1 Running head: SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 1 Sample APA Sixth Edition Guide for Master of Social Work Students Marilynne J. Ramsey Indiana University South Bend
2 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 2 Sample APA Sixth Edition Guide for Master of Social Work Students In 2009, the American Psychological Association (APA) released a new version of its Publication Manual, the sixth edition. APA style is the accepted format for writing in the social and behavioral sciences. This paper demonstrates APA style, using the guidelines in the new sixth edition. For example, this paragraph is an introduction, but does not have that heading. This is the correct APA format. The position of this paragraph in the manuscript clearly identifies it as an introduction (APA, 2010). Students can use the format of this paper as a template, along with its content describing the components of APA style. General Information The Basics Pages. Repeat the title of the paper, centered on page two, exactly as it is on the title page. Turn back to the cover page of this paper and see that the title is the same as at the top of this page. The titles are identical. Do not use boldface letters for the title. The cover page is numbered page one, and the initial page of the text is numbered page two. When counting the pages in the paper, the cover page and the reference page(s) do not count. For example, a sixpage paper has at least eight pages. First is the cover page, followed by the six pages of content, and then the reference page. Each page of the manuscript has the running head in capital letters at the top, on the left, and the page number on the right, as above. The cover page has the same running head identified by the words Running head: preceding it. See Appendix A for instructions for doing this in MS Word Use one-inch margins on all four sides of the text. Left justify your text to avoid hyphenated words at the right margin. Uniformly indent all paragraphs ½ inch by setting the tab function to 0.5 in Word s Paragraph drop down menu. Ideally, paragraphs have
3 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 3 five sentences. Single-sentence paragraphs are abrupt and the use of them is discouraged (APA, 2010, p. 68). Spell out the names of organizations that will be used as acronyms the first time you use them, followed by the acronym in parentheses. Look back at the first paragraph on page two for an example. After spelling out the name once, APA style allows the use of the acronym alone, as in this sentence. Fonts, letters, and spaces. Use only one font, in one size (12 pt. preferred) throughout the paper, including the running head. Use a serif typeface, such as Times New Roman, which is preferred for ease of reading. Use bold face type only for headings, as discussed below. Use italics only in specific instances listed in the Publication Manual on page 104. (One of those uses is for the titles of books, like Publication Manual above.) Do not use italics merely for emphasis: use syntax to provide emphasis when necessary. If you want to emphasize a word or words within a quotation, you may use italics. Immediately after the italicized words, insert the words emphasis added in brackets, like this: Do not [emphasis added] use double quotation marks to introduce a technical or key term (APA, 2010, p. 91). Do not use underlining. When typewriters were in common use, underlining indicated words for the typesetter to set in italics. Typewriters are now long gone, and so is underlining. Word processors now enable us to use italics directly without resorting to underlining, so underlining is no longer necessary. Use two spaces after punctuation marks that end a sentence, but only one after all other punctuation marks. The requirement for two spaces after a closing period does not apply on the reference page, either for the initials after last names, or other elements of the reference. Double-space the entire document uniformly. Do not add extra spaces between paragraphs, or
4 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 4 headings and paragraphs. In MS Word 2010 you can disable the automatic extra space by choosing Word s Paragraph drop down menu, and clicking in the box that says Don t add space between paragraphs of the same style. Then click below that to set it as the default for all of your papers. Headings. This paper is an example with four levels of headings. There are five levels of headings available. The title of the paper is a level one heading, so it is not in bold type. The level headings two through four are all in bold type. This is the only use of bold in APA style papers. 1. A level one heading is centered, not bold face, with upper and lower case letters. Examples are the title of this paper on page two, the title References on page 13, and Appendix A on page A level two heading is centered, in bold face, and uses upper and lower case letters. For example, see the level two heading, General Information, on page two. 3. A level three heading, for example The Basics on page two, is flush to the left margin, in bold face, and uses both uppercase and lowercase letters. It stands alone on a line, with no period at the end. Indent the following paragraph on the next line. 4. A level four heading is indented, in bold face, and uses lowercase letters, except for the first letter, with a period at the end. Follow this heading directly with the first sentence of the paragraph on the same line. Headings. above is a level four heading. 5. If you should need a fifth level of heading for a longer manuscript, use an indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Outlining your paper. Academic writing benefits from the use of an outline. Even if you write free-style when you begin a paper, go back and make an outline from your first draft.
