Cardiac Cycle. All events associated with the flow of blood through the heart during one complete heart beat. Approx 0.83sec if heart rate is 72 bpm

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Cardiac Cycle. All events associated with the flow of blood through the heart during one complete heart beat. Approx 0.83sec if heart rate is 72 bpm"

Transcription

1 Cardiac Cycle All events associated with the flow of blood through the heart during one complete heart beat Approx 0.83sec if heart rate is 72 bpm Cardiac Cycle 2 Periods Diastole/Systole 4 Phases Ventricular filling Isovolumetric contraction Ventricular ejection Isovolumetric relaxation Wiggers Diagram Pressure/volume relationships 1

2 2 Main Periods of the Cardiac Cycle Systole Ventricles contract AV valves close SL valves open Blood flow into arteries Diastole Ventricles relax SL valves shut AV valves open Blood flows into ventricles Phases of the Cardiac Cycle Ventricular filling Pressure atria > Pressure ventricles AV valves open, SL valves still closed Passive Phase-Blood flows from atria to ventricles Active phase- Atria contract Isovolumetric ventricular contraction Ventricle contracting Ventricle pressure> atrial pressure AV snap shut, SL valves already closed 2

3 Phases of the Cardiac Cycle Ventricular ejection Pressure ventricles > pressure arteries Semilunar valves open, AV valves closed Blood flows into arteries Isovolumetric ventricular relaxation Ventricle relaxes Aortic pressure > ventricular pressure AV and semilunar valves closed Cardiac Cycle Wiggers diagram ECG Aortic pressure Left ventricular pressure Left atrial pressure Left ventricular volume Heart sounds Sherwood, Figure 9-21, pg

4 Electrical events P-wave precedes atrial contraction QRS complex precedes ventricular contraction T-wave precedes ventricular relaxation Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ventricular pressure during cardiac cycle Large variation in ventricular pressure to allow for: opening of valves pressure in atria and arteries Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 4

5 Atrial Pressure Changes Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aortic pressure during cardiac cycle Normal value for 80mmHg < aortic BP > 120mmHg Pulse pressure = systolic - diastolic = approx 40mmHg Mean Arterial pressure = 1/3 systolic + 2/3 diastolic = approx 93mmHg Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 5

6 Ventricular Volume & Stroke Volume EDV = end diastolic volume ESV = end systolic volume SV = volume of blood ejected by the ventricle each beat 5 Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., Publishing as Benjamin Cummings SV = EDV - ESV Heart Sounds Sounds occur during turbulent blood flow when valves close Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., Publishing as Benjamin Cummings First sound = soft lubb AV valves close 2nd sound = louder dubb Semilunar valves close 6

7 Cardiac Output Volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle in one minute CO= HR X SV Average CO = 5 liters/min at rest Extrinsic & Intrinsic regulation of CO Extrinsic- neural (ANS) and hormonal (epinephrine) Intrinsic - local Control of Heart Rate Parasympathetic Decreases heart rate Sympathetic Increases heart rate Increases force of contraction Endocrine Catecholamines: Epinephrine and Norepinphrine 7

8 Control of Heart Rate SA node Intrinsic firing rate = 100 impulses/min At rest ( vagal activity inhibits SA node) Average HR = 70 beats/min Achieved via :Parasympathetic (vagus) cholinergic input, K + permeability hyperpolarisation and slower drift to threshold = Inherent SA node pacemaker activity = Parasympathetic stimulation of SA node Control of Heart Rate cont. Initial increases in HR to beats/min Achieved via inhibition of parasympathetic tone (vagal withdrawal) HR > 110 beats/min Achieved via sympathetic stimulation of: SA node: K + permeability: depolarizing effect & faster drift to threshold = SA node pacemaker activity = Sympathetic stimulation of SA node 8

9 Limitations to CO imposed by HR: AV node conduction Decremental conduction Fewer gap junctions Ventricular refractory period Safety mechanism 0.25 to 0.3s Control of Stroke Volume Intrinsic Control End-diastolic volume (Frank Starling law) Extrinsic Control Sympathetic stimulation Ventricular contractility Afterload Sherwood, Fig. 9-20, p

10 Preload: Frank Starling law of the heart Sherwood, 5th edition, fig 9.22, pg. 323 Venous return Blood returning to the right atrium via the great veins Factors that affect venous return include: Posture Skeletal muscle pump Respiratory/abdominal pump Venous tone Atrial pressure gradient 10

11 Contractility Sympathetic stimulation and epinephrine- input to ventricular muscle: Act via β 1 adrenoceptors Increases Ca 2+ entry into cells enhances excitation-contraction coupling greater contractile force of ventricular myocytes Increased SV Limitations to Preload: Ventricular Filling Time Sherwood 4 th edition, fig 9.22, pg

12 Limitations to Preload: Compliance Rigidity Limitations to SV imposed by: Ventricular afterload Increased afterload: Chronic high blood pressure or stenotic valve Exercise -transient Compensation: Hypertrophy May lead to pathological changes in heart structure 12

