA must be completed in their entirety before meeting

### There are differences in constituent ordering within the determiner phrase (DP) between

There are differences in constituent ordering within the determiner phrase (DP) between English and Romance language though they are head-initial languages. The noun (N) is in the right edge within the

### This handout will discuss two types of dependent clauses: subordinate clauses and adjective clauses.

DEPENDENT CLAUSES All sentences consist of one or more clauses. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. Some clauses are independent while others are dependent, and for a sentence

### Ambiguity of Reflexives and Case Extension *

Ambiguity of Reflexives and Case Extension * Richard Zuber CNRS, Paris, France Richard.Zuber@linguist.jussieu.fr Abstract. It is suggested that the difference between co-referential and bound reflexive

### Sounds Like Like. Peter Lasersohn. University of Rochester. Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between

Sounds Like Like Peter Lasersohn University of Rochester Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between one reading where it denotes a two-place relation between individuals and properties,

### Syntax II: Issues in Syntax Spring Semester 2013

Syntax II: Issues in Syntax Spring Semester 2013 ENGL 627S / LING 522 T-TH 1:30-2:45pm, Heav 110 Instructor Dr. Elaine Francis Email: ejfranci@purdue.edu Office: Heav 408 Office hours: Tues-Thurs 9:45-10:15am

### The compositional semantics of same

The compositional semantics of same Mike Solomon Amherst College Abstract Barker (2007) proposes the first strictly compositional semantic analysis of internal same. I show that Barker s analysis fails

### Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT

Sentence Structure/Sentence Types HANDOUT This handout is designed to give you a very brief (and, of necessity, incomplete) overview of the different types of sentence structure and how the elements of

### Lambda Abstraction (Chierchia & McConnell-Ginet Chapter 7)

Lambda Abstraction (Chierchia & McConnell-Ginet Chapter 7) Lambda calculus was invented by Alonzo Church in the 1940s and 50s. In 1957 John McCarthy designed the programming language LISP, based on the

### Movement and Binding

Movement and Binding Gereon Müller Institut für Linguistik Universität Leipzig SoSe 2008 www.uni-leipzig.de/ muellerg Gereon Müller (Institut für Linguistik) Constraints in Syntax 4 SoSe 2008 1 / 35 Principles

### LESSON 29: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE)

LESSON 29: DEPENDENT CLAUSES (ADJECTIVE) Relevant Review Dependent clauses are groups of words with a subject and a verb, they can't stand alone, and they act as one part of speech. Adjectives describe

### Non-nominal Which-Relatives

Non-nominal Which-Relatives Doug Arnold, Robert D. Borsley University of Essex The properties of non-restrictive relatives All non-restrictive relative clauses include a wh-word. There are no that or zero

### Constituency. The basic units of sentence structure

Constituency The basic units of sentence structure Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. Meaning of a sentence is more than the sum of its words. a. The puppy hit the rock Meaning of

### SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE

SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE COMPLEX SENTENCE: a kid of sentence which has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. KINDS OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES: (a) Adverb Clause (b)

### Syntax & Morphology: A Summary (or: Everything in 12 pages) 1

Syntax & Morphology: A Summary (or: Everything in 12 pages) 1 Ken Ramshøj Christensen Dept. of English, Inst. for Language, Literature & Culture, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Århus http://www.hum.au.dk/engelsk/engkrc/

### CHAPTER III THE STRUCTURE OF THE VERB PHRASE

CHAPTER III THE STRUCTURE OF THE VERB PHRASE KEY POINTS In this chapter you will find out: to what extent the meaning of a verb can determine the structure of sentences the properties of different types

Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases Jafar Asgari English Department Kashan University of Medical Sciences Structure of Complex Sentences Every Complex sentence is

### How Do We Identify Constituents?

How Do We Identify Constituents? Tallerman: Chapter 5 Ling 222 - Chapter 5 1 Discovering the Structure of Sentences Evidence of structure in sentences Structural ambiguity Black cab drivers went on strike

### Propositional Logic. 1. Semantics and Propositions. LX Semantics September 19, 2008

Propositional Logic LX 502 - Semantics September 19, 2008 1. Semantics and Propositions Natural language is used to communicate information about the world, typically between a speaker and an addressee.

