# Mountain Flying in Flatland Airplanes

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Mountain Flying in Flatland Airplanes Ed Williams FPI July 2007

2 Mountain Flying in Flatland Airplanes: Outline High Altitude Airplane Performance Mountain Flying techniques Mountain Weather

3 Pre/post quiz Under otherwise identical conditions at sea-level you would approach at 70 knots. Landing at South Lake Tahoe, you would: A) Approach at a higher speed to accommodate the thinner air B) Approach at the same indicated airspeed. C) Anticipate a longer landing roll D) All of the above Flying in a narrow valley, it is best to: A) Fly down the middle B) Keep to the right side C) Fly on the downwind side The temperature rose 15C from AM to early PM. The density altitude: A) increased about 1800 B) increased about 2900 C) decreased Compared to sea-level, at a high altitude airport A) Landing distances are the same but takeoff distances increase B) Takeoff distances increase more than landing distances Rising air can be found on which side of standing lenticular clouds - A) upwind B) downwind Runway 3-21 at Sedona is 5129 long and slopes up 1.8% to the NE. It is located on top of a mesa elevation The temperature is 22 C. The wind is from 030 at 5 knots. On which runway you would expect a shorter takeoff roll in the 182: 03 or 21? In the Archer?

4 In thinner air we must fly faster to generate the same lift. LVK Aspen ρ ρ v v Same ρv 2 : Same lift/drag Same IAS Lift (and drag) are proportional to air_density * TAS 2 i.e ρv 2 As the air density drops with altitude, we must increase our TAS (by 1.6%/1000 ft) to maintain the same lift, all else equal (i.e. identical configuration, AOA etc.). However, the airspeed indicator actually measures the ram pressure ρv 2 but is calibrated taking the density to be that at sea-level. Thus, with the same indicated airspeed, we have the same ρv 2 and therefore the same lift and drag, independent of altitude. Indicated aerodynamic and structural speeds are independent of altitude: The airplane stalls at the same indicated airspeed, regardless of altitude. The airplane s best glide speed is the same indicated airspeed, regardless of altitude. Va, Vne and Vno are unaffected (though flutter margin reduced) The actual true airspeeds increase with altitude.

5 Flying into Aspen airport (elevation 7820 ). We ll use the same indicated airspeeds for our approach but our true airspeeds will be higher than at a sea-level airport. What really matters is the density altitude. It exceeds the pressure altitude(*) by 120 per degree C above standard for the altitude. If it were 20 C (= 68 F) in ASE, (ISA = 15-2*8=-1 C) the density altitude would be ~10280 feet! TAS is 16% higher than IAS. Landing roll will be ~32% longer because of the higher touchdown speed. (*) Read altimeter set to or increase altitude by 1000 for every 1 below standard.

6 Our (non-turbo) airplanes lose available power as the density altitude increases Fraction of sea-level BHP Density Altitude (Kfeet) The minimum power required for level flight increases with altitude. (The minimum drag doesn t change but you have to fly faster.) More power required for level flight and less available with altitude means the excess power available for climb falls rapidly with altitude. (At sea-level the C182 will fly level on 35% power, the Archer needs 38%.)

7 At their respective gross weights, the C182 has a foot higher altitude capability than the Archer Max rate of climb, GW 800 0fpm ROC - absolute ceiling 100fpm ROC service ceiling ROC ft/min C182P PA ~<400fpm ROC adequate climb gradient for departure? Density Altitude (Kfeet)

8 In the mountains you want to fly as light as possible! Climb performance vs DA 1000 Don t tanker unnecessary fuel. ROC (ft/min) 500 Ferry your load in/out of high altitude strips if necessary. Fuel up a distance from mountains you need to cross to give you time to climb and to burn some off Cabin/fuel load (lb) The 182 will carry more

9 Vx and Vy converge as you climb to the absolute ceiling. Vx: Best Angle of Climb Speed Vy: Best Rate of Climb speed. 20 Vx and Vy vs. altitude C Den. Alt (Kft) 10 5 C172?! PA ROC Vx Vy 5K 10K SL KIAS Airspeed

10 In the mountains, you can fly into shorter strips than you can depart! Landing distance, GW, Max Performance Takeoff distance, GW, max performance 1500 Over 50 obstacle 3000 Over 50 obstacle PA C182 Roll Roll PA C Density Alt (ft) Density Alt (ft) Landing distance increases ~20%, takeoff ~100%! A POH C182 approaches at 4 degrees and brakes at 0.27g; A POH Archer at 6 degrees with 0.21g braking! Landing more dependent on technique than takeoff

11 Many mountain airport runways have significant slope. Land uphill Depart downhill In less extreme cases there may be a tradeoff with wind. Takeoff into the wind or downhill? Land into the wind or uphill? Mile Hi Airport - Idaho Back country.