13 Murmurs:? increased afterload Abnormal sound heard before, between, or after the lubb-dubb of the first and second heart sounds Caused by turbulent blood flow around the valves Sherwood Fig. 9-5, p. 304 Murmurs: Stenotic Valve Mitral stenosis Left atrium needs to generate more pressure Aortic stenosis Left ventricle needs to generate more pressure 13

14 Murmurs: Insufficient valve Mitral regurgitation- left ventricular work Aortic regurgitation- left ventricular work Limitations to Stroke Volume: Ventricular Contraction Duration If contraction too short SV may be decreased Dependent on venous return Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 14

15 Summary: Control of Cardiac Output Summary Blood flow is controlled by pressure changes Wiggers diagram Cardiac output = Heart rate x Stroke Volume Heart rate- increased by sympathetic activity and epinephrine. Decreased by parasympathetic activity. Stroke volume- increased by increased venous return and increased sympathetic nerve activity Limitations of Cardiac Output 15

Note: The left and right sides of the heart must pump exactly the same volume of blood when averaged over a period of time

Note: The left and right sides of the heart must pump exactly the same volume of blood when averaged over a period of time page 1 HEART AS A PUMP A. Functional Anatomy of the Heart 1. Two pumps, arranged in series a. right heart: receives blood from the systemic circulation (via the great veins and vena cava) and pumps blood

More information

Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits. Path of Blood Flow. Heart Anatomy. Heart valves

Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits. Path of Blood Flow. Heart Anatomy. Heart valves Pulmonary and Systemic Circuits Heart: double pumps pulmonary circuit short, low-pressure circulation systemic circuit long, high-friction circulation Trace the flow of blood to & away from the heart P:4

More information

Heart Pump and Cardiac Cycle. Faisal I. Mohammed, MD, PhD

Heart Pump and Cardiac Cycle. Faisal I. Mohammed, MD, PhD Heart Pump and Cardiac Cycle Faisal I. Mohammed, MD, PhD 1 Objectives To understand the volume, mechanical, pressure and electrical changes during the cardiac cycle To understand the inter-relationship

More information

Circulatory Systems III

Circulatory Systems III Circulatory Systems III Mammals & Birds Mammals & Birds Atrioventricular (AV) valves: located between atrias and ventricles and ensure one-way flow Right AV valve = tricuspid valve Left AV valve = bicuspid

More information

Collin County Community College

Collin County Community College Collin County Community College BIOL. 2402 Anatomy & Physiology WEEK 6 The Heart 1 Cardiac Output and Energy Demand The blood only holds a certain amount of oxygen During exercise, the body and tissues

More information

Heart. The first 91 items are multiple choice.

Heart. The first 91 items are multiple choice. The first 91 items are multiple choice. 1. Tom was stabbed with a Samurai sword. It pierced the left side of his chest, went straight through his heart and exited his upper back. Which of the following

More information

19. Cardiovascular System: Heart

19. Cardiovascular System: Heart I. Location of the Heart and the Pericardium 19. Cardiovascular System: Heart Location and position of the heart The heart lies in the thoracic cavity directly posterior to the sternum. More specifically,

More information

Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Chapter Objectives ANATOMY OF THE HEART 1. Describe the location and orientation of the heart within the thorax and mediastinal cavity. 2. Describe the

More information

Chapter 15. The Cardiovascular System: The Heart. Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter 15. The Cardiovascular System: The Heart. Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 15 The Cardiovascular System: The Heart Location of the Heart Thoracic cavity between two lungs ~2/3 to left of midline surrounded by pericardium: Fibrous pericardium - Inelastic and anchors heart

More information

The Cardiac Cycle. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

The Cardiac Cycle. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. The Cardiac Cycle Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The cardiac cycle includes all the events related

More information

CARDIAC CYCLE systole diastole Isovolumic contraction Ejection

CARDIAC CYCLE systole diastole Isovolumic contraction Ejection CARDIAC CYCLE The cardiac cycle is a period from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next one. It consists of two parts: 1. Ventricular contraction called systole. 2. Ventricular relaxation

More information

Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology. Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology Integrated Review

Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology. Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology Integrated Review Lecture Outline Part 2 & Control Systems Review Integrated Cardiac Page & Controls Medullary Center for Cardiovascular Control & the Baroreceptor Reflex Cardiovascular Physiology Integrated Review Heart

More information

THE CARDIAC CYCLE. Describe Cardiac Functional Anatomy (including a review of blood flow and valves) Understand the Wiggers Diagram of Cardiac Cycle

THE CARDIAC CYCLE. Describe Cardiac Functional Anatomy (including a review of blood flow and valves) Understand the Wiggers Diagram of Cardiac Cycle Objectives: THE CARDIAC CYCLE Identifying Factors which affect heart rate Describe Cardiac Functional Anatomy (including a review of blood flow and valves) Understand the Wiggers Diagram of Cardiac Cycle

