- H. o. FOLKINS ET AL 2,423,494 CRACKING OF HYDROCARBONS IN THE PBEsENCB OF HALOGENPCONTAINING SENSITIZER$.- } Filed ' Juné 11, 1945

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "- H. o. FOLKINS ET AL 2,423,494 CRACKING OF HYDROCARBONS IN THE PBEsENCB OF HALOGENPCONTAINING SENSITIZER$.- } Filed ' Juné 11, 1945"

Transcription

1 July 8, H. o. FOLKINS ET AL 2,423,494 CRACKING OF HYDROCARBONS IN THE PBEsENCB OF HALOGENPCONTAINING SENSITIZER$.- } Filed Juné 11, Sheets-Sheet} p-aurme DECOMPOSITION A I soon: INCREASE PRESSURE PERCENT 2 I 0 I IO II l2 l3l4l5 l6 l1- l8 l9 20 TIME (MINUTES) " , 1/6. 1 M H ~! ATTORNEY! -

2 ._ 2,423, July 8, H. o. FOLYKINS ET AL CRACKING OF HYDROCARBONS IN THE PRESENCE OF HALOGEN-CONTAINING SENSITIZERS Filed June 11, Sheeis-Shent 2 n-butane DECOMPOSITION AT 500 C nww awfuo... o, 5. Fiy. 2 I2. I TIME (MINUTES) Id - -. away??? INVENTORS 8. ac 81 _ BY. { ATIJIR/NEYWV

3

4 Patented July- 8, ,423,494. _ UNITED stajt 1 This invention relates to cracking of hydrocar bons and is more particularly concerned with a _ method for converting higher boiling hydrocar bons into lower boiling hydrocarbons and for. making unsaturated hydrocarbons from satu rated hydrocarbons. > We have discovered that if thermal conversion of hydrocarbons is carried out in the presence of a. small amount of a poly-chlorinated aliphatic organic compound, particularly a poly-chlorin ated hydrocarbon of the para?in series in which some or all of the hydrogen atoms in the hydro carbon have been replaced by chlorine, admixed with a small amount of bromine or iodine or both, the cracking of the hydrocarbon is greatly ac celerated so that it is possible to obtain larger yields of, cracked hydrocarbons under the same time-temperature-pressure conditions than it is possible to obtain in thermal cracking of the hydrocarbons without sensitizer, and it is possi- ble to obtain yields at lower temperatures which are commensurate with yields obtainable at higher temperatures without sensitizers. Our in vention is applicable to either batch or continuous methods of cracking. In continuous, cracking methods by operating under usual thermal crack ing conditions in the presence of a sensitizer, not only can increased yields be obtained but higher 55 i PATENT- -<>FIF1 E7 I 2,423,494 CRACKING or nrnnocannons IN m I PRESENCE or nanocamconmmmq - K SENSITIZERS ~ Hillis 0. Folkins, Skokie, and Carlisle M. Thacher, Highland Park, 111., asaignors to The Pure Oil Company, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Ohio Application June 11, 1945, Serial No. 598,70 i In Canada February 24, \Claims./ (Cl ) octane gasoline can be produced.. By using a sensitizer, a larger throughput of charging stock 30 through a given size unit can be effected because of the acceleration in the cracking reaction I caused by the sensitizer. An object of our invention is to provide a method for conversion of hydrocarbons. Another object of our invention is to provide a method for accelerating cracking of hydrcar bons. Still another object of our invention is to pro vide a method for increasing octane number of 40 motor fuel made by cracking of hydrocarbons. A further object of our invention is to provide a sensitizer which will accelerate the decomposi tion of hydrocarbons.. _ A still further object of our invention is to pro 45 vide a method for improving thermal cracking of - hydrocarbons. I 1 Other objects of the invention will become ap parent from the following description and the ac companying drawings, of which Figure 1 is a graphical representation of data showing the unexpected results obtained from using a combination of bromine and chloroform as cracking sensitizer; Figure 2 is a graphical representation of data ~ _ showing. the unexpected results obtained from using a combination of bromine and propylene dichloride as sensitizer; and Figure 3 is a graphical representation of data showing the unexpected results obtained from using a combination of bromine and 1,2,3-tri chloropropane as cracking sensitizer. In accordance with the invention, a small amount of a poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydro carbon, such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dichloride, propylene dichloride, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, and bromine and/or iodine are mixed with the hydrocarbons subjected to decomposition. The poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon and the halogen may be mixed with the hydrocarbons prior to charging them to the reaction zone or they may be injected directly into the reaction zone. The total sensitizer mix ture may be used in concentrations from ap proximately.055 mole percent to 5 mole percent based on the total charge and should contain not less than about..005 mole percent of bromine and/or iodine, and not less than aboutv.05 mole percent of poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocar bon. Higher concentrations of sensitizers may be used, but within the limits above set forth the reaction progresses rapidly without causing ac cumulation of undesirably large amounts of the sensitizers and their decomposition products in the motor fuel or other product which it is dee sired to produce. In our experimental workit has been found that a mixture containing from.03 mole percent of bromine up to 2 mole percent of bromine and from.25 percent of a poly-chlo- - rinated aliphatic organic compound up to 2 per cent of a poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon gives unusually good results. When cracking hy drocarbon oils to gasoline boiling hydrocarbons, - it is preferred to keep the combined amount of catalyst below 1% by weight based on the oil cracked... The invention is useful in conjunction with conventional types of thermal cracking in which the hydrocarbons; are cracked at temperatures within the range of approximately 375 C. to 750 C. and is applicable to conversion of hydrocarbon gases such as propane and butane as well as to the conversion of liquid hydrocarbons such as, heavy naphtha, kerosine and gas oil. The com-, 50 bination of the bromine and/or iodine with a poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon acceler ates the cracking reaction to an extent far in excess of that which would be expected from the additive e?ect of the poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon and the bromine or iodine alone.