5 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 5 See Appendix C for the outline of this paper, and the corresponding APA headings. Use your outline to establish the headings. Do not include the outline elements (I., A., 1., a., etc.) in the APA document. The differences in the style of the level headings replace those elements. Omitted APA elements. APA style is intended for manuscripts submitted for publication. For student papers, known as final manuscripts, omit APA elements as indicated by your instructor. An abstract may be needed if your paper will be submitted to a journal for publication, but it is not necessary for academic assignments. If an abstract is needed, it is page two, with the same running head and a page number as other pages. It has a centered level one title, Abstract. Use digits for all numbers (to save space) and use no more than 960 characters. Type it in block style (i.e., with no paragraph indentations). Another APA element not necessary for academic assignments is the author s note. When needed for publications, it appears on the bottom half of the title page. It identifies the author s departmental affiliation, acknowledgments, and contact information for published articles. It has a centered title, Author Note. Citations, Quotations, and References Citations The point of using citations in the text is to enable the reader to locate the source of the material cited in the paper on the reference list at the end of your paper. The actual reference should enable the reader to locate the original source easily. If you have a choice of how to access cited material, one in print and one electronic, cite the print version and use it on the reference page. The print version is more likely to persist over time. When your citation or reference doesn t conform well to any APA style described in the Manual, remember that your goal is for the reader to be able to locate the source independently.
6 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 6 APA style uses the author-date method of citation, and only the author-date method. Do not write an introductory phrase like In the research of C. Wright Mills,. Do not write out the title of your journal article in the text to avoid citing it. Use an author-date citation. You may include the author-date citation in a sentence, with only the year in parentheses, like this: Mills (1956) identified the military establishment as part of the Power Elite. Alternatively, you may put both the author and date at the end of the sentence in parentheses, like this: The very rich, the politicians, and the military establishment all belong to the Power Elite (Mills, 1956). Notice that the period follows the citation to end the sentence. Always give page numbers for quotations (APA, 2010, p. 179). Do not use initials with the author s last name when citing an author in the text. If you have two authors, use both last names in the text every time. If you have three, four, or five authors, name all of them the first time you use them, for example: Wasserstein, Zappula, Rosen, Gerstmen and Rock (1994). After that, use the first author s name followed by et al. meaning and others, and the year. (A period always follows al because it is an abbreviation for the Latin alii [masculine] or aliae [feminine] or alia [neutral].) When you use that article again in your paper, Wasserstein et al. (1994), or (Wasserstein et al., 1994) is the correct format for the citation. If you cite a source twice in the same paragraph, you can omit the year after the first time you cite it. In the text, use the word and to link two authors, or the last two authors, as above. On the reference page, you may use the ampersand (&) instead of the word. With six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year. In the reference list, when you have eight or more authors, list the surnames and initials for the first six authors names, then insert three ellipsis points (periods), and add the last author s name. See
7 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 7 Gilbert et al. (2004) in the references for this document. In the text follow the citation guidelines, which do not include ellipsis points. Sometimes you might want to cite a personal communication, like a letter, an , a memo, class notes, or personal interviews. These sources are called personal communications. Use this for the citation (M. Ramsey, personal communication, September 15, 2006). Because these sources do not provide recoverable data, they are not included in the reference list, so cite personal communications only in the text. Give the initial as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible, as in the example above. Occasionally sources, both in print and electronic, will have no identified author. In this case, cite the first few words of the title (or the first entry on the reference page it could be the publisher) in double quotation marks. Look at the newspaper article near the end of the reference page for this for this paper. It had no author, so it is listed by its title. In the text, the citation is ( New drug, 1993). Quotations. Quotations come in two sizes, long and short. Short quotes have fewer than 40 words, and are typed right into the sentence using double quotation marks and have a citation that includes the page number (APA, 2010, p. 170). The abbreviations for the words page and pages differ depending on where you use them. In the text, use p. for one page and pp. for more than one page. On the reference page, you do not use these abbreviations before the page numbers, just the number(s) alone. Newspapers on the reference page are an exception to this. They do use p. and pp. and section letters if necessary (p. A1). If your quote has a quotation embedded in it, use single quotes for it, inside the double quotes for the full quotation.