More information

THE HEART Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi

THE HEART Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi THE HEART Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Functions is of the heart & blood vessels 1. The heart is an essential pumping organ in the cardiovascular system where the right heart pumps deoxygenated blood (returned

More information

Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System Topics to Review Diffusion Skeletal muscle fiber (cell) anatomy Membrane potential and action potentials Action potential propagation Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle skeletal muscle

More information

Cardiac Cycle. Preview

Cardiac Cycle. Preview OST 579 FS-15 Page 1 Part G Cardiac Cycle Dr. Robert Stephenson Cardiovascular Part G Preview As you know, each heart beat involves the contraction of all the cardiac muscle cells in the right and left

More information

Anatomi & Fysiologi 060301. The cardiovascular system (chapter 20) The circulation system transports; What the heart can do;

Anatomi & Fysiologi 060301. The cardiovascular system (chapter 20) The circulation system transports; What the heart can do; The cardiovascular system consists of; The cardiovascular system (chapter 20) Principles of Anatomy & Physiology 2009 Blood 2 separate pumps (heart) Many blood vessels with varying diameter and elasticity

More information

Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology. Cardiovascular System Function. Functional Anatomy of the Heart

Lecture Outline. Cardiovascular Physiology. Cardiovascular System Function. Functional Anatomy of the Heart Lecture Outline Cardiovascular Physiology Cardiac Output Controls & Blood Pressure Cardiovascular System Function Functional components of the cardiovascular system: Heart Blood Vessels Blood General functions

More information

Section 02: The Cardiovascular System

Section 02: The Cardiovascular System Section 02: The Cardiovascular System Chapter 15 The Cardiovascular System Chapter 16 Cardiovascular Regulation and Integration Chapter 17 Functional Capacity of the Cardiovascular System HPHE 6710 Exercise

More information

The Cardiovascular System

The Cardiovascular System Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 11 The Cardiovascular System Slides 11.1 11.19 Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook The Cardiovascular System

More information

The Cardiovascular System Cardiac Function

The Cardiovascular System Cardiac Function The Cardiovascular System Cardiac Function Session Objectives. What you will cover The circulatory system Anatomy of the heart Flow of blood through the heart Conduction systems of the heart Cardiac cycle

More information

Starling s Law Regulation of Myocardial Performance Intrinsic Regulation of Myocardial Performance

Starling s Law Regulation of Myocardial Performance Intrinsic Regulation of Myocardial Performance Regulation of Myocardial Performance Intrinsic Regulation of Myocardial Performance Just as the heart can initiate its own beat in the absence of any nervous or hormonal control, so also can the myocardium

More information

THE CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Chapter 9

THE CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Chapter 9 THE CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM Chapter 9 Cardiorespiratory System What are the functions of the cardiorespiratory system? Transport O 2 to tissues and removal of waste Transport of nutrients to tissues Regulation

More information

Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System Cardiovascular System Major Jobs of the CV system? Transport O 2 & nutrients to tissues Removal of waste Helps regulate body temperature 1 A Coupled Unit Circulatory & Respiratory systems work TOGETHER

More information

Exchange solutes and water with cells of the body

Exchange solutes and water with cells of the body Chapter 8 Heart and Blood Vessels Three Types of Blood Vessels Transport Blood Arteries Carry blood away from the heart Transport blood under high pressure Capillaries Exchange solutes and water with cells

More information

Blood Pressure & Effects of Exercise Laboratory #3. Assigned reading. Widmaier, et al. Vander s Human Physiology Ch. 12 OBJECTIVES

Blood Pressure & Effects of Exercise Laboratory #3. Assigned reading. Widmaier, et al. Vander s Human Physiology Ch. 12 OBJECTIVES Laboratory #3 Assigned reading Widmaier, et al. Vander s Human Physiology Ch. 12 OBJECTIVES 1) Learn to measure your blood pressure using a sphygomomanometer. 2) Test the effect of exercise and body position

More information

Chapter 10 The Cardiovascular System and Exercise

Chapter 10 The Cardiovascular System and Exercise Chapter 10 The Cardiovascular System and Exercise Slide Show developed by: Richard C. Krejci, Ph.D. Professor of Public Health Columbia College 10.18.11 Objectives 1. List important functions of the cardiovascular

More information

NROSCI/BIOSC 1070 and MSNBIO 2070 September 19 & 21, 2016 Cardiovascular 3 & 4: Mechanical Actions of the Heart and Determinants of Cardiac Output

NROSCI/BIOSC 1070 and MSNBIO 2070 September 19 & 21, 2016 Cardiovascular 3 & 4: Mechanical Actions of the Heart and Determinants of Cardiac Output NROSCI/BIOSC 1070 and MSNBIO 2070 September 19 & 21, 2016 Cardiovascular 3 & 4: Mechanical Actions of the Heart and Determinants of Cardiac Output An essential component for the operation of the heart

More information

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure. Vessel Elasticity Blood Volume Cardiac Output

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure. Vessel Elasticity Blood Volume Cardiac Output Factors that Affect Pressure Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction pressure is affected by several factors:

More information

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM : The cardiovascular system Practice questions - pages 46-47 12 1) Heart rate is controlled by the cardiac conduction system Which one of the following is the order of the cardiac conduction system? a

More information

The Circulatory System

The Circulatory System The Circulatory System Terminology Angina Pectoris: Severe suffocation chest pain caused by brief lack of oxygen supply to the head muscle. Aorta: Major systemic artery; arises from the left ventricle

More information

Heart Anatomy Approximately the size of your fist Location

Heart Anatomy Approximately the size of your fist Location Heart Anatomy Approximately the size of your fist Location Superior surface of diaphragm Left of the midline Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior to the sternum Heart Anatomy Figure 18.1 Coverings

More information

2. The connective tissue of the parietal pericardium attaches to surrounding connective tissue, which stabilizes the pericardium

2. The connective tissue of the parietal pericardium attaches to surrounding connective tissue, which stabilizes the pericardium Heart I. Heart Anatomy- Quick note: veins carry blood to the heart, regardless of whether blood has O2 or not. For example, oxygenated blood from the lungs enters the heart via the pulmonary veins. Arteries

More information

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly email worldanaesthesia@mac.com

Sign up to receive ATOTW weekly email worldanaesthesia@mac.com INTRODUCTION TO CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 125 16 TH MARCH 2009 Toby Elkington, Specialist Registrar Carl Gwinnutt, Consultant Department of Anaesthesia, Salford Royal NHS

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley

Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley Exam #1 Name: Instructions This exam consists of 40 multiple-choice questions. Each multiple-choice question answered correctly is worth one point, and the

More information

Cardiovascular Physiology

Cardiovascular Physiology Cardiovascular Physiology Heart Physiology for the heart to work properly contraction and relaxation of chambers must be coordinated cardiac muscle tissue differs from smooth and skeletal muscle tissues

More information

Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology. Sam Dudley, MD, PhD Office: VA room 2A167 Tel: 404-329-4626

Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology. Sam Dudley, MD, PhD Office: VA room 2A167 Tel: 404-329-4626 Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology Sam Dudley, MD, PhD Office: VA room 2A167 Tel: 404-329-4626 Email: sdudley@emory.edu Overview of the CV system Purposes Distribute metabolites and O 2 Collect

More information

Cardiac Mechanics. The Heart

Cardiac Mechanics. The Heart Bioengineering/Physiology 6000 The Heart Structure Macro and micro Function Cells Pacemaker Conduction system Contractile myocytes Electrophysiology Action potentials Cell to cell coupling Mechanics EC

More information

Biology 2402 A&P Exam 3 Cardiovascular System - Heart Ch. 13

Biology 2402 A&P Exam 3 Cardiovascular System - Heart Ch. 13 Biology 2402 A&P Exam 3 Cardiovascular System - Heart Ch. 13 The cardiovascular system is composed of a pump (heart) and a series of tubes (blood vessels) that carry the blood and materials throughout

More information

Chapter 9. The Cardiovascular System

Chapter 9. The Cardiovascular System Chapter 9 The Cardiovascular System Objectives Describe the anatomy of the heart and vascular systems. State the key characteristics of cardiac tissue. Calculate systemic vascular resistance given mean

More information

Conducting System of the Heart and Electrocardiogram

Conducting System of the Heart and Electrocardiogram Lab 6 Conducting System of the Heart and The next two weeks will involve an in-depth study of the Cardiovascular system. This week we will focus on the electrical conducting system within the heart and

More information

Heart and Vascular System Practice Questions

Heart and Vascular System Practice Questions Heart and Vascular System Practice Questions Student: 1. The pulmonary veins are unusual as veins because they are transporting. A. oxygenated blood B. de-oxygenated blood C. high fat blood D. nutrient-rich

More information

Bio Factsheet. Answering exam questions on the heart. Number 139.

Bio Factsheet. Answering exam questions on the heart. Number 139. Number 139 Answering exam questions on the heart When answering most exam questions on the heart it is essential that you know the basic anatomy of the heart, the cardiac cycle and how the heart beat is

More information

SESSION 10: TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN MAMMALS (HUMANS) 1

SESSION 10: TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN MAMMALS (HUMANS) 1 SESSION 10: TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN MAMMALS (HUMANS) 1 KEY CONCEPTS: In this session we will consider the following: Blood circulation system Direction of blood flow and circulation Mechanism for controlling

More information

PSIO 603/BME 511 1 Dr. Janis Burt February 19, 2007 MRB 422; 626-6833 jburt@u.arizona.edu. MUSCLE EXCITABILITY - Ventricle

PSIO 603/BME 511 1 Dr. Janis Burt February 19, 2007 MRB 422; 626-6833 jburt@u.arizona.edu. MUSCLE EXCITABILITY - Ventricle SIO 63/BME 511 1 Dr. Janis Burt February 19, 27 MRB 422; 626-6833 MUSCLE EXCITABILITY - Ventricle READING: Boron & Boulpaep pages: 483-57 OBJECTIVES: 1. Draw a picture of the heart in vertical (frontal

More information

Electrocardiogram (ECG- EKG) Electrocardiography. Resting Myocardial Cell. Depolarization Before Contraction. Repolarization.

