The Dawn of Civilization Prehistory to AD 300

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1 The Dawn of Civilization Prehistory to AD The Beginnings of Civilization Prehistory to 1000 BC 2. The Ancient Near East 4000 BC 550 BC 3. The Nile Civilizations 5000 BC AD Ancient India and China 2500 BC 250 BC

2 5000BC-AD300 Ancient Nile Civilizations 5000 BC to Ad The Kingdom of Egypt 2. Egyptian Culture 3. The Nubian Kingdoms It is known as the site of one of the world s earliest civilizations The land of the pyramids and pharaohs

3 1. A View of Egypt by Satellite 5000BC-AD300 Most important physical feature in Egypt The longest river in the world going through the largest desert in the world

4 5000BC-AD300 The Annual Flooding of the Nile- The Nile River floods every year Spring rains feed the river s sources south of Egypt The flood lands cover the surrounding land with a rich black silt

5 The Fertile Nile Valley 5000BC-AD300 Egyptian s name for the country - the Black land Delta-area at the mouth of the river made up of silk deposits

6 5000BC-AD300 Nile Irrigation-the Shaduf Shadufs - A Machine that early Egyptians used to Move Water

7 5000BC-AD Ancient Egyptian History Periods Time Frame Nile Culture Begins 3900 B. C. E. Archaic B. C. E. Old Kingdom B. C. E. Middle Kingdom B. C. E. New Kingdom B. C. E. Late Period B. C. E. Greek Ptolemaic Era B. C. E. Roman Period 30 B. C. E. 395 C. E.

8 5000BC-AD300 Menes: c B. C. The two kingdoms of Egypt were unified under a ruler named Menes founded the city of Memphis, capital of Egypt adopted the symbols of Upper and Lower Egypt - the cobra and the vulture wore a red and white crown to symbolize unification

9 5000BC-AD300 Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara rise of the Third Dynasty 2650 BC marked the beginning of the Old Kingdom, lasting about 500 years The most famous symbols of Old Kingdom are the pyramids pyramids were built as tombs for Egypt s rulers Bent Pyramid of King Sneferu The Old Kingdom

10 Giza Pyramid Complex 5000BC-AD300 The largest and most famous of the Old Kingdom pyramids are located in the town Giza Inside or below each pyramid was a hollow chamber in which a dead king was buried

11 Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs Tutankhamon B. C. E. King Tut during the New Kingdom 5000BC-AD300 Thutmose III B. C. E. He created the largest empire Egypt had seen Pharaohs - great house absolute power- human god Ramses II B. C. E. Regarded as Egypt s greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh

12 Egyptian Social Hierarchy 5000BC-AD300 Pharaohs at the top Viziers - government officials responsible for advising the pharaoh, carrying out orders, and trying court cases below viziers - hundreds of lesser officials below them nobles Bureaucracy-a highly structured organization

13 Egyptian Priestly Class 5000BC-AD300 Because the pharaoh was thought to be a god, religion and government were closely intertwined in the Old Kingdom Egypt was a theocracy, a state ruled by religious figures

14 Egyptian Nobility 5000BC-AD300 Power local nobles began to assert their own authority as rivals to the pharaoh As a result, Egypt s internal order and stability gradually disappeared

15 The Middle Kingdom 5000BC-AD300 Pharaohs of the Old Kingdom eventually lost power due to economic problems, invasions, and civil wars with their noble class. Famine and widespread added to the chaos New dynasty came to power, the Middle Kingdom 2055 Middle Kingdom pharaohs encouraged sailing and trading with foreign lands Despite improvements made, the Middle Kingdom fell to raiders from Syria

16 5000BC-AD300 The New Kingdom The Hykos, Raiders from Syria, invaded the Nile Delta and conquered Lower Egypt Ruled Egypt for 100 years; eventually Egypt drove them out New Kingdom pharaohs decided to build militaries to protect Egypt from foreign invasion

17 Hatshepsut 5000BC-AD300 Hatshepsut-best known for encouraging trade - her trading expeditions are carved on her walls of her temple One of the few women to control Egypt She wanted to be treated like a pharaoh, so she dressed like a man Part human part lion

18 5000BC-AD300 Ankhenaton: First Monotheist? Egyptians had been worshipping many gods for centuries Amenhotep IV- believed in one god- Aten-the god of the sun He banned the worship of any god but Aten; built new capital Akhetan Did not last long - King Tut restored polytheism and moved kingdom back to Thebes B. C. E.

19 King Tutankhamon 5000BC-AD300 King Tut served as a pharaoh in the New Kingdom B. C. E. Restored belief in the traditional gods of Egyptians

20 5000BC-AD300 Howard Carter Howard Carter 1922 Archaeologist who discovered King Tut s Tomb they discovered the jars that held the pharaoh s organs

21 5000BC-AD300 King Tut s Tomb King Tutankhamon s Death Mask Entrance to King Tut s Tomb

22 5000BC-AD300 King Tutankhamun s Tomb The Tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamon, King Tut was one of the richest archaeological discoveries ever made It provided historians many clues to Egyptian civilization

23 5000BC-AD300 Treasures From Tut s Tomb The tomb contained a wealth of treasures, including a magnificent golden coffin that held Tut s mummy The tomb also had hundreds of items for the pharaoh to enjoy the afterlife

24 The Ankh 5000BC-AD300 The Cross of Life Egyptian Hieroglyphic character that reads Eternal Life The over head represents the Nile Delta, with the vertical representing the path of the river and the east and west represents the unification of lower and upper Egypt Represents the passage from life to death