### Grammar Core Sentence Parts

Grammar Core Sentence Parts Simple Subject: noun or pronoun in the sentence that answers the question who? or what? Simple Predicate: the verb/verb phrase in the sentence that answers the question did

### The Basics of Syntax. Supplementary Readings. Introduction. Lexical Categories. Phrase Structure Rules. Introducing Noun Phrases. Some Further Details

The following readings have been posted to the Moodle course site: Language Files: Chapter 5 (pp. 194-198, 204-215) Language Instinct: Chapter 4 (pp. 74-99) The System Thus Far The Fundamental Question:

### Assignment 2. Due date: 13h10, Tuesday 27 October 2015, on CDF. This assignment is worth 18% of your final grade.

University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science CSC 2501/485F Computational Linguistics, Fall 2015 Assignment 2 Due date: 13h10, Tuesday 27 October 2015, on CDF. This assignment is worth 18% of your

### Computational Linguistics: Syntax I

Computational Linguistics: Syntax I Raffaella Bernardi KRDB, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano P.zza Domenicani, Room: 2.28, e-mail: bernardi@inf.unibz.it Contents 1 Syntax...................................................

### Syntax: Phrases. 1. The phrase

Syntax: Phrases Sentences can be divided into phrases. A phrase is a group of words forming a unit and united around a head, the most important part of the phrase. The head can be a noun NP, a verb VP,

### EAP 1161 1660 Grammar Competencies Levels 1 6

EAP 1161 1660 Grammar Competencies Levels 1 6 Grammar Committee Representatives: Marcia Captan, Maria Fallon, Ira Fernandez, Myra Redman, Geraldine Walker Developmental Editor: Cynthia M. Schuemann Approved:

### LESSON THIRTEEN STRUCTURAL AMBIGUITY. Structural ambiguity is also referred to as syntactic ambiguity or grammatical ambiguity.

LESSON THIRTEEN STRUCTURAL AMBIGUITY Structural ambiguity is also referred to as syntactic ambiguity or grammatical ambiguity. Structural or syntactic ambiguity, occurs when a phrase, clause or sentence

### English Grammar. A Short Guide. Graham Tulloch

English Grammar A Short Guide Graham Tulloch This book was prepared in the English Discipline of the Flinders University of South Australia and printed by Flinders Press. 1990 Graham Tulloch FURTHER READING

### Syntax II, Handout #4 Universität Stuttgart, SOSES 2006 Winfried Lechner Wed , Room 11.71

Syntax II, Handout #4 Universität Stuttgart, SOSES 2006 Winfried Lechner Wed 14.00-15.30, Room 11.71 VERB CLASSES 1. CONTROL VS. RAISING VERBS The distinction between raising and control verbs is not always

### Reciprocal Pronouns Binding within Psych-verb Constructions

Advances in Language and Literary Studies ISSN: 2203-4714 ol. 6 No. 2; April 2015 Australian International Academic Centre, Australia Flourishing Creativity & Literacy Reciprocal Pronouns Binding within

### L100: Lecture 7, Compositional semantics

L100: Lecture 7, Compositional semantics Ann Copestake Computer Laboratory University of Cambridge November 2012 Outline of today s lecture Model-theoretic semantics and denotation Quantifiers The semantics

### Semantic and Syntactic Language Intervention. John Petersen Structure of English Prof. Robin Barr

Semantic and Syntactic Language Intervention John Petersen Structure of English Prof. Robin Barr Introduction For my 6 th -grade classroom of predominantly English Language Learners, the identification

Modeling adjectives in GL: accounting for all adjective classes 1 Sara Mendes Raquel Amaro Group for the Computation of Lexical Grammatical Knowledge Centre of Linguistics, University of Lisbon Avenida

### MSc Introduction to Syntax

MSc Introduction to Syntax Lecture 3: Predicates and arguments 1. Semantic predicates and arguments In the previous lectures we have seen that sentences have an internal structure and we discussed some

### Sentence structure

Semester III Group B Grammar 3 Mrs. Skirdj Sentence structure The subject is a noun, noun phrase or pronoun representing the person or thing that performs the action of the verb. There are two types of

### Clauses and Phrases. How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences!

Clauses and Phrases How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences! Why it s important to use them in your writing! What s a CLAUSE? Clauses are clusters of words. Clauses

### COMPARATIVES WITHOUT DEGREES: A NEW APPROACH. FRIEDERIKE MOLTMANN IHPST, Paris fmoltmann@univ-paris1.fr

COMPARATIVES WITHOUT DEGREES: A NEW APPROACH FRIEDERIKE MOLTMANN IHPST, Paris fmoltmann@univ-paris1.fr It has become common to analyse comparatives by using degrees, so that John is happier than Mary would

