Life Cycle Assessment of Three Water Scenarios: Importation, Reclamation, and Desalination

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1 Life Cycle Assessment of Three Water Scenarios: Importation, Reclamation, and Desalination Erin Lyons, Peng Zhang, Troy Benn, Miles Costanza, Ke Li, John Crittenden Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University 1

2 Life Cycle Assessment Described by International Standards Organization, SETAC, US EPA Inventory of material and energy required for a product or process Data analyzed and categorized Find impacts on planet and humans

3 Life Cycle Assessment Extraction of Raw Materials Material and Energy Inputs Processing of Raw Materials Manufacturing, Transportation Distribution Use/ Reuse/ Maintenance Recycling Final Disposal Process Wastes Releases to the Environment

4 Life Cycle Assessment Steps Goal and scope definition Purpose Boundary conditions (spatial and temporal) Inventory analysis Gather data Allocate inputs and outputs Impact analysis Classify and characterize data Assign weights to different impacts Improvement analysis Evaluate opportunities to decrease impacts May discuss any portion of the life cycle

5 Outline Objectives Test Scenarios SimaPro LCA Software Results and Conclusions

6 Objectives Compare three water treatment systems using different raw water sources Quantify materials used in plant infrastructure Quantify energy and material inputs required to produce 1000 gallons of water Analyze the results of the system design using SimaPro LCA software Identify trends and key factors

7 Outline Objectives Test Scenarios SimaPro LCA Software Results and Conclusions

8 Importation: Scottsdale Receives water from Central Arizona Project (CAP Plant) 200 mile canal Traditional water treatment processes Portion of the impacts based on portion of total water received (3%)

9 Reclamation: Scottsdale Reclaims wastewater for use (Reclaimed Plant) Wastewater treatment, advanced water treatment, and groundwater recharge and extraction Supplemented by groundwater

10 Desalination: Phoenix Seawater is desalinated at the Sea of Cortez and then transported to Phoenix Desalination plant at the Sea of Cortez Pipeline system for water transportation (165 miles)

11 Plant Design Assumptions WTP, WWTP, and AWTP are modeled on Scottsdale facilities WTP 50 MGD WWTP 35 MGD AWTP 30 MGD Desalination plant (324 mgd) is scaled up from Ashkelon Plant in Israel with capacity of 36 mgd Basins concrete reinforced with steel rebar Chemical dosing and electricity averages from literature Chemical transport rail into Phoenix, truck from Phoenix to Scottsdale

12 CAP Plant Source Central Arizona Project Traditional Water Treatment Processes

13 CAP Plant - System Diagram CAP Canal Screen Coagulation Flocculation Sedimentation Filtration Disinfection Use

14 CAP Plant Inputs Per 1000 gallons of water Concrete (yd 3 ) Steel (lbs) Energy (kwh) PAC (g) KMnO 4 (g) Cationic Polymer (g) Alum (g) Chlorine (g)

15 Reclamation Plant Source Reclaimed effluent Treatment Processes Wastewater treatment Advanced water treatment Groundwater recharge and recovery Assume 70% wastewater capture Supplement with groundwater

16 Reclamation Plant - System Diagram Screen Primary Clarification Aeration Secondary Clarification Filtration Disinfection Microfiltration Reverse Osmosis Stabilization Aquifer Storage and Recovery Disinfection Use

17 Reclamation Plant Inputs Concrete (yd 3 ) Steel (lbs) Energy (kwh) Chlorine (g) Sulfuric acid (g) Anti-scalant (g) Lime (g) Per 1000 gallons of water

18 Desalination Plant Source seawater from the Sea of Cortez Treatment Processes Filtration Reverse Osmosis Steel pipeline conveying water from the Sea of Cortez to Phoenix, AZ

19 Desalination Plant - System Diagram Sea of Cortez Seawater Intake Screen Chlorine Filtration Reverse Osmosis Storage Use Water Transportation Pipeline to Phoenix Connection to Phoenix Distribution System near Buckeye, AZ

20 Desalination Plant Inputs Concrete (yd 3 ) Steel (lbs) Energy (kwh) Chlorine (g) Sulfuric acid (g) Sand (g) Anthracite (g) Lime (g) Per 1000 gallons of water

21 Outline Objectives Test Scenarios SimaPro LCA Software Results and Conclusions

22 SimaPro LCA Software PRé Environmental Consultants Purpose is to perform LCA calculations 12 data libraries 9 programmed calculation methodologies