Electrocardiogram (ECG- EKG) Electrocardiography. Resting Myocardial Cell. Depolarization Before Contraction. Repolarization. Electrocardiogram (ECG- EKG) Electrocardiography Record of the heart s electrical activity, the electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to contract Oscilloscope allows you to see the electrical activity

More information

Chapter 14 Heart: Cardiovascular Physiology

Chapter 14 Heart: Cardiovascular Physiology Chapter 14 Heart: Cardiovascular Physiology Exam 3 will be on Monday November 21 Will cover chapters 11, 12, 13, 14 May cover more, depends on how far we get Heart: Cardiovascular Physiology Cardiovascular

More information

Normal & Abnormal Intracardiac. Lancashire & South Cumbria Cardiac Network

Normal & Abnormal Intracardiac. Lancashire & South Cumbria Cardiac Network Normal & Abnormal Intracardiac Pressures Lancashire & South Cumbria Cardiac Network Principle Pressures recorded from catheter tip Electrical transducer - wheatstone bridge mechanical to electrical waveform

More information

Pediatric Heart Murmurs. Benton Ng Clinical Assistant Professor Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Division of Cardiology

Pediatric Heart Murmurs. Benton Ng Clinical Assistant Professor Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Division of Cardiology Pediatric Heart Murmurs Benton Ng Clinical Assistant Professor Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Division of Cardiology Disclosures I have no disclosures Objectives Heart sounds Systolic murmurs Diastolic

More information

Section Four: Pulmonary Artery Waveform Interpretation

Section Four: Pulmonary Artery Waveform Interpretation Section Four: Pulmonary Artery Waveform Interpretation All hemodynamic pressures and waveforms are generated by pressure changes in the heart caused by myocardial contraction (systole) and relaxation/filling

More information

Normal and Abnormal. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure. Signs and Symptoms. Abnormal HR and BP responses. Normal Peak Blood Pressures.

Normal and Abnormal. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure. Signs and Symptoms. Abnormal HR and BP responses. Normal Peak Blood Pressures. Normal and Abnormal Exercise Response Potential Measurements Signs and symptoms Heart rate and blood pressure EKG Cardiac output, stroke volume VO2 Anaerobic threshold O2 pulse Systolic time interval Skin

More information

Cardiovascular Test #1

Cardiovascular Test #1 Cardiovascular Test #1 1. The major regulatory proteins of the thin filament of skeletal muscle are: A. actin and myosin. B. the myosin light chains. C. myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain

More information

Calculating Cardiac Output. Chapter 14 Cardiac Output, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure. Regulation of Cardiac Rate. Chronotropic Effect

Calculating Cardiac Output. Chapter 14 Cardiac Output, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure. Regulation of Cardiac Rate. Chronotropic Effect Chapter 14 Cardiac Output, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure Adjusting the pumping mechanism on demand. Calculating Cardiac Output Stroke volume volume of blood ejected by each ventricle during each contraction.

More information

1. The diagram below shows a section through the human heart.

1. The diagram below shows a section through the human heart. 1. The diagram below shows a section through the human heart. What is the correct position of the pacemaker? 2. Which of the following vessels in the circulatory system contains blood at the lowest pressure?

More information

Cardiac Cycle. Lesson 3.1. Developed by Geran Call as partial fulfillment for Master s plan B NI Automation & Control lesson 3.1

Cardiac Cycle. Lesson 3.1. Developed by Geran Call as partial fulfillment for Master s plan B NI Automation & Control lesson 3.1 Cardiac Cycle Lesson 3.1 Developed by Geran Call as partial fulfillment for Master s plan B NI Automation & Control lesson 3.1 Heart Anatomy: Four Chambers Right Atrium: Receives deoxygenated blood from

More information

34B. Investigation of human cardiovascular physiology is very interesting, but many. Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Computer Simulation

34B. Investigation of human cardiovascular physiology is very interesting, but many. Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Computer Simulation version 8 E X E R C I S E 34B Frog Cardiovascular Physiology: Computer Simulation O B J E C T I V E S 1. To list the properties of cardiac muscle as automaticity and rhythmicity, and to define each. 2.