### Errata: Carnie (2008) Constituent Structure. Oxford University Press (MAY 2009) A NOTE OF EXPLANATION:

Errata: Carnie (2008) Constituent Structure. Oxford University Press (MAY 2009) A NOTE OF EXPLANATION: Dear Readers. There are a very large number of errata for this book. Most are minor but some of them

### Looking more closely at nouns

Looking more closely at nouns Nouns and Pronouns 10 Nouns are words that name: Grammarians have come up with different groupings: Common Proper Collective Abstract Concrete Mass Compound You might also

### Lecture 9: Formal grammars of English

(Fall 2012) http://cs.illinois.edu/class/cs498jh Lecture 9: Formal grammars of English Julia Hockenmaier juliahmr@illinois.edu 3324 Siebel Center Office Hours: Wednesday, 12:15-1:15pm Previous key concepts!

### TUTORIAL: AN INTRODUCTION TO SYNTAX

Title: TUTORIAL: AN INTRODUCTION TO SYNTAX, By: Shapiro, Lewis P., Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 10924388, Apr97, Vol. 40, Issue 2 TUTORIAL: AN INTRODUCTION TO SYNTAX Contents Lexical

### Intelligent Systems (AI-2)

Intelligent Systems (AI-2) Computer Science cpsc422, Lecture 25 Nov, 9, 2016 CPSC 422, Lecture 26 Slide 1 Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Discourse and Dialogue Knowledge-Formalisms Map (including

### Back to the trees: X-bar Theory. CAS LX 522 Syntax I. X-bar Theory: NP. X-bar Theory: NP. X-bar Theory: NP. X-bar Theory: NP. Week 3.

CAS L 522 Syntax I Week 3. -bar Theory Back to trees: -bar Theory Consider our current rule: : () (P+) (+) This yields a flat structure where all of components of P c-command each or. P this book P big

### Pronouns Review Notes Types of Pronouns

Pronouns Review Notes Types of Pronouns Personal Pronouns replace people or things 1 st person singular I, me, my, mine plural we, us, our, ours 2 nd person singular you, your, yours plural you, your,

### Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013

Diagramming Review WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Sentence Basics The subject of the sentence is the person or thing is performing the action of the sentence or is being described by the sentence.

### COPULAR CLAUSES IN ENGLISH * Masatake Arimoto Nanzan University. English has copular verb be as exemplified in sentences like (1) and (2).

COPULAR CLAUSES IN ENGLISH * Masatake Arimoto Nanzan University 1. Introduction English has copular verb be as exemplified in sentences like (1) and (2). (1) a. John is honest. b. John is a philosopher.

### Journal of International Scientific Publications Language, Individual & Society ISSN , Volume 8, 2014

THE STRUCTURAL APPROACH TO VERB COMPLEMENTATION Ľudmila Jančovičová Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Education, Trnava University in Trnava, Priemyselná 4, P.O. BOX 9, 918 43 Trnava,

### Analytical Grammar Pre/Post Test

Analytical Grammar Pre/Post Test Name Season One: 1. In the following sentence: I really enjoyed the basketball game. What part of speech is the word BASKETBALL? a. verb b. adjective c. noun d. article

### SYNTAX: THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE

SYNTAX: THE ANALYSIS OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE OBJECTIVES the game is to say something new with old words RALPH WALDO EMERSON, Journals (1849) In this chapter, you will learn: how we categorize words how words

### LIN1180/LIN5082 Semantics

LIN1180/LIN5082 Semantics Course tutor: Stavros Assimakopoulos stavros.assimakopoulos@um.edu.mt Lecture notes (mainly) by Albert Gatt Course material will be published every week on VLE. Course assessment

### Excellence in Business Communication, 12e (Thill/Bovee) Chapter 17 Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage

Excellence in Business Communication, 12e (Thill/Bovee) Chapter 17 Handbook of Grammar, Mechanics, and Usage 1) Which of the following is a demonstrative pronoun? A) he B) this C) who D) anyone E) either

### Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics

Grade and Unit Timeframe Grammar Mechanics K Unit 1 6 weeks Oral grammar naming words K Unit 2 6 weeks Oral grammar Capitalization of a Name action words K Unit 3 6 weeks Oral grammar sentences Sentence

### I. Practice in 1 st -order predicate logic with answers.

More Answers for Practice in Logic and HW 1 This is an expanded version showing additional right and wrong answers. I. Practice in 1 st -order predicate logic with answers. 1. Mary loves everyone. [assuming

### Both of the sentences above are also independent clauses. A clause is independent when it can stand alone as a sentence:

Dear Students, It is possible to learn about the four types of clauses. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate. And you already know what contains a subject and a predicate