8 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 8 Long quotations have 40 or more words, typed in a freestanding block, without quotation marks. Quotes embedded within the block use double quotation marks. The page number follows the period at the end of the quote, unlike other citations in the text. Here is an example. The American Psychological Association (2001) states: Start such a block quotation on a new line, and indent the block five spaces from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph). If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each five spaces from the margin of the quotation. The entire quotation should be double-spaced. (p. 117) If you shorten a quote by leaving some of it out, use three periods (known as ellipsis points) in the text to indicate that omission. If you leave out whole sentences, use four periods. The first one is the end of the sentence, with three more to indicate the omission. Secondary sources. When your source cites another source, it is called a secondary source. Use these sparingly, when the original is out of print or unavailable for some reason. If it is possible to get the source, do so, and cite it directly. In the reference list give the secondary source, which can be located. In the text, use the following citation (as cited in Jones, 2003). References. At the end of your paper is the list of references. Here is an example of a simple reference page entry: Ginsberg, L. (2001). Careers in social work (2 nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. The model is as follows: Lastname, First initial. (Year published). Title, with on an initial capital, in italics. Location of Publisher: Name of publisher. The reference page starts on a new page. Double-space all reference entries. Use a hanging indent format, that is, the first line is flush with the left margin and subsequent lines are
9 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 9 indented, as in the model above. Include only sources actually cited in the text, not sources you read for background. List them in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author. If you have several works by one author, use the year of publication to put them in order, with the earliest publication(s) first. When an author has written more than one book or article in the same year, list them alphabetically by title, excluding A or The. Do not use anonymous for the author unless the source uses anonymous for the author. Anonymous goes under the As on the reference page. On the reference page, invert all of the authors names, and use initials only (with periods) for first and middle names. For U.S. publishers, give the city and state. For publishers outside the U.S. use city and country. Use the post office abbreviations for the state in which the publisher is located. When an institution is the author, the reference uses Author for the publisher at the end of the entry. See the entry in the reference list for the Code of Ethics ( National Association, 1997). With periodicals, the title of the journal is followed by the volume number, italicized, in Arabic (not Roman) numerals, with the word Vol. preceding it. If there is an issue number as well as a volume, the issue number follows the volume in parentheses, however it is not italicized. It looks like this: Journal of Music and Meaning, 25(4). Page numbers follow, without italics, after a comma. Journal page numbers do not require the abbreviations p. and pp. Newspapers use the p. for one page, and pp. for more than one page, and sometimes a section letter precedes the page number in newspapers, for example, p. A12.
