MODULE 14. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

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1 Program for North American Mobility In Higher Education MODULE 14. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 4 steps of LCA, approaches, software, databases, subjectivity, sensitivity analysis, application to a classic example.

2 Structure of Module 14 What is the structure of this module? Module 14 is intended to convey the basic aspects of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods and tools, using a case study approach. This module is divided into 3 tiers,, each with a specific goal: Tier I: Basic Concepts. Tier II: How to use computer tools. Tier III: How to Apply the Tool in a real world context. These tiers are intended to be completed in that particular order. r. Students are quizzed at various points to measure their degree of o understanding, before proceeding to the next level. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 2

3 Tier I Background Information Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 3

4 Purpose of Module 14 What is the purpose of this tier? Background Information. It will provide a general overview of life cycle assessment (LCA) and its potential applications Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 4

5 References Gaudreault,, C., Samson, R., Stuart, P. (2004). Survey of LCA Applications and Methodologies in the Pulp and Paper Industry.. Paper submitted to TAPPI Journal. Goedkoop and Oele User Manual Introduction into LLCA methodology and practice with SimaPro 5.1. International Organization for Standardization Environmental Management Life Cycle Assessment Principles and Framework.. Geneva, Switzerland. Notes: ISO International Organization for Standardization.2000 Environmental Management Life Cycle Assessment Goal and Scope Definition and Inventory Analysis.. Geneva, Switzerland. Notes: ISO International Organization for Standardization Environmental Management Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Impact Assessment.. Geneva, Switzerland. Notes: ISO International Organization for Standardization Environmental Management Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Interpretation.. Geneva, Switzerland. Notes: ISO Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 5

6 References International Organization for Standardization Environmental Management Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Interpretation.. Geneva, Switzerland. Notes: ISO Lopes, Dias, Arroja, Capela and Pereira, 2003 Application of life cycle assessment to the Portuguese pulp and paper industry.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Pollution Prevention A Federal Strategy for Action, 1995 Svoboda S. (1995). Note of Life Cycle Analysis.. National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 6

7 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology. 3. Survey of life cycle applications in the pulp and paper industry. 4. Proposal of life cycle thinking concept: using LCA as a tool for practical applications in the operation of a facility. 5. Multiple choice questions. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 7

8 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The origin Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 8

9 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The origin LCA has its roots in the 1960 s, when scientists concerned about the rapid depletion of fossil fuels developed it as an approach to understanding the impacts of energy consumption. In the early 1970 s, LCA s concentrated mainly on energy and raw materials but later air emissions, water emissions and solid waste were included in the calculation. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 9

10 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In the late 1970 s s and early 1980 s, the environmental concern shifted to issues of hazardous waste management. The SETAC conference of 1990 in Vermont was the first to analyze LCA s into three main stages. These stages are: Inventory In which the data describing the system are collected and converted to a standard format to provide a description of the physical characteristics of the system of interest. Interpretation In which the physical datas from the inventory are related to observable environmental problems. Improvement In which the system is modified in some way to reduce or ameliorate the observed environmental impacts. Inventory Interpretation Improvement Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 10

11 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The origin 1.2. Introduction Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 11

12 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Introduction A fundamental part in the application of the LCA is that a company that makes and uses a LCA -in the long run- is going to the same demand to its suppliers and clients within the commercial chain. Generally using a LCA causes a rain of ideas that can help to sees the problem from an extensive point of view. The LCA is a tool of support for the decision making. For what kind of applications do we use the LCA? A1 The potential applications of LCA include (ISO 1997): Identification of improvement opportunities for environmental aspects. As a decision making tool in strategic planning, priorities definition and product or process design. Selection and evaluation of relevant environmental performance indicators. Marketing programs. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 12

13 Slide 12 A1 important vs potential applications ANTONIO; 06-janv.-05

14 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The origin 1.2. Introduction 1.3. Definition Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 13

15 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Definition Life Cycle : Consecutive and interlinked stages of a product or a service system, from the extraction of natural resources to the final disposal. In this module, LCA is utilised as a quantitative process used to evaluate the associate environmental loads to a product, a process or an activity identifying ifying the use of mass and energy and the discharges to the surroundings; in order to determine d it potential impact. A2 Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 14