12 Runway slope has the greatest effect on takeoff when performance is marginal Effect of wind on takeoff ground 7500'DA and GW Effect of runway slope on takeoff ground 7500'DA and GW 2000 PA PA C C Headwind (kt) Downslope (percent) Ground roll decreases about 6% per thousand feet of ground roll for each percent of downslope. (Same increase for landing ground roll.) Ground roll varies as the square of your liftoff ground speed. For the C182 at % downslope 2 knots headwind, for the Archer 4 knots Runway slope is published in AF/D or measure it with your altimeter. The slope of the terrain off the runway end may be more significant consideration than the length of the ground roll. Climb angle vs. terrain slope

13 Sloping runways ASPEN.PITKIN CO/SARDY FLD (ASE) 3 NW UTC7(6DT) N W DENVER 7820 B S2 FUEL 100LL, JET A1 + OX 3 TPA.See Remarks ARFF Index B H.3E, L.5D, 6E RWY 15.33: H7006X100 (ASPH.PFC) S.80, D.100, DT.160 MIRL 2.0% up SE IAP, AD Many mountain airports have sloping runways. The FAA maximum is 2%. More than 5% is severe Surrounding terrain may make airport one-way, e.g. ASE always departing downhill and landing uphill. For an uphill landing add about 5 knots to allow for the extra flare. If you must land downhill, use the minimum possible approach speed or you will float, float, float Perspective illusions make you tend to approach too steep on downhill runways and vice-versa. Check your VSI. On downhill takeoffs, accelerate in ground effect. Don t over-rotate. In general be cautious about mixing wind and runway gradient. However, if the surrounding terrain allows takeoff in either direction, the better direction will be no worse than a no-wind/no-slope takeoff roll. Taking off uphill, chances are that the terrain beyond the departure end rises and may exceed the climb capability of the airplane. If you haven t got 70% of your liftoff speed(*) half-way to your liftoff point, abort! (*) 70% of the liftoff speed plus/minus 30% of the head/tailwind component includes the effect of the wind. (Lowry)

14 Near your ceiling think high performance sailplane not doggy airplane. Up and down-drafts are the sailplane pilot s friend. Make them yours. Don t dilly-dally in downdrafts. In strong up- and down-drafts: (1) Try to maintain altitude (BAD) (2) Maintain airspeed (BETTER) (3) Slow in updrafts and dive through downdrafts. (BEST) Where up? Upwind of ridges, above sunlit slopes, in mountain waves, under Cu. clouds. In a canyon or narrow valley, hug the updraft (downwind) side. This give more room for a 180. Never fly beyond a point where you can no longer make a gliding 180. Crossing a ridgeline, make your final approach (last ½ - 1 mile) at a 45 degree angle to facilitate a turn back to lower terrain. Beware of the false horizon stall and the short left arm feet of terrain clearance is usually adequate, with experience, often less.

15 In a downdraft causing altitude loss, you should fly faster than Vy. By diving in downdrafts and zooming in updrafts, you spend more time going up than down Vy Vx-Updraft Updraft Vx-Nominal ROC Airspeed Vx-Downdraft Calm air Downdraft IFR: block altitude assignment?

16 At ~5000 ft+ density altitudes you need to lean for takeoff. Lean for max power in a full-power run-up. If it isn t paved, lean on the takeoff roll. On the landing checklist, don t go to full rich but something close to max power. Don t lean turbo- airplanes! Allow the airplane accelerate to Vx/Vy after takeoff. Don t fly with a short left arm! Center the ball. Go-arounds at high elevation airports can be very critical, even impossible if left too late. Establish a commit point.

17 Mountain weather Mountains amplify weather. Orographic lifting adds to synoptic effects. Observations are more sparse and the weather is more changeable. Remember ceiling heights are above airport (valley) elevations. Terrain reduces your options to fly around the weather.

18 Mountain Waves - stable air plus wind Leading edge of the lenticulars (if present) marks the updrafts. Loiter there to gain altitude that can be spent later. Beware of roll/rotor clouds below the wave. A strong mountain wave requires: Marked stability in the air stream disturbed by the mountain. Rapidly building cumulus over the mountains visually marks the air unstable; convection, evidenced by the cumulus, tends to deter wave formation. Wind speed at the level of the summit should exceed a minimum which varies from 15 to 25 knots depending on the height of the range. Upper winds should increase or at least remain constant with height up to the tropopause. Wind direction should be within 30 degrees normal to the range. Lift diminishes as winds more nearly parallel the range.