More information

and Blood Pressure (II)

and Blood Pressure (II) Chapter 14 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels, Blood Flow and Blood Pressure (II) Chapter Outline o Capillaries and Venules o Veins o The Lymphatic System o Mean Arterial Pressure and Its Regulation

More information

Circulatory System Review

Circulatory System Review Circulatory System Review 1. Draw a table to describe the similarities and differences between arteries and veins? Anatomy Direction of blood flow: Oxygen concentration: Arteries Thick, elastic smooth

More information

The Cardiovascular System: The Heart

The Cardiovascular System: The Heart The Cardiovascular System: The Heart I. Introduction A. The major function of the cardiovascular system is to circulate substances throughout the body. In other words, its organs function to supply cells

More information

The Vertebrate Circulatory System

The Vertebrate Circulatory System The Vertebrate Circulatory System Transportation Respiratory Erythrocytes (red blood cells) transport oxygen from lungs to tissues Hemoglobin of red blood cells is transporter CO 2 is released by cells

More information

Heart Rate. Fast & Easy ECGs A Self-Paced Learning Program

Heart Rate. Fast & Easy ECGs A Self-Paced Learning Program 3 Heart Rate Fast & Easy ECGs A Self-Paced Learning Program Q A Dysrhythmias rregularities in heart rate or rhythm Some are of little significance whereas others are life threatening ECG Analysis Five

More information

Circulatory System. Circulation. Cardiovascular System. Subdivisions. Plasma. Blood. Chapters 13 and 14. Cardiovascular system. Blood.

Circulatory System. Circulation. Cardiovascular System. Subdivisions. Plasma. Blood. Chapters 13 and 14. Cardiovascular system. Blood. Circulatory System Circulation Chapters 13 and 14 Transportation nutrients, metabolic wastes (excretion), water, ions and respiratory gases (O 2, CO 2 ), Regulatory hormonal transportation of hormones

More information

Introduction to CV Pathophysiology. Introduction to Cardiovascular Pathophysiology

Introduction to CV Pathophysiology. Introduction to Cardiovascular Pathophysiology Introduction to CV Pathophysiology Munther K. Homoud, MD Tufts-New England Medical Center Spring 2008 Introduction to Cardiovascular Pathophysiology 1. Basic Anatomy 2. Excitation Contraction Coupling

More information

The Heart and Circulatory System

The Heart and Circulatory System Basic Mechanisms of Disease Anatomy and Physiology Review of The Heart and Circulatory System Pump, Pressure, and Pipes 2014.09.03 Presentation: Michael Urbanowski Visual Graphics: Mesa Schumacher Course

More information

HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL BASICS

HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL BASICS HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL BASICS THE HEART What Does the Heart Do? The heart is a muscle about the size of a closed fist. The heart usually beats about 60-80 times per minute. With each beat, your heart pushes

More information

Normal Intracardiac Pressures. Lancashire & South Cumbria Cardiac Network

Normal Intracardiac Pressures. Lancashire & South Cumbria Cardiac Network Normal Intracardiac Pressures Lancashire & South Cumbria Cardiac Network Principle Pressures recorded from catheter tip Electrical transducer - wheatstone bridge mechanical to electrical waveform display

More information

Cardiac Conduction and EKG s

Cardiac Conduction and EKG s Cardiac Conduction and EKG s Ex 31 1 Conduction System The heart has its own intrinsic nervous system which travels in the myocardium just under the endocardium cardiac action potential travels from atria

More information

Electrocardiogram and Heart Sounds

Electrocardiogram and Heart Sounds Electrocardiogram and Heart Sounds An introduction to the recording and analysis of electrocardiograms, and the sounds of the heart. Written by Staff of ADInstruments Introduction The beating of the heart

More information

EKG Basics. Ben Taylor, PhD, PA-C

EKG Basics. Ben Taylor, PhD, PA-C EKG Basics Ben Taylor, PhD, PA-C Right Ventricular MI ST elevation in R-sided leads ST segment elevation greater in lead III than II Inferior wall MI P waves only in V 3-6 Biphasic T waves Right Ventricular

More information

Cardiovascular Physiology

Cardiovascular Physiology 1 Bio 236 Lab Cardiovascular Physiology Heart s Conduction System and the ECG The heart is an organ that is autorhythmic, meaning it generates its own rhythmic action potentials for contraction of myocardial

More information

Heart Failure EXERCISES. Ⅰ. True or false questions (mark for true question, mark for false question. If it is false, correct it.

Heart Failure EXERCISES. Ⅰ. True or false questions (mark for true question, mark for false question. If it is false, correct it. Heart Failure EXERCISES Ⅰ. True or false questions (mark for true question, mark for false question. If it is false, correct it. ) 1. Heart rate increase is a kind of economic compensation, which should

More information

Functions of Blood System. Blood Cells

Functions of Blood System. Blood Cells Functions of Blood System Transport: to and from tissue cells Nutrients to cells: amino acids, glucose, vitamins, minerals, lipids (as lipoproteins). Oxygen: by red blood corpuscles (oxyhaemoglobin - 4

More information

Milwaukee School of Engineering Gerrits@msoe.edu. Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version

Milwaukee School of Engineering Gerrits@msoe.edu. Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version Case Study: Factors that Affect Blood Pressure Instructor Version Goal This activity (case study and its associated questions) is designed to be a student-centered learning activity relating to the factors

