1 APA Confusion 1 ARC Writing Lab Worksheets: APA Style Guide Final draft version, compiled February 12, 2007, by J. Hines, Ed Prgms Intern Before the Essay Starts: Title Page (APA requires a title page for all submitted works.) In the center of the page, write the title of the paper, your name (including middle initial if you have one) on the next line, and the institution (college) at which you are writing the assignment on the next line after that. Some professors may ask you to include extra information in the main title their name, the name of the class, and the due date, for instance. On the right-hand side of the page header, write a two- or three-word version of your essay title followed by five (5) spaces and the page number. At the top left-hand side of the page, write Running head: WITH A SHORTENED VERSION OF YOUR TITLE IN ALL CAPS note that Running is capitalized but head is not. The shortened, all-caps version of your title should be no more than fifty (50) characters, including spaces and punctuation. General Formatting APA leaves a 1-inch margin (Microsoft Word usually defaults to a 1.25 margin on the sides) all around the page. Except for section headers, which have special formatting, text in the main body of the paper should be indented ½ or five (5) spaces. The title of the essay goes on the first line, centered, and the text body follows immediately after (double-spaced). Active voice, as in APA style suggests is preferable to passive voice, as in APA style is required by (or as in this sentence). For more information, check the APA Style website at Abstract APA requires an abstract for papers of any significant length. The abstract has a page of its own immediately after the title page, with the title Abstract (without quotation marks) centered on the first line and the first line of abstract text on the next (doublespaced) line following. The abstract itself should not be indented at the first line, and should be a single paragraph, having at most 120 words (this includes numbers). All numbers should be Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, ) and the text in general should be both as precise and as minimal as possible.
2 APA Confusion 2 Within the Essay: Using Your References: References: College-level writing requires references that are reputable; Wikipedia, while sometimes a useful start for research ideas, is not an acceptable source; a magazine like the National Geographic would be more acceptable; a serious academic book or a scholarly journal like Cambridge Quarterly would be most acceptable and should comprise most of your sources. Be careful with resources produced by organizations like corporations or political entities; these may be likely to be more biased than publications from unaffiliated organizations. Good ways to get started finding resources may include, but are not limited to, the following: o Online encyclopedias (Wikipedia.org is popular and often useful, but be very careful to check the information it provides against an established resource.) o Your reference librarian o Your library reference catalogue o Research databases (all of these can be accessed through CBU s database list, at like Business Source Elite, ERIC (the Educational Resources Information Center), or PsyARTICLES. Quotes/Cited Ideas When you quote anything or refer to an idea from anything other than your own mind (unless it is common knowledge, as for instance that Washington, D.C., is the capital of the United States of America or that Copernicus came up with the current model of a suncentered solar system), you must give credit to the person who came up with it. Make sure that when you have your in-text citation in parenthesis, you put the period outside the last parenthesis at the very end of the sentence, and not before the reference or inside the quotation marks: According to some, the madwoman in the lighthouse symbolized the psychological frustration generated by conflict between personal integrity and gender roles (Gorges, 1996, p. 234). When you quote 40 or more words from a text, you must format it as a block quote, meaning that the entire quote starts on its own line, the entire block indented 1/2 or 5 spaces. If you quote multiple paragraphs, every paragraph after the first one (which is flush with the rest of the block quote) is indented an extra 1/2 inch. Block quotes are double-spaced like the rest of the paper, but as with all of these, your professor s wishes come before strict APA style.
3 APA Confusion 3 Other General APA Style Information: References: Do not divide up your References page by type of resource, even if you have specific requirements on what type or types of sources you must use. The way a reference is written out shows clearly to those familiar with the guidelines whether it is a book, a chapter from an edited compilation, a journal article, or a website. The date of latest publication of a source is always the second thing in a Works Cited entry. It follows either the author s name (an author may be an individual, a group, or a corporate group) or, if no author is listed, the title of the resource. The date is written in parenthesis with a period outside the parenthesis. If no date is available for the source, write (n.d.). (The n.d. is supposed to be lowercased and stands for no date. ) Special Note: When quoting a journal article retrieved from an online database such as one of those at the Annie Gabriel website (http://www.calbaptist.edu/library), the following format is appropriate (this example taken from the APA Manual, 5 th ed, guideline , Electronic copy of journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from database, p. 279): Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database. Remember that the more work you do with a specific style, the more likely it will be that you will need to invest in the latest actual style guide whether your major requires MLA, APA, Turabian, or Chicago Manual of Style. The purchase will definitely be worth it, possibly for at least a letter grade. You should also buy page tabs from a convenience or office supply store (or the CBU bookstore) and tab off and highlight the important sections of your style guide. Important sections to tab in APA are the following (all refer to 5 th edition): o Heading Types, p. 113 o Quoting Sources, p. 117 o Reference Citations, p. 207 o Sources, p. 233 o Electronic Sources, p. 268 o Aggregated Electronic Sources, p. 297 o Example Paper, p. 306 The School of Behavioral Sciences at CBU requires a Turabian style cover page in addition to and in front of the APA cover page; an example follows on the next page. Note that the paginated header begins showing on the APA cover page (which is page 1).