19 Stacked lenticulars over Boulder, Colorado

20 Rotor clouds - possible extreme turbulence! Sierra Nevada Rotor Cloud Inyo Range Owens Valley April Tom Henderson. Owens Valley April Sierra Rotor Project Alex Reneicke

21 Bob Symons famous picture of the Sierra Wave taken from a P-38 soaring with both engines feathered.

22 Mountain TRWs unstable + moisture Cumulus building over the Sierras Typically form PM. Mountain flying is normally best in the AM! - cooler temperatures - clearer skies

23 Pre/post quiz Under otherwise identical conditions at sea-level you would approach at 70 knots. Landing at South Lake Tahoe, you would: A) Approach at a higher speed to accommodate the thinner air B) Approach at the same indicated airspeed. C) Anticipate a longer landing roll D) All of the above Flying in a narrow valley, it is best to: A) Fly down the middle B) Keep to the right side C) Fly on the downwind side The temperature rose 15C from AM to early PM. The density altitude: A) increased about 1800 B) increased about 2900 C) decreased Compared to sea-level, at a high altitude airport A) Landing distances are the same but takeoff distances increase B) Takeoff distances increase more than landing distances Rising air can be found on which side of standing lenticular clouds - A) upwind B) downwind Runway 3-21 at Sedona is 5129 long and slopes up 1.8% to the NE. It is located on top of a mesa elevation The temperature is 22 C. The wind is from 030 at 5 knots. On which runway you would expect a shorter takeoff roll in the 182: 03 or 21? In the Archer?

24 Bedtime reading Mountain Flying Mountain Flying, Sparky Imeson, Airguide Pub. (Long Beach 1982) Mountain Flying, Doug Geeting and Steve Woerner, Tab (1991) A Guide to Bush Flying, Fred Potts, ACS Pubs (Tucson 1993) Aircraft Performance Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators The Advanced Pilot s Flight Manual, Kershner Flying High Performance Singles and Twins, Eckalbar Mountain Weather Turbulence: A New Perspective for Pilots, Lester (Jeppesen 1993) Exploring the monster, Whelan, (Wind Canyon Books, 2000) T-REX

### PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE AEROPLANE MANUAL SACAA-01 FOR EXAMINATION PURPOSES ONLY PLEASE DO NOT MARK ON OR DAMAGE THIS MANUAL IN ANY WAY OCTOBER 2008

FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND PLANNING PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE AEROPLANE MANUAL SACAA-01 FOR EXAMINATION PURPOSES ONLY PLEASE DO NOT MARK ON OR DAMAGE THIS MANUAL IN ANY WAY OCTOBER 2008 SOUTH AFRICAN CIVIL AVIATION

### AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE Pressure Altitude And Density Altitude

Performance- Page 67 AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE Pressure Altitude And Density Altitude Pressure altitude is indicated altitude corrected for nonstandard pressure. It is determined by setting 29.92 in the altimeter

### 10/7/ :27 PM Page 1

Name: 1 (3201)- The four forces acting on an airplane in flight are A- lift, weight, thrust, and drag. B- lift, weight, gravity, and thrust. C- lift, gravity, power, and friction. 2 (3201.1)- Which statement

### Louisiana Tech University Flight Operations Cessna 172 RG VFR Maneuvers Guide

Louisiana Tech University Flight Operations Cessna 172 RG VFR Maneuvers Guide Current as of: 10/29/2008 1 Attitude Flying Attitude + Power = Performance The desired attitude is obtained by using the outside

### Louisiana Tech University Flight Operations Cessna 172 VFR Profiles

PURPOSE Louisiana Tech University Flight Operations Cessna 172 VFR Profiles The information contained herein has been developed for the purpose of compliance with 14 CFR 141.85. The main objective of this

### Pre-Solo Written Exam (ASEL)

Pre-Solo Written Exam (ASEL) Student Name Exam Administered By Date Exam Completed Introduction FAR 61.87(b) specifies that prior to conducting solo flight, a student pilot must demonstrate satisfactory

### The Airplane and Basic Aerodynamics Robert French Version 0.2 3/11/03

Robert French Version 0.2 3/11/03 Gleim sections 1.1-10, 2.3 Aircraft Parts Figure 1: A Piper Saratoga II TC low-wing airplane The fuselage is the central body of the airplane that contains the crew, passengers,

### 3. FLYING TECHNIQUES. 3.1 Speed Management. 3.2 Attitude Management. 3.3 Height Management. 3.4 Transit Flying

3. FLYING TECHNIQUES 3.1 Speed Management Maintaining an appropriate airspeed can be very challenging in mountainous terrain. Pilots need to be aware of the speed limitations from the RFM especially in

### IN FLIGHT MANEUVERS AND OPERATING PROCEDURES C-172

Flight Training and Aircraft Rentals 14150 14532 SW 129th St. MIAMI, FL. 33186 www.flymiami.com 305-259-5611 IN FLIGHT MANEUVERS AND OPERATING PROCEDURES C-172 Normal Cruise: Straight and level flight

### WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture

WEATHER THEORY Temperature, Pressure And Moisture Air Masses And Fronts Weather Theory- Page 77 Every physical process of weather is a result of a heat exchange. The standard sea level temperature is 59

### Speeds frequently used in General Aviation

Speeds frequently used in General Aviation V A V FE V LE V LO design maneuvering speed (stalling speed at the maximum legal G-force, and hence the maximum speed at which abrupt, full deflection, elevator

### 10/22/2013 4:24 PM Page 1

Name: Instructor Key 1- The four forces acting on an airplane in flight are *A- lift, weight, thrust, and drag. B- lift, weight, gravity, and thrust. C- lift, gravity, power, and friction. Expl- Lift,

### This section includes performance data on the King Air B200. Information consists of:

King Air B200 POH Pilot's Operating Handbook: This section includes performance data on the King Air B200. Information consists of: 1. Critical Airspeeds 2. Operating NOTAMS 3. Fuel Loading Formula Checklists:

### Cessna 172SP & NAV III Maneuvers Checklist

Cessna 172SP & NAV III Maneuvers Checklist Introduction Power Settings This document is intended to introduce to you the standard method of performing maneuvers in Sunair Aviation s Cessna 172SP and NAV

### Mountain Flying. by K. Truemper

Mountain Flying by K. Truemper Acknowledgment: We thank Darrel Watson very much. suggested a number of improvements. He reviewed a first draft and Each time I plan a flight to the Rocky Mountains and beyond,

### Performance. 15. Takeoff and Landing

Performance 15. Takeoff and Landing The takeoff distance consists of two parts, the ground run, and the distance from where the vehicle leaves the ground to until it reaches 50 ft (or 15 m). The sum of

### BE76 Beechcraft Duchess Maneuvers Checklist

BE76 Beechcraft Duchess Maneuvers Checklist Introduction Power Settings This document is intended to introduce to you the standard method of performing maneuvers in Sunair Aviation s Beechcraft Duchess

### VFR Cross Country Flight Planning

Pilot in Command The owner/operator is responsible for maintaining the aircraft in airworthy condition. The pilot in command is responsible for determining that the aircraft is safe and legal for flight.

### CESSNA 172S and 172R Use the C-172R (180hp) and C-172S Information Manuals for this first section (12 questions)

CESSNA 172 Rev 11/09 Three points each question Page 1 of 6 References: Cessna 172R, S, I, and N Pilot's Operating Handbooks and Information Manuals with applicable STC supplements, and RAFA SOP, April

### There are additional risks when flying in the mountains. Actively manage those risks for a safe flight.

S A F E T Y A D V I S O R Operations and Proficiency No. 10 Mountain Flying Note: This Safety Advisor gives practical advice for managing the risks of mountain flying. It is NOT intended to replace a mountain

### Pre Solo Written Test

Pre-Solo Written Test Remember, all questions are open book. If you use a source to answer a question note the source and page number (or FAR number and page) for easy reference. Draw a diagram whenever

### FLIGHT MANEUVERS GUIDE

ELMENDORF AERO CLUB STANDARDIZED FLIGHT MANEUVERS GUIDE (C 172RG) MARCH 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents... 2 Purpose... 3 Back to Basics... 4 Slow Flight... 5 Power-Off Stall... 6 Power-On Stall... 7 Steep

### FLYBLOCKTIME PA-28-140/160 Aircraft Type Checkout and Currency Quiz. NOTE: There may be one or more correct answers to each question.

FLYBLOCKTIME PA-28-140/160 Aircraft Type Checkout and Currency Quiz Pilot s Name Date NOTE: There may be one or more correct answers to each question. 1 ) The engine in a PA-28-140/160 is a A. Continental

### Exam questions for obtaining aircraft licenses and ratings

Exam questions for obtaining aircraft licenses and ratings Subject: PPL (A) Flight performance and planning Revision 1 07.10.2009. Period of validity: 01 January 2010 th - 31 December 2010 th Belgrade

### Speeds: Various Aviation Authorities

Speeds: Various Aviation Authorities This document is designed to be a compilation of V-speeds used by any agency/military/company of the world, including outdated speeds no longer used, to act as a general

### FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND PLANNING PERFORMANCE - HELICOPTER GENERAL Performance Legislation

Introduction: To fully appreciate and understand subject 034- Performance (Helicopters), the applicant will benefit from background knowledge in subject 082 Principles of Flight (Helicopters) 030 00 00

Exceed your expectations ADVANTAGE THROUGH INNOVATION A top performer that takes you sky high: the ultra-modern DA42-VI perfectly matches stylish elegance with easy and efficient operation. Well-designed