More information

Regulation of Blood Pressure with Postural Changes

Regulation of Blood Pressure with Postural Changes 1 Bio 236 Lab Regulation of Blood Pressure with Postural Changes Blood pressure is the force of arterial blood pushing against the vessel wall in response to the cardiac cycle (ventricular systole versus

More information

The vital role of the cardiovascular system in maintaining

The vital role of the cardiovascular system in maintaining CHAPTER 19 PHYSIOLOGY OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM CHAPTER OUTLINE Hemodynamics, 594 The Heart as a Pump, 594 Conduction System of the Heart, 594 Electrocardiogram (ECG), 597 Electrocardiography, 597 ECG

More information

Electrodes placed on the body s surface can detect electrical activity, APPLIED ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. Circulatory system

Electrodes placed on the body s surface can detect electrical activity, APPLIED ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. Circulatory system 4 READING AND INTERPRETING THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM Electrodes placed on the body s surface can detect electrical activity, which occurs in the heart. The recording of these electrical events comprises an

More information

HEART HEALTH WEEK 3 SUPPLEMENT. A Beginner s Guide to Cardiovascular Disease HEART FAILURE. Relatively mild, symptoms with intense exercise

HEART HEALTH WEEK 3 SUPPLEMENT. A Beginner s Guide to Cardiovascular Disease HEART FAILURE. Relatively mild, symptoms with intense exercise WEEK 3 SUPPLEMENT HEART HEALTH A Beginner s Guide to Cardiovascular Disease HEART FAILURE Heart failure can be defined as the failing (insufficiency) of the heart as a mechanical pump due to either acute

More information

Electrocardiography for Healthcare Professionals Chapter 5: Rhythm Strip Interpretation and Sinus Rhythms

Electrocardiography for Healthcare Professionals Chapter 5: Rhythm Strip Interpretation and Sinus Rhythms 1 Electrocardiography for Healthcare Professionals Chapter 5: Rhythm Strip Interpretation and Sinus Rhythms 2 Learning Outcomes 5.1 Explain the process of evaluating ECG tracings and determining the presence

More information

Anatomy & Physiology. Blood Flow through heart

Anatomy & Physiology. Blood Flow through heart Cardiac Arrhythmias Blood Flow through heart Superior and Inferior Vena Cava Right Atrium Right Ventricle Pulmonary Artery Lungs Pulmonary Vein Left Atrium Left Ventricle Aorta Body Anatomy & Physiology

More information

QRS Complexes. Fast & Easy ECGs A Self-Paced Learning Program

QRS Complexes. Fast & Easy ECGs A Self-Paced Learning Program 6 QRS Complexes Fast & Easy ECGs A Self-Paced Learning Program Q I A ECG Waveforms Normally the heart beats in a regular, rhythmic fashion producing a P wave, QRS complex and T wave I Step 4 of ECG Analysis

More information

Workshop B: Essentials of Neonatal Cardiology and CHD Anthony C. Chang, MD, MBA, MPH CARDIAC INTENSIVE CARE

Workshop B: Essentials of Neonatal Cardiology and CHD Anthony C. Chang, MD, MBA, MPH CARDIAC INTENSIVE CARE SHUNT LESIONS NEONATAL : CONGENITAL CARDIAC MALFORMATIONS AND CARDIAC SURGERY ANTHONY C. CHANG, MD, MBA, MPH CHILDREN S HOSPITAL OF ORANGE COUNTY ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT LEFT TO RIGHT SHUNT INCREASED PULMONARY

More information

All About the Heart. Structures of the Heart

All About the Heart. Structures of the Heart All About the Heart Your heart is a muscle. It is slightly larger than your fist and weighs less than a pound. It is located to the left of the middle of your chest. Your heart pumps blood to the lungs

More information

Anaesthesia and Heart Failure

Anaesthesia and Heart Failure Anaesthesia and Heart Failure Andrew Baldock, Specialist Registrar, Southampton University Hospitals NHS Trust E mail: ajbaldock@doctors.org.uk Self-assessment The following true/false questions may be

More information

SISTEMA CIRCULATORIO: FUNCIONES PRINCIPALES

SISTEMA CIRCULATORIO: FUNCIONES PRINCIPALES SISTEMA CIRCULATORIO: FUNCIONES PRINCIPALES Transporte y distribución de O2 y CO2, sales, nutrientes, metabolitos, hormonas, células inmunes y Acs. Producción de ultrafiltrado renal. Regulación de temperatura

More information

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE HEART AND ITS INTERACTION WITH THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE HEART AND ITS INTERACTION WITH THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Page 1 of 17 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE HEART AND ITS INTERACTION WITH THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Daniel Burkhoff MD PhD, Columbia University Figures: Daniel Burkhoff, MD PhD/Jie Wang, MD PhD Recommended Reading:

More information

The Human Heart. Terms

The Human Heart. Terms The Human Heart Terms Aorta: The largest artery in the body and the primary blood vessel which carries oxygenated blood out of the heart to the rest of the body. Left ventricle: The lower left- hand chamber

More information

Lecture Outline. The Heart. Blood Vessels. Blood. Overview of the Cardiovascular System. Overview of the Cardiovascular System

Lecture Outline. The Heart. Blood Vessels. Blood. Overview of the Cardiovascular System. Overview of the Cardiovascular System Lecture Outline Overview of the Cardiovascular System Anatomy of the Heart and blood vessels Electrical Activity of the Heart The Cardiac Cycle, Cardiac Output and Its Control Blood flow and blood pressure

More information

Objectives. Describe the electrical current of the heart. Describe the basic approach to interpretation of ECG strips

Objectives. Describe the electrical current of the heart. Describe the basic approach to interpretation of ECG strips EKG Interpretation Objectives Describe the electrical current of the heart Describe the basic approach to interpretation of ECG strips Explain the five steps used in interpretation of ECG strips Explain

More information

Cardiovascular Nursing Education Associates

Cardiovascular Nursing Education Associates Carol Jacobson RN, MN Cardiovascular Nursing Education Associates Carol Jacobson RN, MN www.cardionursing.com 1 Position I: Chamber Paced Position II: Chamber Sensed Position III: Response to Sensing O

More information

Circulatory System. Obj: Explain the structure of the heart

Circulatory System. Obj: Explain the structure of the heart Circulatory System Obj: Explain the structure of the heart 1 Structure of the Heart Size, shape and location 1. Size of a closed fist 2. In thoracic cavity 3. Apex: the tip of the heart that lies on the

More information

Introduction to Basic EKG Interpretation. Colorado State EMS Conference November 3 rd 6 th, 2005 Keystone, CO Robert Vroman, BS NREMT-P

Introduction to Basic EKG Interpretation. Colorado State EMS Conference November 3 rd 6 th, 2005 Keystone, CO Robert Vroman, BS NREMT-P Introduction to Basic EKG Colorado State EMS Conference November 3 rd 6 th, 2005 Keystone, CO Robert Vroman, BS NREMT-P Properties of Cardiac Cells The cells of the heart are unique in that they have many

More information

by dhammoudi,md LAB LECTURE REVIEW

by dhammoudi,md LAB LECTURE REVIEW by dhammoudi,md LAB LECTURE REVIEW 1 st degree block 2 nd degree 2 nd degree 3 rd degree Atrial fibrillation Atrial flutter Myocardial infarct MI Myocardial infarct VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA

More information

The Easy R s of EKG Interpretation

The Easy R s of EKG Interpretation The Easy R s of EKG Interpretation I. Let us start at the beginning: The EKG /Rhythm strip is a graphic tracing of the electrical activity of the myocardial cells. It measures the length of time it takes

More information

Heart Sounds & Murmurs

Heart Sounds & Murmurs Cardiovascular Physiology Heart Sounds & Murmurs Dr. Abeer A. Al-Masri MBBS, MSc, PhD Associate Professor Consultant Cardiovascular Physiologist Faculty of Medicine, KSU Detected over anterior chest wall

More information

Cardiovascular System:! Pulmonary circuit:!! right ventricle!!! lungs!!!! left atrium! Systemic circuit:!! left ventricle!

Cardiovascular System:! Pulmonary circuit:!! right ventricle!!! lungs!!!! left atrium! Systemic circuit:!! left ventricle! Cardiovascular System:! Heart (Chapter 20)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Primary Sources for figures and content:! Eastern Campus! Marieb, E. N. Human

More information

Electrocardiography I Laboratory

Electrocardiography I Laboratory Introduction The body relies on the heart to circulate blood throughout the body. The heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the lungs out to the body through the arteries and also circulating

More information

CARDIOVASCULAR AND CONTROL OF BLOOD SUPPLY

CARDIOVASCULAR AND CONTROL OF BLOOD SUPPLY CARDIOVASCULAR AND CONTROL OF BLOOD SUPPLY CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AEROBIC - A process taking place in the presence of Oxygen ANAEROBIC - A process taking place in the absence of Oxygen AEROBIC - Provides

More information

To provide the body (cells) with oxygen, and remove CO 2. To provide the body (cells) with nutrients and remove wastes.

To provide the body (cells) with oxygen, and remove CO 2. To provide the body (cells) with nutrients and remove wastes. Circulatory system. Basic function: To provide the body (cells) with oxygen, and remove CO 2. To provide the body (cells) with nutrients and remove wastes. Not all organisms have a circulatory system -

More information

Figure ) The specific chamber of the heart that is indicated by letter A is called the. Answer: right atrium Diff: 1 Page Ref: 364

Figure ) The specific chamber of the heart that is indicated by letter A is called the. Answer: right atrium Diff: 1 Page Ref: 364 Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 11 The Cardiovascular System Short Answer Figure 11.1 Using Figure 11.1, identify the following: 1) The Purkinje fibers are indicated by label.

More information

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back

Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back Vascular System The heart can be thought of 2 separate pumps from the right ventricle, blood is pumped at a low pressure to the lungs and then back to the left atria from the left ventricle, blood is pumped

More information