4 APA Confusion 1 CALIFORNIA BAPTIST UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE THE TITLE OF YOUR PAPER: DEALING WITH MAJOR AND MINOR APA CONFUSION SUBMITTED TO (name of professor, including title, first and last name) IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE COURSE (course name) (course number) (name) (date submitted)
5 APA Confusion 1 Running head: DEALING WITH MAJOR AND MINOR APA CONFUSION The Title of Your Paper: Dealing with Major and Minor APA Confusion Firstname M. Lastname Institutional Affiliation (College)
6 APA Confusion 2 The Title of Your Paper: Dealing with Major and Minor APA Confusion Unless your professor tells you otherwise, every APA-style paper you submit should have a cover page. Official APA style does not include otherwise important information like the class an essay is submitted for or the due date, but some professors ask for such info to be included. The Behavioral Sciences Department at CBU requires an additional (Turabian) cover page in front of the APA one, for identifying information; information on this cover page is available on the BlackBoard site for any Behavioral Science class (and is included in most SBS syllabi as an attachment), but is also available from ARC Writing Lab resources. Note that this and every other paragraph in the main text of your paper, aside from block quotes is indented ½ an inch (move the down-pointing arrow in the ruler at the top of the page, right below all the toolbars). The main text of your paper is written on the line directly after your essay title; do not skip any lines (but double-space everything). Remember also that your entire paper, including the four lines with identification for the paper (i.e., your name and so forth) and the Works Cited at the end, should be double-spaced. In Microsoft Word, you can do this before you write anything by going to Format on the task bar, selecting Paragraph from the drop-down menu, and, in the Indents and Spacing tab, select Double from the scrolling menu under Line spacing: ; if you already have something written, follow these same steps but first select all the text in the document. Also, your page should have a margin of exactly one inch (1 ) at the top, bottom, right, and left of the page. Go to the File drop-down menu and click on Page Setup to open the dialogue box to do this.
7 APA Confusion 3 At the top right-hand corner of this page you should have the two- or three-word version of your title written, with the page number one space after (as in, APA Confusion 1 ); you can do this in Microsoft Word by going to View on the taskbar and selecting Header and Footer from the drop-down menu or, you can simply double-click in the page margin while in Print Layout page view.. Do not type 1 for the page number; instead, click the # button on the Header and Footer toolbar that pops up. When you are finished, click the Close button on this toolbar. When you quote anything or refer to an idea from anything other than yourself (unless it is common knowledge, as for instance that Washington, D.C., is the capital of the United States of America or that Copernicus came up with the current model of a sun-centered solar system), you must attribute it. This is whether you quote it exactly or whether you use some of the words it used or an idea it had, put in a different way. You can cite quotations in a variety of ways. You can front-load a citation, noting that a particular individual or group from this institution and with this basis for authority has this or that to say, as in, Rockwell, N., and Annan, K., in their 2006 publication on political images, point out, A picture can often be worth a thousand words (p. 113). You can also split up the parts of the reference, as in, Rockwell, N., and Annan, K., point out that a picture can often be worth a thousand words (2006, p. 113). You may also wait to put the citation information until the end, as in, it is arguably true that a picture can often be worth a thousand words (Rockwell, N., and Annan, K., 2006, p. 113). If you note something a reference said overall but not in a specific place in the work, simply put the authors and year of publication, as in (Rockwell, N., and Annan, K., 2006).
8 APA Confusion 4 References Hines, J. D. (2007). This is the most basic book chapter citation. Worksheet basics. Riverside, California: California Baptist University. Hines, J. D. (2007). This is how you cite a journal article. Fake journal name: California Baptist University fake publications, [edition #], [page # s].
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