### CHAPTER 1. Fundamental Mathematics

Volume 9 Performance (JAR Ref 032) Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 Fundamental Mathematics Introduction...1-1 Equations...1-1 The Principle of an Equation...1-1 Transposing Equations...1-1 Adding and Subtracting...1-1

### The Four Fundamental Flight Maneuvers: by: Darryl Kalthof c2010

The Four Fundamental Flight Maneuvers: by: Darryl Kalthof www.bayareaflyinglessons.com c2010 Note you will get even more out of this file if you read a chapter on aerodynamics first! Elements: Effect and

### Welcome to Mul+- Engine Ground School!

Welcome to Mul+- Engine Ground School! Schedule Welcome How to add- on a mul2- engine ra2ng One- engine inopera2ve aerodynamics Performance planning Summary Closure Mul2- Engine Ra2ng Requirements No 2me

### DELAWARE STATE UNIVERSITY

DELAWARE STATE UNIVERSITY Aviation Program Flight Maneuvers Standardization Manual October 2013 (Revised May 30, 2014) INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK DELAWARE STATE UNIVERSITY FLIGHT MANEUVERS STANDARDIZATION

### CESSNA 172S and 172R Use the C-172R (180hp) and C-172S Information Manuals for this first section (12 questions)

Four points each question Page 1 of 6 References: Cessna 172R, S, and N Pilot's Operating Handbooks and Information Manuals with applicable STC supplements, and RAFA SOP, April 2008. CESSNA 172S and 172R

### Multi-Engine Maneuvers

Multi-Engine Maneuvers Beech Model 95 NOTE: All maneuvers start with the aircraft trimmed straight and level above 3,000 feet AGL, power set at 22-23 inches and 2200-2300 rpm and airspeed indicating approximately

### Cessna 172R&S Checklist

Preflight Inspection 2 Empanage-Left 1 Cabin Baggage Compartment Check 1 Times 1 Baggage Door Check Time to Plane Record Left Side Fuselage Check Hobbs Time Record Horizontal Stabilizer-Left Side Check

### Multi-Engine Training And The PTS

Multi-Engine Training And The PTS GHAFI John Sollinger/Larry Hendrickson October 28, 2000 Overview FAR differences between original and add-on Multi-Engine PTS Training methods Common training scenarios

### Principles of Flight. There are four major forces acting on an aircraft: Gravity Lift Drag Thrust. lift. thrust. drag. gravity

Principles of Flight There are four major forces acting on an aircraft: Gravity Lift Drag Thrust Gravity Gravity is the downward force that keeps the airplane on the ground or pulls the airplane toward

### Understanding Drag, Thrust, and Airspeed relationships

Understanding Drag, Thrust, and Airspeed relationships Wayne Pratt May 30, 2010 CFII 1473091 The classic curve of drag verses airspeed can be found in any aviation textbook. However, there is little discussion

### C-172-P Checkout Questionnaire

C-172-P Checkout Questionnaire Name Date Certificate and Ratings Certificate# Total Time Instructor (if applicable) Airspeeds 1. What are the following V speeds in KIAS? Vr Vx Vy Vs Vso Vno Vne Va Vfe

### Multiengine: Engine-Inoperative Principles 1/8

Multiengine: Engine-Inoperative Principles 1/8 Multiengine: engine-inoperative principles Side slip vs. zero side slip With a multiengine airplane with all its engines operating, sideslip is eliminated

### Compiled by Matt Zagoren

The information provided in this document is to be used during simulated flight only and is not intended to be used in real life. Attention VA's - you may post this file on your site for download. Please

### US Sport Aircraft, Inc. SportCruiser Standard Operating Procedures and Maneuvers Supplement 1

US Sport Aircraft, Inc. SportCruiser Standard Operating Procedures and Maneuvers Supplement 1 1 This Supplement is not a replacement for personal Flight Instruction and shall only be used in conjunction

### Form And Function What Is Angle of Attack? By Ed Kolano

Form And Function What Is Angle of Attack? By Ed Kolano To new pilots with a military inclination, angle of attack might be another way to describe a military flanking maneuver. But the context here is

MANUAL REVERSION Manual reversion means that both hydraulic systems A & B are inoperative: the ailerons and elevator are controlled manually. A noticeable dead band will be observed in both of these controls

### Using ASA s Flight Planner

Using ASA s Flight Planner A flight log is an important part in the preparation for a safe flight. The flight log is needed during flight to check your groundspeed and monitor flight progress to ensure

### Navigation - Flight Planning Notes

Initial Preparation The key to a successful trip is being well organized and prepared Allow plenty of time to obtain and prepare as much information as possible prior to the flight You will need: Current

### Glider Accidents Statistics & Prevention Larry Suter / John Scott. Northern California Soaring Association & Air Sailing Gliderport