16 Slide 14 A2 not only environmental ANTONIO; 06-janv.-05

17 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The study takes into account the stages of extraction and processing sing of raw materials; production, transportation and distribution of raw materials and reusability and/or recycling as well as the disposition of the remainder. products; use, A3 Energy Resource Recycled & Disposal of the remainder Extraction & Processing Production Use, reusability & maintenance Transport & Distribution Emissions Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 15

18 Slide 15 A3 too many "ands" ANTONIO; 06-janv.-05

19 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The ISO standard defines LCA as a compilation and evaluation of the inputs and outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system through its life cycle.. The Life-Cycle Assessment framework as laid down in this standard is shown below: Principles and Framework (ISO 14040) Goal and scope Definition (ISO 14041) Inventory Analysis (ISO 14041) Impact Assessment (ISO 14042) Interpretation (ISO 14043) Direct application: Product development and improvement Strategic planning Public policy making Marketing Other tools: Techniques Economic Social (Based on ISO 14040) Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 16

20 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The base of LCA consists of making a mass and energy balances of the studied system. In this way the inputs and outputs are identified, and later l the potential environmental impacts are evaluated. A cradle-to to-grave manner involves all the steps in the product production: from raw r material extraction and transport to production and consumption, until the re-use or the disposal. A4 Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 17

21 Slide 17 A4 it is not - cradle to grave? ANTONIO; 06-janv.-05

22 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Life Cycle Analysis must be used cautiously, and in the interpretation tation of the impact assessment, care must be taken with subjective judgments. When first conceived, it was predicted that LCA would enable definitive judgments to be made. That misplaced belief has now been discredited. In combination with the trend towards more open disclosure of environmental information by companies and the desire by consumers to be guided towards the least harmful purchases, LCA appears to be a vital tool. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 18

23 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The origin 1.2. Introduction 1.3. Definition 1.4. The ISO family Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 19

24 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The ISO Family ISO : Environmental Management - LCA Principles and Framework ISO : Environmental Management - LCA Goal and Scope Definition & Inventory Analysis ISO : Environmental Management - LCA Life Cycle Impact Assessment ISO : Environmental Management - LCA Life Cycle Interpretation ISO : Illustrative Examples on how to apply ISO Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Impact Assessment ISO : Environmental Management - LCA Data Documentation Format ISO : Environmental Management - LCA Examples of Application of ISO to Goal and Scope Definition and Inventory Analysis Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 20

25 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). ISO : Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment Principles and Framework This international standard specifies the general framework, principles and requirements for conducting and reporting life cycle assessment studies. This international standard does not describe the life cycle assessment technique in details. In this definition, it is clear that impact assessment is an integral part of LCA. ISO is an excellent compromise between what makes up a Life Cycle Assessment and that what is to be achieved at all. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 21

26 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). ISO : Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment Goal and Scope Definition & Inventory Analysis This international standard in addition to ISO specifies the requirements and procedures necessary for the compilation and preparation of the definition of the goal and scope of a Life Cycle Assessment study and for performing, interpreting and reporting a Life Cycle Inventory analysis (LCI). This international standard does not describe the life cycle assessment technique in detail. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 22

27 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). ISO : Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Impact Assessment ISO describes and gives guidance on a general framework for the Life Cycle Impact Assessment phase (LCIA) of LCA as well as its key features and inherent limitations. It specifies requirements for conducting LCIA and its relationship to other LCA phases. The standard is supported with a technical report illustrating examples on how to apply ISO In the ISO document a large range of issues are mentioned that need to be decided and described. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 23

28 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). ISO : Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Interpretation This international standard provides requirements and recommendations for conducting the life cycle interpretation phase in LCA or LCI studies. This document is intended to provide guidance on the interpretation of LCA results in relation to the goal definition phase of the LCA study, involving review of the scope of the LCA. This international standard does not describe specific methodologies for the life cycle interpretation phase of LCA and LCI studies. This standard is short, clear and illustrated. The aim of the working group was to demonstrate that the LCA interpretation can be done simply, by referring essentially to common sense. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 24

29 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). ISO/DTR 14047: Illustrative Examples on how to apply ISO Life Cycle Assessment Life Cycle Impact Assessment The purpose of this Technical Report is to provide examples to illustrate practice in carrying out a life cycle impact assessment according to ISO These examples are only a sample of the total possible examples that could satisfy the provisions of the standard. They should be read as offering a a way or ways rather than the unique way of applying the standard. They reflect the key elements of the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of the LCA. It should be noted that the examples presented in this technical report are not exclusive and that other examples exist to illustrate the methodological issues described. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 25

30 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). ISO/DTR 14048: Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment Data Documentation Format This technical specification is applicable to the specification and structuring of questionnaire forms and information system. However, it can also be applied to other aspects of the management of the environmental data. The technical specification does not include requirements on completeness of data documentation. The data documentation format in independent of any software of database platform for implementation. The technical specification does not require any specific sequential, graphic or procedural solutions for the presentation or treatment of datas,, nor does it describe specific modeling methodologies for LCA and LCI data. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 26

31 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). ISO/DTR 14049: Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment Examples of Application of ISO to Goal and Scope Definition and Inventory Analysis This technical report provides examples about practices in carrying out a Life Cycle Inventory Analysis (LCI) as means of satisfying certain provisions of the standard. They should be read as offering a way or ways rather than the unique way of applying the standard. Also they reflect only certain portions of an LCI study. It should be noted that the examples presented in this technical Report are not exclusive and that many other examples exist illustrating the methodological issues described. The examples are only portions of complete LCI studies. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 27

32 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Methodology Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 28

33 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 2.1. Methodology The ISO general framework of an LCA study consists of four steps: 1. Defining the goal and scope of the study. 2. Making a model of the product life cycle with all the environmental inflows and outflows. This is usually referred to as the life cycle inventory (LCI) stages. 3. Understanding the environmental relevance of all the inflows and outflows, this is referred to as the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase. 4. The interpretation of the study. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 29

34 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Principles and Framework (ISO 14040) Goal and scope Definition (ISO 14041) Inventory Analysis (ISO 14041) Impact Assessment (ISO 14042) Life Cycle Interpretation (ISO 14043) Direct application: Product development and improvement Strategic planning Public policy making Marketing Other Other tools: Techniques Economic Social Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 30

35 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology The challenge for the LCA practitioner is to develop the models in such a way that the simplifications and thus uncertainties do not influence the results too much. The best way to deal with this problem is to carefully define a goal and scope of the LCA study before starting. The goal and scope definition is a guide that helps you to ensure e the consistency of the LCA you perform. Example : LCA methodology was applied to Portuguese production of printing and writing paper in order to evaluate its environmental performance and also to make a comparative, environmental assessment of fuel oil and natural gas, respectively, as energy sources in the manufacturing process. (Lopes et al. 2003) Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 31

36 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Methodology 2.2. Goal and Scope Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 32

37 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 2.2. Goal and scope Goal & Scope Definition (ISO 14041). That is to state, the reasons of the study, the information that is expected to obtain, how it is going to be used, the intended audience of the report, the analysis of the scope and the limits of the system. s 1. Defining the goal: The goal of any study shall unambiguously state the intended application, the reasons for carrying out the study and the intended audience, I.e. to whom the results of the study are intended to be communicated. Some LCA studies serve more than one purpose. The results may be both used internally and externally. In that case, consequences of such double use should be clearly described. (Goedkoop and Oele ) Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 33

38 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology It is obvious that an LCA should have goal. However, in ISO there are some particular requirements for the goal definition: The application and intended audiences shall be described unambiguously. usly. This is important, as a study that aims to provide data that is applied internally can n be quite differently structured than a study that aims at making public comparisons c between two products. The reasons for carrying out the study should be clearly described. Is the commissioner or practitioner trying to prove something, is the commissioner intending to provide A5 information only, etc. 2. Defining the scope: The scope of the study describes the most important methodological choices, assumptions and limitations. One starts with initial system boundaries and initial data quality requirements that can be adapted later if more information becomes es available or necessary. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 34

39 Slide 34 A5 alignment... ANTONIO; 06-janv.-05

40 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology The scope of any LCA study should be efficiently well defined to ensure that the breadth and the inherent details in which the study is conducted are both h compatibles with and sufficientes to address the stated study goal. (Goedkoop and Oele ) A6 Factors that should be considered and stated clearly in the Scope e of Study include: The function(s) ) of the system to be analyzed The functional unit on which the study will be based The system boundaries Allocation procedures adopted Data quality requirements Any assumptions made Study limitations The type and format of the study reports Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 35

41 Slide 35 A6 "s" twice ANTONIO; 06-janv.-05

42 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Function, functional unit and reference flow A particularly important issue in product comparisons is the functional unit or comparison basis. In many cases, one cannot simply compare product A and B, as they may have different performance characteristics. Defining a functional unit can be quite difficult, as the performance of products is not always easy to describe. For instance, if the objective of the study is to compare paper towels with hand dryers, the function of these products is to dry hands and the functional unit can be defined as x pair of dried hands. Initial System Boundaries Product systems tend to be interrelated in a very complex way. It is helpful to draw a diagram of the system and to identify the boundaries in this diagram. Important choices in this area are: What is the boundary with nature? For example, in an LCA on paper it is important to decide if the growing of a tree is included. If it is, one can include the CO 2 uptake and the land use effect. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 36

43 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Will the production and disposal of capital goods be included? One O can distinguish three orders: First Order : Only the production of materials and transport are a included. Second Order : All processes during the life cycle are included, d, but the capital goods are left out. Third Order : Now the capital goods are included. Criteria for inclusion of inputs and outputs Apart from the criteria for system boundaries, one can also use a certain threshold below which you consider it is useless to collect data for an inflow or an outflow. ISO recommends using one or more of the following bases for such a threshold: If the mass of the inflow is lower than a certain percentage. If the economic value of an inflow is lower than a certain percentage of the total value of the product system. If the contribution from an inflow to the environmental load is below a certain percentage. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 37

44 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Data Categories It defines the kind of data necessary for the study. They can be collected at the production sites (i.e. primary data) or be obtained or calculated d from published references or databases (i.e. secondary data). ISO recommends the t use of primary data for those processes that contribute with most of the e mass and energy flows or processes with significant environmental emissions (ISO 1999). Data Quality Requirements The quality of the data used in the life cycle inventory is naturally reflected in the quality of the final LCA. The data quality can be described and assessed in different ways. It is important that the data quality is described ed and assessed in a systematic way that allows others to understand and control the actual data quality. Initial data quality requirements shall be established which define that following parameters: Time-related coverage. Geographical coverage. Technology coverage. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 38

45 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology In all studies, the following additional data quality indicators shall be taken into consideration in a level of detail depending on goal and scope definition: Precision Completeness Representativeness Consistency Reproducibility Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 39

46 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Allocation ISO recommends the following procedure in order to deal with allocation issues: Avoid allocation, by splitting the processes in such a way that t can be described as two separated processes that each has a single output. Another way to avoid allocation is to extend the system boundaries, and by including process is that would be needed to make a similar output. ut. If it is not possible to avoid allocation in either way, the ISO I standard suggest allocating the environmental load based on a physical causality, such as mass or energy content of the outputs. If this procedure cannot be applied, ISO suggests using socio-economic allocation basis, such as the economic value. Although ISO mentions the socio-economic basis as a last resource, it is used very often. The advantage is that economic value is a good way to distinguish waste from an output, and it expresses the relative importance of an output. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 40

47 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Methodology 2.2. Goal and Scope 2.3. Goal and Scope : Example Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 41

48 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 2.3. Goal and scope: Example The purpose of this study is the identification and assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the production, use and final disposal of printing and writing paper produced in Portugal from Eucalyptus globulus and consumed in Portugal. The schema below shows the system boudaries. Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Consumers Composting Landfilling Softwood pulp production Recycling Softwood forest Chemical Production Electricity Production Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 42

49 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology In this example, the functional unit was defined as 1 tonne of white printing and writing paper, with a standard weight of 80 g/m 2, produced from Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp and consumed in Portugal. The impact assessment conducted in this study considers the following impact categories: Global Warming potential for 100 years Acidification Eutrophication Non-renewable resource depletion Photochemical oxidant formation Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 43

50 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Methodology 2.2. Goal and Scope 2.3. Goal and Scope : Example 2.4. ISO guidelines; Inventory Analysis Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 44

51 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 2.4. ISO guidelines; Inventory Analysis Phase of Life Cycle Assessment involving the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs, for a given product system throughout its life cycle. (International Organization for Standardization 1997) Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 45

52 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Inventory Analysis Inventory analysis is the stage in which data are collected and where calculations are performed in order to quantify the relevant inputs and outputs of the system as a whole. Typically, inventory data include raw materials and energy consumption, and the emission of solid, liquid and gaseous s wastes. Inventory data may be provided for full life cycles or for partial al life cycles. (Susan Svoboda, 1995) Inputs Raw Materials Energy Water System Outputs Emissions to Air Releases to Water Solid Waste Usable Products Other Environmental Releases Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 46

53 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology An important step in the inventory is the creation of a process flow diagram that will serve as the blueprint for the data to be collected. Each step in the system should be represented in the diagram, including the steps of the production of ancillary products such as chemicals and packaging. This step is important because it clearly depicts the relative contribution of each subsystem to the t entire production system and the final product. The following is a synopsis of the various issues that can be analyzed alyzed in an inventory analysis: Data Collection Refining System Boundaries Calculation Validation of Data Relating data to the specific system Allocation and Recycling Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 47

54 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 1. Data Collection Inventory Analysis involves data collection and calculation procedures to quantify relevant inputs and outputs of a product system. These inputs and d outputs may include the use of resources and releases to air, water and land associated with the system. Interpretation may be draw from these data, depending on the goals and scope of the LCA. These data also constitute the input to the life cycle impact assessment. The qualitative and quantitative data for inclusion in the inventory shall be collected for each unit process that is included within the system boundaries. The procedures used for data collection may vary depending on the scope, unit process p or intended application of the study. The technical specification provides comprehensive formats for data d collection and treatment and the following concept can be used, Description of the process as well as description of inputs and outputs. Description of modeling and validation Description of administrative information Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 48

55 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 2. Refining System Boundaries The system boundaries are defined as a part of the scope definition ion procedure. After the initial data collection, the system boundaries can be refined d e.g. as a result of decisions of exclusion life stages or sub-systems, systems, exclusion of material flows or inclusion of new unit processes shown to be significant according g to the sensitivity analysis. The following is a synopsis of the various subsystems that can be analyzed in an inventory analysis: Inputs Raw Materials Energy Water Raw Material Acquisition Material Manufacture Final Product Assembly Transportation/Distribution Consumer Use and Disposal System Boundary Outputs Emissions to Air Releases to Water Solid Waste Usable Products Other Environmental Releases Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 49

56 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Raw Materials Acquisition. Data are collected for this subsystems an all activities required d to obtain raw materials, including transportation of the materials to the point t of manufacture. The inventory should also include all inputs of energy, materials, and equipment necessary for acquiring each raw material. Because this dramatically ally increases the complexity of the analysis, criteria must be determined to eliminate e insignificant contributions (usually any component contributing less than five percent of inputs might be ignored). Inputs Energy Materials Infrastructure and Capital Equipment Outputs Inputs Exploration and Extraction Cultivation, Harvest, and Replenishment Handling and Transportation Outputs Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 50

57 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Product System. Data collected for this subsystem includes all energy, material, or water inputs and environmental releases that occur during the manufacturing processes p required to convert each raw materials input into intermediate materials m ready for fabrication. If industrial scrap is used in another subsystem, it is considered to the same consumption and emission rates required to produce that t primary material. Fuel Producing Industries Production Of Ancillary Materials Raw Materials Acquisition Main Productions System Emissions to Air Releases to Water Solid Waste Usable Product Co-Products Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 51

58 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Transportation/Distribution. An inventory of the related transportation activities of the product to warehouses and end-users maybe simplified by using standards for the average distance transported and the typical mode of transportation used. As in previous stages, clear boundaries must be established to define the extent to which issues such as building and maintaining transportation and distribution equipment will be included into the inventory results. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 52

59 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Consumer Use/Disposal. Data collected for this subsystem cover consumer activities including use (product consumption, storage, preparation, or operation), maintenance (repair) and reuse. Issues to consider when defining the scope of the subsystem system include: Time of product use before it is discarded Inputs used in the maintenance process The typical frequency of repair Potential product reuse and recycling options Use Transportation /Distribution Point Of Use Maintenance Disposal Waste Management Re-Use Recycle Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 53

60 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 3. Calculation procedures No formal demands exist for calculation in life cycle assessment except the described demands for allocation procedures. Due to the amount of data it is recommended as a minimum to develop a spreadsheet for the specific purpose. A number n of general PC-programs/software for calculation are available e.g. spreadsheets/spreadsheet s/spreadsheet applications (EXCEL/Lotus etc), together with many software programs rams developed specially for life cycle assessment. The appropriate program can be chosen depending on the kind and amount of data to be handled. 4. Validation of Data The validation of data has to be conducted during the data collection ction process in order to improve the overall data quality. Systematic data validation may point out areas where data quality must be improved or data must be found in similar ilar processes or unit processes. For each data category and for each reporting location where missing sing data are identified, the treatment of the missing data should result in: An acceptable reported data value; A zero data value of justifies; or A calculated value based on the reported values from unit processes employing similar technology. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 54

61 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 5. Relating data to the specific system The fundamental inputs and outputs data are often delivered from industry in arbitrary units e.g. energy consumption as MJ/machine/week or emissions to the sewage system as mg metals/liter wastewater. For each unit process, an appropriate reference flow shall be determine (e.g. one kilogram of material or one mega joule for energy). The quantitative input t and output data of the unit process shall be calculated in relation to this reference flow. f Based on the refined chart and system s s boundaries, unit processes are interconnected to allow calculations of the complete system. 6. Allocation and Recycling When performing a life cycle assessment of a complex system, it may not be possible to handle all the impacts and outputs inside the system boundaries. This problem can be solved either by: 1. Expanding the system boundaries to include all the inputs and outputs, o or by 2. Allocating the relevant environmental impacts to the studied system. stem. Since the inventory is intrinsically based on material balances between inputs and outputs, allocation procedures should approximate as much as possible such h fundamental input- output relationships and characteristics. Some principles should be kept in mind when allocating loadings. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 55

62 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Allocation can be necessary when dealing with: Multi-output black box processes, i.e. when more than one product is produced and some of those product flows are crossing the system boundaries. Multi-input input processes, such as waste treatment, where a strict quantitative ative causality between inputs and emissions etc. seldom exists. Open-loop recycling, where a waste material leaving the system boundaries is used as a raw material by another system, outside the boundaries of the studied system. Recycling technology is expected to improve greatly in the future. Therefore, content levels and recycling rates should always be reported at current rates with documentation of study dates. Advances in technology will both increase i rates and the number of products that are recyclable, altering both open-loop and closed-loop loop recycling options. Recycling Subsystem Produce Virgin Produce Virgin Material Material Convert to Convert to Recycling Product 1 Product 1 Closed- lop Open- lop Waste Management Waste Management Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 56

63 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Methodology 2.2. Goal and Scope 2.3. Goal and Scope : Example 2.4. ISO guidelines; Inventory Analysis 2.5. Inventory Analysis: Example Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 57

64 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 2.5. Inventory Analysis: Example Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Softwood pulp production Softwood forest Chemical Production The production of Eucalyptus includes Consumers forest installation, forest growth and wood harvesting. Forest installation and growth comprises path opening, land preparation, soil preparation, deep fertilization, plantation, pest control, soil mobilization and soil fertilization. Electricity Production Composting Landfilling Recycling Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 58

65 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Softwood pulp production Softwood forest This subsystem includes pine growth and pine harvesting, Consumers 75% of which is done by regeneration felling and 25% by thinking. Composting Landfilling Recycling Chemical Production Electricity Production Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 59

66 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Softwood pulp production Data on the production of softwood pulp include the Consumers pulping process. Composting Landfilling Recycling Softwood forest Chemical Production Electricity Production Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 60

67 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Softwood pulp production Softwood forest Chemical Production To perform this study, two scenarios were defined: Actual Consumers scenario (AS): Eucalyptus pulp and paper integrated production using heavy fuel oil. Natural gas scenario (NGS): Eucalyptus pulp and paper integrated production using natural gas. Electricity Production Composting Landfilling Recycling Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 61

68 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Softwood pulp production Softwood forest Chemical Production The printing and writing paper production include eucalyptus pulp transfer, Consumers softwood pulp bales pulping, pulp refining, cleaning, and screening, broke recovery, paper machine, finishing, wastewater treatment in an activated sludge plant and on site energy production. Electricity Production Composting Landfilling Recycling Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 62

69 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Final disposal alternatives in Softwood pulp Portugal production for printing and writing wastepaper are recycling (11%), Softwood forest landfilling (84%) and composting (5%). Chemical Production Consumers Electricity Production Composting Landfilling Recycling Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 63

70 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Eucalyptus forest The production of Eucalyptus pulp production hydrogen peroxide and sodium chlorate was Paper production included because, they are energy-insensitive Softwood pulp production process. Consumers Composting Landfilling Recycling Softwood forest Chemical Production Electricity Production Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 64

71 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Softwood pulp production Some subsystems purchase electricity from the Consumers national grid, while others have a surplus of electricity production. Composting Landfilling Recycling Softwood forest Chemical Production Electricity Production Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 65

72 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Softwood pulp production Consumers This subsystem includes the circulation, between subsystems, of wood, Composting softwood pulp, paper, wastepaper, chemicals and fuels by 16 tonne, 28 Landfilling tonne and garbage trucks, ocean ships and electric Recycling trains. Softwood forest Chemical Production Electricity Production Transports Other systems Fuel production Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 66

73 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Eucalyptus forest Eucalyptus pulp production Paper production Consumers Composting Landfilling Softwood pulp production Recycling Softwood forest The fuels considered are Chemical heavy fuel oil, light fuel Production oil, diesel oil and natural gas. Other systems Electricity Production Fuel production Transports Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 67

74 Tier I: Outline 1. Introduction and definition of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Methodology 2.2. Goal and Scope 2.3. Goal and Scope : Example 2.4. ISO guidelines; Inventory Analysis 2.5. Inventory Analysis: Example 2.6. Impact Assessment Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 68

75 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 2.6. Impact Assessment The purpose of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is to assess a system s s Life Cycle Inventory results with the aim of improving understanding with regard to their potential environmental significance. LCIA specifically uses impact categories and associated indicators to simplify LCI results with regard to one or more environmental issues. An LCA shall include LCIA to help identify potential environmental problems associated with various man-made made activities. Life Cycle Impact Assessment is defined as the phase in the LCA aimed at understanding and evaluating the magnitude and significance of the potential environmental e impacts of a product systems. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 69

76 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology 2.6. Impact Assessment Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is the third phase in a life cycle assessment containing the following main issues: Mandatory Elements Selection of impact categories and category indicators Assignment of LCI results (Classification( Classification) Characterization Optional Elements Normalization Grouping Weighting Data Quality Analysis Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 70

77 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Selection of Impact Categories An important step in an LCIA is the selection of the appropriate impact categories. The choice is guided by the goal of the study. It requires some expert judgment to make such a list, and to understand which impact categories should be defined to cover all these issues. An important help in the process of selecting impact categories is the definition of so- called endpoint.. Endpoints are to be understood as issues of environmental concern, like human health, extinction of species, availability of resources for future generation. Endpoints can be selected by the practitioner, as long as the reasons for including or excluding endpoints are clearly documented. Category endpoints are variables which are of direct social concern, such as human life span, natural resources, valuable ecosystems or species, etc. The level of the endpoints is also called damage level.. Category midpoints are variables in the environmental mechanism of an impact category between the environmental nmental interventions and the category endpoints, like the concentration of toxic substances, the deposition of acidifying substances, etc. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 71

78 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology The level of the endpoints is also called damage level.. Category midpoints are variables in the environmental mechanism of an impact category between b the environmental interventions and the category endpoints, like the concentration of toxic substances, the deposition of acidifying substances, etc. The level of midpoints is also called problem level (Udo de Haes et al. 1999a). According to ISO, the category indicator can be defined at any level of the environmental mechanism (ISO 2001a). The inventory results of an LCA usually contains hundreds of different ferent emissions and resource extraction parameters. Once the relevant impact categories are determined, these LCI results must be assigned to these impact categories. Once the impact categories are defined and the LCI results are assigned a to these impact categories, it is necessary to define characterization factors. These factors should reflect the relative contribution of an LCI result to the impact category indicator result. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 72

79 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology General overview of the structure of an impact assessment method.. The LCI result are characterized to produce a number of impact categories indicators. According to ISO, one must document the environmental relevance of each indicator by describing the link to the endpoints. Environmental Mechanism Respiratory Extinction deceases of species Seawater Dieing Seawar level forest Cancer Radiation Smog Carcinogen Climate Ozone layer Acidification Land-use LCI results Nutriphication Ecotoxicity Reduced resource base Minerals Fossil fuel Endpoints Midpoints Inventory Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 73

80 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology The impact category human toxicological impacts is one of the most difficult categories to handle. The potential effect on humans depends as for ecotoxicological impacts an the actual emission and fate of the specific substances emitted to the environment. The human toxicological effects can be: Acute toxicological effects Irritation Allergenic reactions Genotoxicity Cecinogenicity Neurotoxicity Teratogenicity Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 74

81 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology The choice of the impact assessment method depends largely on the e addressed audience. Implementation plan for of LCA Goal: Why use LCA Scope: Which applications? How are results reported, and to who? Who will do it Interface with your organization Ecodesign Strategy development Product declaration Benchmarking EMS, process improvement LCC Designers LCA experts Ecoindicators All details Product managers Aggregated scores and some details EMS specialist Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 75

82 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Assignment of LCI results (Classification) Assignment of LCI results to impact categories should consider the t following, unless otherwise required by the goal and scope: Assignment if LCI results which are exclusive to one impact category; Identification of LCI results which relate to more than one impact category, including impact categories of human and acidification and Allocation among serial mechanism, e.g. NO X may be assigned to ground level ozone formation and acidification. Classification is a qualitative step based on scientific analysis s of relevant environmental processes. The classification has to assign the inventory input and output data to potential environmental impacts i.e. impact categories. Some outputs contribute to different impact categories and therefore, they have to be mentioned twice. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 76

83 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Characterization The method of calculating indicators results shall be identified and documented, including the value-choices and assumptions used. The usefulness of the indicator results for a given goal and scope depends on the accuracy, validity and characteristic of the models and characterization rization factors. The number and kind of simplifying assumptions and value-choices used in the characterization model for the category indicator will also vary between impact categories. A trade off often exist between characterization model simplicity and accuracy. Variation in the quality of indicators among impact categories may m influence the overall accuracy of the LCA study, for example: The complexity of the environmental mechanism between the system m boundary and the category endpoint, Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 77

84 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology The spatial and temporal characteristics, for example the persistence of a substance in the environment, and The dose-response characteristics Calculation of indicator results occur in two steps: a. Selection and use a characterization factor to convert the assigned LCI results to common units; b. Aggregation of the converted LCI results into the indicator results. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 78

85 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Normalization This procedure transform an indicator result by diving with a selected value. Some examples of reference values are The total emissions or resource use for a given area which may be global, regional, national or local The total emissions or resource use for a given area on per capita basis A baseline scenario such as the indicator result under consideration divided by the calculated indicator result of a given alternative product system. The selection of the reference system should consider the consistency of the spatial and temporal scales of the environmental mechanism and the reference ence value. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 79

86 2. Overview of 4 stages of life cycle methodology Grouping Grouping is assigning impact categories into one or more sets, sets s are predefined in the goal and scope, and it may involve sorting and/or ranking. Grouping G is an optional element with two possible procedures: To sort the impact categories on a nominal basis e.g. by characteristics cteristics such as emissions and resources or global, regional spatial scales; To rank the indicators in a given order or hierarchy, e.g. medium and low priority. Ranking is based on value choices. Module 14 Life Cycle Assessment 80

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