10 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 10 Grammatical Conventions Numbers. Use words to express numbers below 10. (Examples: repeated the task three times, two words that mean.) Use words for fractions (e.g., two-thirds). Here s an exception: use words to express numbers that begin sentences (e.g., Forty-eight percent of the sample.) if you cannot avoid starting the sentence with number. Use numerals to express all numbers 10 and above. (Examples: the remaining 10 percent, the 15 th trial, 25 years old.) Captialization. Capitalize major words in titles of books and articles in the body of the paper. Conjunctions, articles, and short prepositions are not considered major words; however, capitalize all words of four letters or more. When a capitalized word has a hyphen, capitalize both words in the text. Do not capitalize words following the hyphen on the reference page. Also, capitalize the first word after a colon or a dash in a title. The exception is the title of a book or article in the reference list. Capitalize only the first word, the first words after a colon or a dash, and proper nouns in the reference list. Do not capitalize the second word of a hyphenated compound in the reference list. Periods and punctuation. Use periods for initials in names, abbreviating United States when used as an adjective (U.S. Navy), and Latin abbreviations (e.g., i.e., or et al.). Do not use periods for states (NY, OH, Washington, DC). Do not use periods for acronyms (APA, NASW). Do not use periods for measurement abbreviations (e.g., kg, lb, and min). Never begin a sentence with a lower case abbreviation or a symbol (e.g., α, or lb). Periods usually go within quotation marks. (Examples: Jenny, he said, let s have lunch. She replied, OK, but first I want to finish The Machine Stops. ) Periods go outside of the citations in your text. Time alone reveals the just (Smith, 1991, p. 471).
11 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 11 Colons and semicolons go outside quotes. (Example: She spoke of the protagonists ; yet I remembered only one in The Tell-Tale Heart : the mad murderer.) Question marks, exclamation points, and dashes stay inside the quotes when they apply only to the quoted matter. Place them outside when they do not. (Examples: Pilate asked, What is the truth? Grogon replied, No way! What is the meaning of the term half-truth? Stop whistling, All I do is Dream of You!) If your source includes incorrect spelling, punctuation, or grammar, and it might confuse readers, insert the word sic italicized and bracketed right after the error. Example: There is [sic] changes coming tonight. APA Style for Electronic Resources In general, use the same elements, in the same order, for references and citations regarding material obtained electronically. Then add as much electronic retrieval information as needed for others to locate the sources you cited. There are now two ways to do that. Use the uniform resource locators (URLs) for electronic sources. The other way is with DOIs. (See below) Internet content changes constantly resulting in broken and deleted links, so use a print reference if available. Do not add a period to the end of the URL when it is at the end of a sentence, because that changes the address. On the reference page, MS Word will put the URL into hypertext, that is, in blue with an underline. You will need to change the hypertext back to black with no underlining. As mentioned above, you can also use the digital object identifiers (DOIs) for persistent identification of sources. The DOI system assigns a unique number to a source independent of the location, print or on-line. If the source you cite has a DOI assigned to the content, you may us it without any further retrieval information. Use doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx for the format. Notice
12 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 12 that there is no space after the colon, before the number. On the reference page for this paper, see American Psychological Association (2004) for an example. Do not include database information for references. Databases such as PsychINFO and JSTOR change over time. For online sources, direct readers as closely as possible to the information cited. Use Retrieved before the URL of an actual source. Do not use retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time. See Avendon (2000) on the reference page as an example. The date for an online source varies depending on what is available. If the web page has a date, use that date. If the page has been revised, use the date from the most recent version of the page. If there is no date use (n.d.). If there are page numbers online (which is unlikely), you can use them. If not, count the paragraphs and include that number instead of the page number. Use the abbreviation para. or which can be found in Symbols under Special Characters in MS Word.