Glider Accidents Statistics & Prevention Larry Suter / John Scott Northern California Soaring Association & Air Sailing Gliderport Glider Accident Summary Data from 2008 2013 172 accidents reported to

### Compiled by Matt Zagoren

The information provided in this document is to be used during simulated flight only and is not intended to be used in real life. Attention VA's - you may post this file on your site for download. Please

### ExpressJet Airlines Pilot Job Knowledge Test Outline

ExpressJet Airlines Pilot Job Knowledge Test Outline The job knowledge test administered as part of the pilot interview process consists of questions in four major knowledge areas essential to piloting

### Remember that the drag force acting on an aircraft

Minimum rag peed Prof. r. Mustafa avcar chool of ivil Aviation Anadolu University Eskisehir, Turkey mcavcar@anadolu.edu.tr Remember that the drag force acting on an aircraft ρ = V (1) where is the drag

### Flight Safety Foundation. Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction. Tool Kit. FSF ALAR Briefing Note 8.3 Landing Distances

Flight Safety Foundation Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction Tool Kit FSF ALAR Briefing Note 8.3 Landing Distances When discussing landing distance, two categories must be considered: Actual landing

Chapter 10 Weather Information and Flight Planning Table of Contents General...2 Weather Analysis in Flight Planning...2 Weather Minimums...2 Required Reports to Dispatch...3 Hydroplaning...3 Thunderstorm

### Mountain Air Country Club Pilot s Manual Version 1.07 Mountain Air Pilots Association

Mountain Air Country Club Pilot s Manual Version 1.07 Mountain Air Pilots Association John M. Cuckler, Editor Educational Committee: John Ransom, Eddie Franco, Doug Pilkington, Clark Jernigan, Lionel Kuhn

Chapter 10 Advanced Flight Maneuvers Introduction The maneuvers presented in this chapter require more skill and understanding of the helicopter and the surrounding environment. When performing these maneuvers,

### General Characteristics

This is the third of a series of Atlantic Sun Airways CAT C pilot procedures and checklists for our fleet. Use them with good judgment. Note, the start procedures may vary from FS9 Panel to Panel. However

### Darling Downs Soaring Club Inc

Darling Downs Soaring Club Inc Training Supplement Use of Flaps Flaps This is a general briefing on flaps in gliders and should be read in conjunction with the aircraft flight manual for the type you are

### Light Sport West Standard Flight Training Procedures for N110GX (Remos GX, 100 H.P.)

Light Sport West Standard Flight Training Procedures for N110GX (Remos GX, 100 H.P.) Welcome to Light Sport West! Thank you for giving us the opportunity to provide all of your flight training needs. Our

### UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

UNIT VII--ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY AND INSTABILITY The stability or instability of the atmosphere is a concern to firefighters. This unit discusses how changes in the atmosphere affect fire behavior, and

### CIVIL AIR PATROL. CAPP 52-7(E), 1 October Cadet Orientation Flight Syllabus

CIVIL AIR PATROL CAPP 52-7(E), 1 October 2001 Cadet Orientation Flight Syllabus Section Requirements The goal of the cadet orientation flight program is to introduce youth to flying. T he Cadet Orientation

### Introduction to Wildland Fire Management. REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management

Introduction to Wildland Fire Management Fireline Safety 101: Keep informed on fire weather conditions and forecasts REM 244: Introduction to Wildland Fire Management 3. Introduction to Fire Weather Surface

### Civil Aviation. Sample Examination

TP 877E (08/2007) Civil Aviation Sample Examination Glider Pilot Licence Tenth Edition August 2006 TC-1002373 *TC-1002373* Other related TC Publications: TP 876E Study & Reference Guide, Glider Pilot Licence,

### CHAPTER 11: AIRSPACE

CHAPTER 11: AIRSPACE The national airspace system was developed to allow many types of aircraft to safely use the skies at the same time. In this chapter, you will learn about the different types of airspace

### PERFORMANCE and LIMITATIONS

How do you prepare for a flight? PAVE: Pilot, Aircraft Environment and External Pressures. PILOT A pilot must continually make decisions about competency, condition of health, mental and emotional state,

### Aeroprakt A22 Foxbat

Aeroprakt A22 Foxbat New owner familiarisation programme July 2009 Welcome to your new A22 Foxbat! To ensure full enjoyment and to maximise safe operation of your new A22 Foxbat, we have developed the

Takeoff Tools TM Crosswind Calculator Instructions Copyright 2005 by Eric C. King. All rights reserved. Rev. 11Sep05 Takeoff Tools TM Suppose you re arriving at, or about to depart from, an airport. You

### Flight Safety Foundation. Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction. Tool Kit. FSF ALAR Briefing Note 4.2 Energy Management

