International Engineering Journal For Research & Development

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1 Evolution Of Operating System And Open Source Android Application Nilesh T.Gole 1, Amit Manikrao 2, Niraj Kanot 3,Mohan Pande 4 1,M.tech(CSE)JNTU, 2 M.tech(CSE)SGBAU, 3 M.tech(CSE),JNTU, Hyderabad 1 2 amit.manikrao, Abstract : The purpose of this paper is to visualize the importance of Operating System for a computer to run different types of program to run. Without operating system the computer is useless. Operating system perform the task from input to output. Such as taking input from the keyboard and display output on the screen. Running the different task provides the facility to the user of running the different tasks. From people to project there is need of operating system for amending the man power. Now a days, different types of operating system are came into the market which provide the better or advance connectivity or network facility to the user. 1. Introduction As we know without operating system the computer is useless. The operating system mainly divided into two such as application software and operating system software.application software are the different task such creating s/w for banking, customer query, creating website etc. the operating system software duty is to manage the task which the application software provides. This task can be handled by operating system software with the help of kernel. 2. Kernel Kernel is the heart of operating system. It is the middle person between application software and data processing. The different resources which needed for data execution is manage by the kernel. We also say that it is the communication between software and the hardware component. In the operating system Environment different program run at different level simultaneously and their resources which needed for the program for different users or other program. It is handled by kernel. Kernel manage all these resources and make the program ready to run. Fig: 1 Interface between Application software and Hardware 3. Facility Provide By Kernel: Page 1

2 Kernel can provide various facilities for utilizing the various peripheral devices and memory in the operating system environment. The facilities are- 1.Memory Management: The duty of the kernel is to allow the access of memory and devices safely to each process act in the environment. 2. Device management: To perform useful function it needs device driver which controlled by the Kernel. 3. System Call: By using the system Call kernel can give the access of control to various process by invoke each process. 4.History: As we go back in early days there is no any operating System. The most important part from execution to managing the resources is done by human being. Most of the work done by human being. But its having major drawback, because it is not 100% assurity about the job execution. And delay of job and not multiuser or multiprogramming concepts act. And another drawback is that the parts of the computer is very expensive. From early stage to advance stage many different types of operating system came to act. Which give up or hand over control to allow other program to executer in a stable and reliable manner and without risk load to any user performing the execution. That operating system control all the operation and execution of different program and their resources. These operating system provide the better interface between the user and system to interact or to communicate easily with each other on different network to form a result. 5..Types of Operating system: 5.1 Batch Operating System: Batch operating system is one of the earliest operating system in which the various job are collected from the different user in a batch form. And after collecting the job that job is proceed to the computer for further processing or execution. In this there is scheduling algorithm is used. We have to advancaly book the time. So this is the major drawback of Batch Operating System. Waiting for the job is very confusing to user whether there is error in the program or program not work properly at this situation the program is halted in between. And then restart the same program at new alloted time. Page 2

3 5.2. Multiprogramming And Time Sharing : Fig2. Job Collected in Batch The Drawback of Batch operating System is that every time the processor go into idle state i.e wait for the jobs to come. So it is time consuming and the input and output devices became slow as compare to processor. So by enhancing the operating System. We created a Multiprogramming operating system. This System can work on the basis of System call. By Requesting each and every time to Operating System of executing the program. The Basic operation of this operating system is that we can share the input to the different program.no of program on a single processor. Multiple program can be happened. when one program is waiting for I/O transfer; there is another program ready to utilize the CPU. So it is possible for several jobs to share the time of the CPU. All the resources and memory and the devices which are used are utilized effectively in Multiprogramming Environment. Time Sharing: In this Operating System User can direct communicate with the system. The user can give direct input to the system through mouse and keyboard and wait for immediate result. The time sharing allow many user to share the CPU simultaneously by using various scheduling algorithm. Operating System JOB 1 JOB 2 JOB 3 JOB Multiuser Operating System: Memory Layout For Multiprogramming System. Page 3

4 In this operating system multiple user going to act. i.e Each user is accessing the same operating system at different machines. So that many task can be perform parallel and each user which are connected to the machines can execute their job. This operating system can manage the resources and memory allocation for the program which are going to execute and properly handled user interaction and data request. Multi user share Common CPU 5.4 Distributed Operating System: When we named this type operating system networking and communication came to act. Different machine on different network can share their data on various network. And distributed the data on different network. Another importance is that it can share the resources on the network. When an error occured in the one machine it will not effect the whole network. User can from the local system can distributed the data on the network. Distribute Job from various network 6. Services of Operating System: 6.1 Program Execution: Operating System Providing the reliable environment to the user for execution of their Program. User is always comfortable and there is no need to think about memory allocation. Page 4