5 . In order to demonstrate this fact a number or runsv were made using normal butane as charg ing stock. The butane had a purity of 99%. The runs were all made in a Pyrex glass reaction ves sel at a temperature of 500 C. Before starting each run the reaction vessel was heated to the desired reaction temperature and then evacu ated by means 01 a vacuum pump to a pressure below mm. of mercury. Suiilcient butane in admixture with the desired amount oi v sensi tizer composition was then charged to the evac _ 2,420,404 4 ~ the end 01 the run. The?gures appearing in the table for 5% and 12.5% pressure increases were taken from curves of individual runs in which percent pressure increases were plotted 5 against time. In the table the?gures given un der the heading Time in minutes for AP of 25% are in some cases recorded and in other cases are interpolated from curves based on re corded pressures because in certain runs the 10 pressure rose above 25% increase too rapidly to obtain a reading at the exact point. Table > Tim" IZIZ QEB " 1 Sensitization rat-tom Products, Mole Per cent Run Na. 5 _ Name rim}. 0% 12.0% 20% 0% 12.0% 20% 00, m Residue i : g ; g kg n4 as ?: _ % o g % of? b 7a 7. L a a % %: o a Gig-(51:33:: 0% Average 012 or more runs. Buns 5-12, CHOh is chloroform. Runs 14-21, 01300]; is progylene dichloride. Runs 23-26, in,2, trichlor propane. I _ uated vessel until the pressure in the vessel ap proximated atmospheric pressure. The reaction was permitted to proceed. in the closed reaction vessel while the temperature was maintained at 500 C. until a pressure increase of 25 percent above the initial pressure was observed. where upon the reaction gases were rapidly removed from the reactor and analyzedn In some runs where the accelerationin reaction was extremely rapid the pressure increase somewhat exceeded 25 percent before the reaction was terminated. A number of runs were also made without any sensitizer and other runs were made using only a poly-chlorinated para?ln and only bromine as sensitizer. In each of the runs the initial pressure was calculated, a pressure reading was made 0.5 minute after the run began, thereafter pressure readings were made at intervals of 1 minute from the beginning or the run until 6 minutes thereafter, from that point readings were made at 2 minute intervals until 20 minutes after the run began, and when it was necessary to run in excess or 20 minutes to obtain 25% pressurein crease, readings were taken at 5 minute inter vals during the period from 20 to 40 minutes and vat l0 minute-intervals beyond 40 minutes until 75 tion factor or The sensitization factors recorded in the table 50 are obtained by dividing the time required for a particular pressure increase without.sensitizer by the time required for the same pressure increase with sensitizer. By referring to the table. it is evident that 55 chloroform, propylene dichloride and 1.2,3-tri chloropropane alone sensitize the cracking of butane to some extent. The table also shows that bromine is a more active sensitizer than the chlorinated hydrocarbons. However, by using a 00 combination of bromine with a poly-chlorinated hydrocarbon, the sensitizing eifectv is much greater than can be anticipated from the addi tive effect of the chlorinated hydrocarbons and bromine when used alone. In fact, the mixture 05 of a small amount of a poly-chlorinated hydro carbon with bromine will increase the sensitiz ing effect of the bromine far. above the value which an amount of bromine equivalent to the combined amounts of bromine and chlorinated 70 hydrocarbon gives. For example. one-half per cent of bromine (run 3) vgave a sensitization fac tor for 25 percent pressure increase,of 6.2; whereas,.25 percent of bromine mixed with.25 percent of chloroform (run 8) gave a sensitiza Similarly, 0.25 percent of