13 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 13 References American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association. (2004). Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. American Psychologist, 59, doi: /0003-x.59.r.236 American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Anderson, A.K. (2005). Affective influences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 154, doi: / Avendon, R. (2000). The birds of North America. Retrieved from Falter, C., & Egan, M. (1997a). Logic modeling: A tool for teaching critical thinking in social work practice. Journal of Social Work Education 33(1), Falter, C., & Egan, M. (1997b). Logic modeling: A tool for teaching practice evaluation. Journal of Social Work Education 33(3), Gilbert, D., McClernon, J., Rabinovich, N., Sugai, C., Plath, L., Asgaard, G., Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DRD1 A1 allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, Ginsberg, L. (2001). Careers in social work (2 nd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
14 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 14 Grief, G. & Lynch, A. (1983). The eco-systems perspective. In Meyers, E. (Ed.), Clinical social work in the eco-systems perspective (pp ). NY: Columbia University Press. Merriam-Webster s collegiate dictionary (10 th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Mills, C. W. (1956). The power elite. NY: Oxford University Press. National Association of Social Workers. (1997). Code of ethics. Washington, DC: Author. Negy, C. (Ed.). (2008). Cross-cultural psychotherapy: Toward a critical understanding of diverse clients (2 nd ed.). Reno, NV: Bent Tree Press. New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12. Sousa, J. P. (1932). Marching music. Journal of Music and Meaning, 25(4), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No ). Retrieved from
15 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 15 Appendix A Headers and Footers In Microsoft Word 2010, set up the running head for your APA style document by first double clicking at the top of a blank page. This will create a space for the header with a dashed line below it. Click on Header & Footer Tools at the top of the screen and click in the box titled Different First Page. In the header space, type Running head: YOUR HEADER IN CAPS followed by one space. Now click on the Insert tab, then on Page number, and choose current position and plain number. Move your cursor until it is on the left side of the page number (which will go grey). Then use the tab key to move the page number over to the right side of the page. Double click in the body of the paper to get out of the header. Use the return key to move the cursor down onto the second blank page. Double click at the top of the new page to get the header again. Now type in just YOUR HEADER IN CAPS without Running head: in front of it. Use the same procedure as above to add the page number, which will be 2. Finally, double click in the body of the page again and save. Go back to page one and type your cover page.
16 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 16 Appendix B Appendices and Seriation If your paper has only one appendix, just label it Appendix. If your paper has more than one appendix, like this one, label each one with a capital letter (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) in the order in which they appear in the main text. The page label, Appendix X, is centered, not in bold face, with upper case and lower case letters. Begin each appendix on a separate page. Each appendix must have a title. In the text, refer to the appendices by their labels. An appendix may include headings and subheadings, like this one. See Appendix C for a comparison of your outline to the APA headings. Seriation Enumerate elements in a series to prevent misreading or to clarify the sequence or relationship between elements, particularly when they are long or complex. Identify the elements by a letter (within a paragraph or a sentence) or by a number (at the start of each paragraph in a series). Within a paragraph or sentence. Identify elements in a series by lowercase letters (not italicized) in parentheses. Example: The participant s three choices were (a) working with another participant, (b) working with a team, and (c) working alone. Use commas to separate three or more elements that do not have internal commas. Separate paragraphs in a series. With itemized conclusions or steps in a procedure, identify the items with an Arabic numeral followed by a period but not enclosed in or followed by parentheses. See page four in this text for an example. Separate sentences in a series are identified in the same way. The first word is capitalized and the sentence ends with a period.
17 SAMPLE APA SIXTH EDITION GUIDE 17 Outline (Title, centered) Appendix C Making APA Headings from Your Outline Headings (Title, centered) I. General Information General Information (left margin) (centered) A. The Basics The Basics (text begins next line, indented) (left margin) 1. Pages Pages. (text follows heading on same line) 2. Fonts, Letters, and Spaces Fonts, letters, and spaces. 3. Headings Headings. 4. Outlining the Paper Outlining the paper. 5. Omitted Elements Omitted elements. B. Citations, Quotations, and References Citations, Quotations, and References 1. Citations Citations 2. Quotations Quotations. 3. Secondary Sources Secondary sources. 4. References References. C. Grammatical Conventions Grammatical Conventions 1. Numbers Numbers. 2. Capitalization Capitalization. 3. Periods and Punctuation Periods and punctuation. II. APA Style for Electronic Resources III. References APA Style for Electronic Resources (centered) References (centered) IV. Appendix A Appendix A (centered) V. Appendix B Appendix B VI. Appendix C (centered) Appendix C (centered)