Flight Safety Foundation Approach-and-landing Accident Reduction Tool Kit FSF ALAR Briefing Note 4.2 Energy Management The flight crew s inability to assess or to manage the aircraft s energy condition

### Flight Test of Transport Category Airplanes

The linked image cannot be displayed. The file may have been moved, renamed, or deleted. Verify that the link points to the correct file and location. Flight Test of Transport Category Airplanes Heather

### Cessna 172S. Flight Training Standardization Guide REVISION: ORIGINAL

Cessna 172S Flight Training Standardization Guide REVISION: ORIGINAL Contents Purpose... 4 Normal and Crosswind Takeoff and Climb... 5 Normal and Crosswind Landing... 6 Soft Field Takeoff and Climb...

### OPERATIONS CIRCULAR. OC NO 2 OF 2014 Date: 1 st May 2014. Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA) 1. PURPOSE

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA CIVIL AVIATION DEPARTMENT DIRECTOR GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION OC NO 2 OF 2014 Date: 1 st May 2014 OPERATIONS CIRCULAR Subject: Continuous Descent Final Approach (CDFA) 1. PURPOSE This

### Use of Radio Nav Aids EFIS, GPWS & EGPWS

Use of Radio Nav Aids EFIS, GPWS & EGPWS Electronic Flight Instrument System ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM (EFIS): is a flight deck instrument display system in which the display technology used

### E6-B Flight Computer Instructions 1992 2000 ASA. Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc. 7005 132nd Place SE Newcastle, WA 98059-3153

E6-B Flight Computer Instructions This instruction booklet can be used with the three different E6-B models available from ASA. If you have a different model than the one depicted, some parts of your computer

### BHUTAN TECHNICAL DEMONSTRATION FLIGHTS IN FLIGHT OPERATIONS

In the kingdom of Bhutan, high in the Himalayan Mountains, is Paro International Airport. One of the world s most challenging airports, Paro is 7,3 ft (2.23 km) above sea level and surrounded by deep valleys

### APPENDIX 3-B Airplane Upset Recovery Briefing. Briefing. Figure 3-B.1

APPENDIX 3-B Airplane Upset Recovery Briefing Industry Solutions for Large Swept-Wing Turbofan Airplanes Typically Seating More Than 100 Passengers Briefing Figure 3-B.1 Revision 1_August 2004 Airplane

### HE 7. Techniques for Helicopter Operations in Hilly and Mountainous Terrain. EHEST Component of ESSI FOR HELICOPTER PILOTS AND INSTRUCTORS

EHEST Component of ESSI European Helicopter Safety Team Techniques for Helicopter Operations in Hilly and Mountainous Terrain FOR HELICOPTER PILOTS AND INSTRUCTORS TRAINING LEAFLET HE 7 2 >> Techniques

### ENGINE FIRE / SEVERE DAMAGE / SEPARATION ON TAKEOFF

ENGINE FIRE / SEVERE DAMAGE / SEPARATION ON TAKEOFF According to RYANAIR Procedures PF PM REMARKS Control the aircraft (FULL T/O thrust can be manually selected) Announce «ENGINE FAILURE» or «ENGINE FIRE»

### Student Pilot Training. Basic Flight Training Phase I

Student Pilot Training Basic Flight Training Phase I Task #1 Ground support equipment, engine starting, & taxi training Perform aircraft preparation and inspection. Perform engine start and radio checks.

### AERODROME TRAFFIC CIRCUIT

Learning Goals FLYING VFR PATTERNS AERODROME TRAFFIC CIRCUIT The Aerodrome pattern is a standard path followed by aircrafts when taking off or landing. At an airport, the pattern (or circuit) is a standard

### Grob Twin Astir. Checklist And Quick Reference

Grob Twin Astir Checklist And Quick Reference Normal Procedures Airspeeds For Normal Operations (kts) Solo Dual Best Glide (V L/D ) _51 60_ Minimum Sink (V MS ) _40 49_ Maneuvering (V A ) _92 92_ Never

### This constraint often sets the aircraft wing area, engine size, or high lift system design.

Aircraft Performance Aircraft performance includes many aspects of the airplane operation. Here we deal with a few of the most important performance measures including airfield performance, climb, and

### This is the second of a series of Atlantic Sun Airways CAT A pilot procedures and checklists for our fleet. Use them with good judgment.

This is the second of a series of Atlantic Sun Airways CAT A pilot procedures and checklists for our fleet. Use them with good judgment. The CRJ-0 will roll even with the thrust levers at IDLE. One-engine

### HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS

HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS CONING Miranda Davies 1994 All Rights Reserved The upward bending of the rotor blades caused by the combined forces of lift and centrifugal force. Coning is more pronounced with

### Flight Training Program Outline Private Pilot Licence

Flight Training Program Outline Private Pilot Licence Last updated November 2015 Table of Contents Introduction:... 2 Cost Breakdown... 2 Private Pilot Privileges:... 3 Private Pilot Prerequisites:...