5 6.2 I/O Operation: Operating System take care about the user that they won t be confused, so that purpose the environment which is created it will hide the hardware information from the user. So the user can see the input output without any details. 6.3 File System Manipulation: In this Environment user does not think about the memory management. Just it has to give command for reading and writing a file. The operating system perform all the operation without confusing user. 6.4 Communication: Operating System Provide the Convenient Environment for exchange the information on Different Network. 6.5 Error Detection: To avoid the malfunctioning of the system. Operating System always monitor the system for deleting error. 7. Types of Operating System Came into the Market: 7.1 Aros - Amiga Research Operating System: Amiga Research Operating System is specially created for graphic drivers for video cards. 7.2 BeOS- It is an operating system for a personal computer. It is Created for digital media work. It is developed on the principle of clarity. 7.3 Clustered System: It is just as a distributed system in the sense that it is connected two or more computer. 7.4 IBM System/360- It is Specially developed as a mainframe computer. It s Cost is very less and it is very easy for the customer to purchase. It has the complete range of application from small to large. 7.5 MenuetOs- It is the best feature in graphical advantage, game and having good connectivity when connected in network. It is specially created for 32bit computer. It s main advantage it focus on the networking, having simple structure. It is the type of Environment which provide the user a better and easy way of implementation or ease of Programming. 7.6 Windows- It is the Operating System introduced by Microsoft specially created for the graphical user interface with the system. It has the number of feature for the common user. It is very easy for user to interact with the system for implementation. The phones available in the market uses the windows operating system. Because of its good graphical user interface it take over the market for commercial and for industrial r. There are many version which are created from windows 1.0,windows 2.0,windows 2.1, windows 3.0,windows 3.1. Windows 95, 98 released in 1998 it s the second version. Windows xp and vista and windows 7 released on october It is the advance feature for commercial and home application and business. Page 5

6 7.7 Open Source Android Visualization: Android is the most advance and presently used operating system base on Linux operating system. It is an open source operating system. It having number of application in the market such as in smartphone. Android operating system now a days provide a special characteristic to the mobile phone application. Android operating system provide the various security tools for smartphone. Android application is designed for a smartphone and tablet computer in the market. Android application is a security base operating system service provider. Presently in the market smartphone take over the market and it is android base. Smartphone is a mobile phone built on operating system with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than feature phone. Many Android base smartphone also include high resolution touch screen and web browser. Android operating system provide the best security and network connectivity and very easy visualization for a user. Android application mostly created in java language by using the Android software kit. Android Architecture 8. Android Architecture: Page 6

7 Just like every Software application needs an operating system same as every operating system needs an software application for running the various different program application. An Android operating system is a mass of software component which is divided into Five major section which can stored this software component. 1.Application Layer: Application Layer is situated at the top layer. The user can write application and installed that application on the Application layer. The Application such as images, contact, Browser, phone records, Games etc. 2.Application Framework: Every Application needs an manager for provides better services. The user can use this services created by Application Framework. This Framework provides these services and handled all these application by manager to organise the application. The application manager such as Activity manager, window manager, Display manager, Sound manager etc. 3.Libraries: As Android Operating System using the java class libraries. Its an open source which can used open or freely by any Android user with the bases of java. It is useful storage of information. That is uses for sharing of information, data security, internet security, network security etc 4.Android Runtime: It can provide the Dalvik Virtual Machine key Component that the DVM that use the linux feature for process management, memory management, resource management etc. Android runtime provide such type of libraries for android developers to write Android Application by using java Programming Language. 5.Linux kernel: Just we know that the kernel is the part of system. Which is the medium between Application software and hardware component, means that every software components needs software drivers to act without drivers the software component is just visualize. To work it will needs drivers for function the software component. That the linux kernel provide the functionality such as process management, memory management, device management, for displaying feature, image function, sound function, keypad etc. Page 7

8 DALVIK VIRTUAL MACHINE: Dalvik Virtual Machine Java was developed for reducing drawback or enhance the capability of C++,i.e object oriented programming. Java uses the concept of object oriented programming. Java uses the Byte code and that Byte code can run on any system i.e we called write once, run anywhere. That made java language a platform independent. For Android Application java was a well developed foe creating various Android Application so that for this purpose Dalvik virtual Machine was choosen to implement standard library of java. As we no that the Android platform was created for devices with enhance processing power, memory and storage. The virtual machine based runtime doesn t fulfil the device requirement such as security, performances and reliability. So that Google can address to DVM. So that the multiple Virtual Machine rune efficiently. The Dalvik Virtual Machine executes a file in Dalvik Executable called.dex. The Dex File Format: As we know that in java environment java source code is compiled into java byte code which is stored into.class files that.class files can read by java virtual machine at runtime. On the other hand of Android Platform java source code also compiled into.class file but after the.class file are generated, the dx. tool is used to convert that.class file into a.dex or Dalvik executable file as shown in above figure. A.dex file contains multiple classes. This.dex files is e optimized for memory uses and sharing of data. So the conclusion is that the security purpose and memory usage are more efficient and sharing of memory is more reliable Conclusion: This paper provides the various information about Evolution of different operating sytem and and their market importance. Thus we have study the amendment of different operating system and their services.in this paper we visualize that each operating system gives rise to the new operating system and their amendment function in the market field. As we also see the open source operating system base on the java platform. And their uses for the Page 8

9 newly smartphones and laptop. And how the open source combine with the Dalvik Virtual Machine to form a newly and enhance function for security purpose,memory management,and the process management and network security. The conclusion of this paper is that every operating system cannot be perfect as per the user point of view every time we seen that the operating system was enhance on the basis of existing system. References: 1.Stallman, Richard (August 5, 2012). "Android and Users' Freedom Support the Free Your Android campaign" 2. Androidology Part 1 of 3 Architecture Overview(Video).YouTube. September 6, Retrieved Rose, John ( ). "with Android and Dalvik at Google I/O". Retrieved Timeline of Computer History: 1956: Software". Computer History Museum. Retrieved Page 9

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