23 Eco-Indicator 99 H/A Calculation method Designed top-down, weighting first 40% human health; 40% ecosystem quality; 20% resource availability Mid-range time scale Some avoidance of damage Does not account for noise

24 Eco-Indicator 99 Calculations 1) Inventory of all flows through the product life cycle Inventory Results 2) Damage Model for the flows Damage to resources Damage to ecosystems Damage to human health 3) Weighting of the damage categories Indicator

25 Eco-Indicator 99 Calculations Mining Converter Extraction of minerals and fossil fuels Concentration of ores Availability of fossil fuels Surplus energy at future extraction Surplus energy at future extraction Damage to Resources Milling Pressing Land use and land conversion Decrease of nat l areas Regional effect on species numbers Local effect on species numbers Damage to Ecosystems Transport Disposal NOx SOx NH 3 Pesticides Heavy metals Altered ph & available nutrients Concentration in soil Concentration of greenhouse gas Effect on target species Ecotoxicity: toxic stress (PAF) Climate change (disease + displacement) CO 2 Conc. ozone depleting substances Ozone layer depletion (cancer + cataract) Damage to HCFC Human Health Nuclides Conc. radionuclides Radiation effect (cancer) SPM VOC Conc. fine dust, VOC Respiratory effects PAH Conc. air, water and food Cancer Inventory Analysis Resource Analysis Land-Use Analysis Fate Analysis Exposure and Effect Analysis Damage Analysis

26 Eco-Indicator 99 Units Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) Potentially disappeared fraction *area*year (PDF*m2*yr) MJ Surplus Energy Points 1 Point represents 1/1000 annual environmental load of an average European = total environmental load *1000 population

27 Outline Objectives Test Scenarios SimaPro LCA Software Results and Conclusions

28 SimaPro Materials Material Concrete Steel Electricity Powdered activated carbon Potassium permanganate Cationic polymer Aluminum sulfate Chlorine Ammonia Sulfuric acid Lime Chemical transport rail Chemical transport truck Concrete not reinforced ETH U Reinforcing steel, at plant/rer U Electricity, production mix US/US U Electricity, production mix NO/NO U Electricity, production mix FR/FR U Concrete not reinforced ETH U Manganese ETH U Cationic resin, at plant/ch U Aluminum sulphate, powder, at plant/rer U Chlorine (pure) B250 Ammonia ETH U Sulphuric acid, liquid, at plant/rer U Lime (hydrated) ETH U Transport, freight, rail/ch U Truck 28t ETH U Corresponding SimaPro Material

29 CAP Plant Points Human Health Ecosystem Quality Resources Infrastructure O&M

30 Reclamation Plant Points Human Health Ecosystem Quality Resources Infrastructure O&M

31 Desalination Plant Points Human Health Ecosystem Quality Resources Infrastructure O&M

32 Comparison Points Resources Ecosystem Quality Human Health CAP Plant Reclamation Plant Desalination Plant

33 CAP Plant Points Human Health Ecosystem Quality Resources I-10 I-50 O&M

34 Reclamation Plant Points Human Health Ecosystem Quality Resources I-10 I-50 O&M

35 Desalination Plant Points Human Health Ecosystem Quality Resources I-10 I-50 O&M

36 CAP Plant O&M vs. Energy Points Resources Ecosystem Quality Human Health CAP Plant O&M CAP Plant Energy

37 Reclamation Plant O&M vs. Energy Points Resources Ecosystem Quality Human Health Reclaimed Plant O&M Reclaimed Plant Energy

38 Desalination Plant O&M vs. Energy Points Resources Ecosystem Quality Human Health Desalination Plant O&M Desalination Plant Energy

39 Energy Mix Analysis All previous calculations considered US energy mix Other countries use different energy mixes

40 Energy Mix Comparisons 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% US France Norway Other Hydro Nuclear Oil/Gas Coal

41 Reclaimed Plant Energy Mix Analysis Points 0.01 Resources Ecosystem Quality Human Health US France Norway

42 Conclusions Reclaimed plant has larger environmental impacts than CAP plant Impact of operation higher than impact of infrastructure Infrastructure impact decreases as life span increases All three plants impacts dominated by energy use Changing the energy mix could decrease environmental impacts

43 Future Research More time, more data Water quality analysis, especially to consider issues with reclaimed water Distribution system, use, collection system Include analysis of land consumed by dams and canal, ecosystem damages

44 Questions??

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