### Flight Controls. Control The Wright Brothers described flight in three axes roll, pith and yaw.

Flight Controls The Wright Brothers were engineers first, pilots second. Introduction We have learned about the four forces that act on an airplane. The Wright Brothers were the first to fly because they

### Wing Design: Major Decisions. Wing Area / Wing Loading Span / Aspect Ratio Planform Shape Airfoils Flaps and Other High Lift Devices Twist

Wing Design: Major Decisions Wing Area / Wing Loading Span / Aspect Ratio Planform Shape Airfoils Flaps and Other High Lift Devices Twist Wing Design Parameters First Level Span Area Thickness Detail Design

### Oral Preparation Questions

Oral Preparation Questions The oral section of the practical test is the time when you need to demonstrate your understanding of the various tasks listed in the practical test standards and the factors

### Standard Flight Training Procedures - Cessna 172R

Standard Flight Training Procedures - Cessna 172R The following guide is intended to reduce both student and instructor frustration by standardizing most of the maneuvers you will encounter during your

### Performance. 12. Gliding Flight (Steady State)

Performance 12. Gliding Flight (Steady State) If the engine is turned off, (T = 0), and one desires to maintain airspeed, it is necessary to put the vehicle at such an attitude that the component of the

### This is the fourth of a series of Atlantic Sun Airways CAT B pilot procedures and checklists for our fleet. Use them with good judgment.

This is the fourth of a series of Atlantic Sun Airways CAT B pilot procedures and checklists for our fleet. Use them with good judgment. Dimensions: Wing Span: 112 ft 7 in Length: 129 ft 6 in Height: 41

### 2014 NIFA CRM Contestant Briefing Guide San Diego, California

2014 NIFA CRM Contestant Briefing Guide San Diego, California Region 2 SAFECON 2014 November 12 15 This document supports the 2014 NIFA Collegiate Cockpit Resource Management Simulation and is not for

### Training Syllabus For Private Pilot Helicopter

1 Each numbered bold heading below represents one lesson. The duration of each lesson will vary. Lessons may be repeated as necessary. The lessons below will correspond to instructor recommended home study

### AIRPLANE FLYING HANDBOOK

FAA-H-8083-3A Front Matter.qxd 5/7/04 10:45 AM Page i AIRPLANE FLYING HANDBOOK 2004 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION Flight Standards Service Front Matter.qxd 5/7/04 10:45

### Aerodynamics. Getting to the Point. Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame

Aerodynamics Getting to the Point Orville Wright Wilbur Wright Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing

### pirit LR-25 *\$2,300,000

B&CA Equipped Price *\$2,300,000 \$2,520,000 A \$6,068,000 \$6,205,130 \$4,613,000 \$1,520,000 Characteristics Seating Wing Loading Power Loading Noise:TO/Sideline/APR 1+6/9 60.3 2.91 78/88/92 1+5/5 41.2 2.96

### Multi Engine Oral Exam Questions

Multi Engine Oral Exam Questions 1. What are the requirements for a multi-engine rating? 2. What is the max rated horse power at sea level? At 12,000 msl? 3. What is the rated engine speed? 4. What is

### ASYMMETRIC FLIGHT INTRODUCTION

ASYMMETRIC FLIGHT INTRODUCTION This section provides a discussion of the asymmetric flight of multi-engine airplanes following loss of power from an engine(s) mounted laterally either side of the centerline.

### Noise Certification Workshop

Noise Certification Workshop Session 2: Aircraft Noise Certification Annex 16, Volume I and equivalent procedures Jan Böttcher Luftfahrt-Bundesamt, Braunschweig, Germany Montreal, 20 to 21 October 2004

### BASIC AERODYNAMICS Lift Drag

BASIC AERODYNAMICS The forces that affect a parachute are invisible, but not incomprehensible. Learn what makes a parachute fly well and you will know what makes it fly badly. There are two basic ways

### 6.0 JET ENGINE WAKE AND NOISE DATA. 6.2 Airport and Community Noise

6.0 JET ENGINE WAKE AND NOISE DATA 6.1 Jet Engine Exhaust Velocities and Temperatures 6.2 Airport and Community Noise DECEMBER 2002 139 6.0 JET ENGINE WAKE AND NOISE DATA 6.1 Jet Engine Exhaust Velocities

### Performance. 13. Climbing Flight

Performance 13. Climbing Flight In order to increase altitude, we must add energy to the aircraft. We can do this by increasing the thrust or power available. If we do that, one of three things can happen: