LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF CHOCOLATE PRODUCED IN GHANA

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1 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF CHOCOLATE PRODUCED IN GHANA GEORGE AFRANE Koforidua Polytechnic Koforidua, Ghana AUGUSTINE NTIAMOAH Department of Chemical Engineering Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. 1

2 Presentation Outline Introduction Life Cycle Assessment Methodology Life Cycle Impact Assessment Results Conclusion and Recommendations Acknowledgements 2

3 Introduction: About Ghana GHANA land area: 94,000 sq. km Population: 22 million Cocoa contributes 12% to national GDP Population associated with cocoa business: 6 million Percentage of total population: 27 Earnings as % of foreign exchange: 45 3

4 Aim of study 1. Study aimed to introduce LCA to the Ghanaian cocoa industry 2. To specifically conduct LCA on chocolate, the main cocoa product. 4

5 Goal and Scope Definition (ISO 14040) ISO LCA Methodology Inventory Analysis (ISO 14041) Interpretation (ISO 14043) Impact Assessment (ISO 14042) Source: ISO

6 Goal Goal and Scope of the LCA study To identify and quantify key environmental impacts along chocolate s production chain. To assess the relative contribution of each stage of production to the identified environmental impacts. Target Group To suggest a number of improvement options based on the results obtained. Ghana Cocoa Board (COCOBOD) All stakeholders of Ghana s Cocoa Industry Functional Unit LCIA method Life Cycle Stages Studied 1 kg chocolate CML 2001 method Cocoa Production, Bean Transportation, Cocoa Processing, Chocolate Manufacturing 6

7 LIFE CYCLE OF CHOCOLATE Cocoa Cultivation Fertilizer production Harvesting, Fermentation and Drying Pesticides production Bagging and Storage Transport of beans to Processing factory Industrial cleaning, roasting, breaking and winnowing, and grinding of cocoa beans Jute bag cultivation and Manufacturing NB: Processes captured in dotted boxes are excluded from the study Milk production Mixing of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, milk, sugar and other ingredients Sugar production Conching and Refining Tempering and Moulding Chocolate packaging Production of packaging Distribution and Retail Consumption phase Expired food & packaging disposal 7

8 Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Data collection Relating data to functional unit Modeling data to give inventory table 8

9 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (using LCA software) Classification - assign inventory data to Impact categories Characterization - calculate potential environmental impacts of inventory data by using their equivalency factors 9

10 Life Cycle Impact Assessment Results Environmental Impact Category Overall Impact Score Unit Acidification Potential E-03 kg SO 2 -Equiv Eutrophication Potential E-04 kg PO 3-4 -Equiv Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity Pot E+00 kg DCB -Equiv Global Warming Potential E-01 kg CO 2 -Equiv Human Toxicity Potential E+00 kg DCB -Equiv Ozone Layer Depletion Potential E-09 kg R11-Equiv Photochem. Ozone Creation Potential E-04 kg C 2 H 4 -Equiv Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential E-03 kg DCB -Equiv 10

11 6.00E E E E E E+00 Overall environmental profile for the profile for the production of 1 kg chocolate in Ghana 0.00E+00 AP EP FAETP GWP HTP ODP POCP TETP 11

12 Contribution by Life Cycle Stages to the total Impact Scores CML2001, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential (TETP inf.) [kg DCB-Equiv.] CML2001, Photochem. Ozone Creation Potential (POCP) [kg Ethene-Equiv.] CML2001, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential (ODP, steady state) [kg R11-Equiv.] CML2001, Human Toxicity Potential (HTP inf.) [kg DCB-Equiv.] CML2001, Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 years) [kg CO2-Equiv.] CML2001, Freshw ater Aquatic Ecotoxicity Pot. (FAETP inf.) [kg DCB-Equiv.] CML2001, Eutrophication Potential (EP) [kg Phosphate-Equiv.] CML2001, Acidification Potential (AP) [kg SO2-Equiv.] Chocolate manufacturing Cocoa processing Cocoa production Transportation 12

13 Conclusions and Recommendations Freshwater aquatic eco-toxicity, Human toxicity, and Global warming are most significant environmental impacts associated with product. Cocoa production, followed by cocoa processing identified as the key life cycle stages. Need to review government s current pests and diseases management programme towards a more organic cocoa production. 13

14 Conclusions and Recommendations cont d Need to improve on efficiency of energy use in energy-intensive equipments such as roasters and boilers at processing factory. Future work should include other relevant environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity, disposal impacts of cocoa pod husks at the farming stage. Must also include packaging and other phases of life cycle omitted in current study. 14

15 Acknowledgements UNEP/SETAC Life cycle Initiative for awarding the GaBi LCA software used for the analysis Management of Cocoa Processing Company, Tema Management of Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Tafo 15

16 THANK YOU! 16

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