25 Abu Simbel: 5000BC-AD300 Monument to Ramses II B. C. E. Pharoah Ramses II went to war against the Hittite Empire both claimed victory both armies agreed to a truce Nubian Monuments -built to commemorate Battle of Kadesh

26 5000BC-AD300 Queen Nefertiti As a sign of peace, he married the Princess of the Hittites Wife of Pharoah Ramesses II in the 13 th Century BC Ramses the Great ruled for 60 years. He built more temples and monuments than other other pharaoh

27 Egyptian Creation Myth 5000BC-AD300 The Goddess Nut-Personifies Moisture

28 King Egyptian Gods & Goddesses: The Sacred Trinity 5000BC-AD300 Wife and Sister son Osiris-king and judge of the dead He introduced civilization to Egypt Soon after, he was killed by his brother, Seth, who cut the god s body into pieces that he scattered around Egypt Isis -Goddess of Nature and Women She sought out the pieces, reassembled them, and brought him back to life Horus -God of the sky child of Osiris who sought revenge on his uncle Seth

29 The Final Judgement 5000BC-AD300 Anubis Horus Osiris Anubis was a judge of the dead and the protector of ceremonies and of mummy makers. Osiris became the new judge and replaced Anubis

30 5000BC-AD300 Preparations for the Underworld Priests protected your KA, or soul spirit Head of a Jackal ANUBIS weighs the dead person s heart against a feather. Egyptians believed that when the physical being died, a force called the ka escaped Believed that the ka might vanish if the body was not preserved - mummification He weighed the souls of the dead to decide their fate Those who had light souls were good in life and were rewarded; those who had heavy souls were evil and were fed to a terrible monster

31 5000BC-AD300 Preparation for the Afterlife The process Egyptians developed for the breakdown of a dead body Early on, only pharaohs and members of royal family could be mummified Later, the process was made available to anyone who could afford it

32 5000BC-AD300 Materials Used in Mummification 1. Linen 6. Natron 2. Sawdust 7. Onion 3. Lichen 8. Nile Mud 4. Beeswax 9. Linen Pads 5. Resin 10. Frankinsense First step - remove organs (except the heart) the body was packed with materials to keep shape Then it was wrapped and artists painted the dead person s features on the outside of the mummy itself or on a mask

33 5000BC-AD300 Journey to the Underworld A boat for the journey is provided for a dead pharaoh in his tomb The dead travel on the Solar Bark.

34 Egyptian Book of the Dead 5000BC-AD300 A collection of hymns, spells, and instructions Allows the deceased to pass into the afterlife

35 Shabtis 5000BC-AD300 Shabtis -The Pharaoh s Servants in the Afterlife Dead Egyptians were buried with all the possessions they need in the afterlife Besides treasures, dead pharaohs needed people to serve them Royal tombs were filled with statues of servants that the Egyptians thought would come to life to serve the pharaoh s ka.

36 5000BC-AD300 Egyptian Mummies Seti I B. C. E. Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II B. C. E. Ramses II B. C. E.

37 The Valley of the Kings 5000BC-AD300 valley in Egypt where Egyptian kings were buried in tombs

38 The Valley of the Queens 5000BC-AD B. C. Temple of Queen Hatshepsut

39 5000BC-AD300 Scenes of Ancient Egyptian Daily Life Egyptian family life varied widely from class to class Father at head of household men did most of the manual labor

40 Ancient Egyptian Housing Middle Class Homes 5000BC-AD300 These included the artisans, craftspeople, and the merchants made and sold the goods sold to other lands lived in brick homes with rooms Peasant Homes largest part of Egyptian society (90%) spent most of the time in the field could be recruited to work on pyramids lived in tiny huts

41 5000BC-AD300 An Egyptian Woman s Must-Haves Perfume Mirror Women worked outside the home had more rights than women in other societies Women primary role - take care of children Men and women wore perfume and makeup Whigs

42 Egyptian Scribe 5000BC-AD300 The best way to gain social status was to become a scribe Scribes ability to read and write made them highly sought after Composed and copied religious texts, collected taxes, and kept public records

43 Hieroglyphic Cartouche 5000BC-AD300 Egyptians were prolific writers They recorded the events of their society in great detail System that uses picture symbols to represent objects, sounds, ideas one of the world s first writing systems

44 Hieroglyphics Alphabet 24 letters phonetic symbols 5000BC-AD300

45 5000BC-AD300 Papyrus Paper Hieratic Scroll Piece Papyrus Plant-grew along the Nile and provided an excellent writing service Because of Egypt s dry climate, papyrus did not compose and is still readable

46 5000BC-AD300 Egyptian Math & Craftsmanship , ,000 1,000,000 What number is this? Interested in Math and Science Used subjects to improve their lives understood basic principles of arithmetic and geometry

47 Champollion & the Rosetta Stone 5000BC-AD300 Champollion deciphered the Stone, which gave us modern understanding of hieroglyphic writing long passages of ancient writings same text written in three different scripts: hieroglyphics, demotic, and ancient Greek unlocked the secrets needed to translate Egyptian hieroglyphics

48 5000BC-AD300 Who Are These Strange People? The reign of Ramses marked the end of Egypt s greatness Challenges came in the form of foreign powers first of the major invasions was the Sea Peoples No one is sure who the Sea People were, but their invasions did bring an end to the Hittite Empire and Egypt

49 5000BC-AD300 Routes of the Sea Peoples The end of the New Kingdom!

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