6 . H5. bromine mixed with 0.25 percent of propylen dichloride (run 17). gave a sensitization factor for 25 percent pressure increase of 12.8, as against 6.2 for one-half percent of bromine. A mix ture of bromine and l,2,3,-trichloropropane in amounts of.25 percent each (run 24) gave a sensitization factor of 10.4 as against 6.2 for one-half percent of bromine. Thus, it is ap parent that the poly-chlorinated hydrocarbons which are poorer sensitizers than bromine when used alone, enhance the sensitization eifect of bromine when mixed therewith to an extent con siderably above that of an equivalent amount of bromine alone. In order to further demonstrate the remark able enhancement in sensitization obtained by using a mixture of bromine and poly-chlorinat ed aliphatic hydrocarbon. curves were plotted for several runs with time in minutes as ab scissae and pressure increase as ordinates. Referring to Figure 1, curve I is a curve for the average of several blank runs, data for which is given in the table under run No. 1. Curve 2 is the curve based on data recorded for run No. 2. Curve 3 is the curve for data recorded in run No. 5. Curve 4 represents the hypothetical or additive results which would be expected from using a mixture, of.25 mole percent of chloro form and.25 percent of bromine as sensitizer, and is obtained by adding the pressure increase without sensitizer at a selected time (from curve. I), the pressure increase over that of the blank run caused at the same time by the presence of chloroform alone (curve 3 minus curve I) and the- pressure increase oausedat the same time by the presence of bromine alone (curve 2 minus curve I), and plotting on the graph the?gures obtained for a su?icient number of different time _ periods to be able to draw a curve through the points. As an example, referring to Figure 1, at a time approximately 7 minutes after the be ginning of the run, pressure increase without any sensitizer (obtained from curve I) is 4.8 per cent. At the same time the pressure increase in the run sensitized by chloroform alone is 7.5 percent (obtained from curve 3) and the pres sure increase in the run sensitized by bromine. alone is 14.7 (obtained from curve 2). Pressure increase due to the. presence of chloroform is therefore, 7.5 minus 4.8 or 2.7 percent. Pressure increase due to the presence of bromine is, there fore, 14.7 minus 4.8 or 9.9 percent. The pres sure increase that might be expected from the combination of chloroform and bromine at a time seven minutes after the run begins is the. sum of the pressure increase at the same time without sensitizer and the pressure increases caused by each of the sensitizers or 4.8 plus 2.7 plus 9.9 or 17.4 percent. By referring to curve 4, it will be seen that 7 minutes after the run begins the pressure increase is approximately 17.4 percent. 5. Curve 5 represents the actual experimental data obtained in the run using the combination sensi; tizer. At a period 7 minutes after the run began, it will be seen that the actual pressure increase was 25 percent as against an expected increase of 17.4 percent. Considering the effect in another way, in order to get a pressure increase of approximately 25 percent, it was necessary to permit. the reaction to continue for a period of 7 minutes, whereas from the additive results of theindividual sensié tizers, this pressure increase would not have been 2,425, expected v until the reaction had continued forv approximately 13 minutes. Referring now to Figure 2, the curves are sim ilar to those in Figure 1, with the exception that the data.are recorded in connection with a mix ture of bromine and propylene dichloride. As is apparent from the curves, the sensitization factor of a mixture of bromine and propylene dichloride in amounts of.25 percent each is even greater than that of the mixture of bromine and chloro form. The same is true for the mixture of bro- " mine and 1,2,3-trichloropropane, results of which are shown graphically in Figure 3. In order to further demonstrate the effective ness of mixtures of bromine and poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sensitization of hy drocarbons, Pennsylvania gas oil was subjected to cracking in a continuous laboratory cracking apparatus at 525 C. under approximately atmos 75 pheric pressure at a through-put of approximate ly 165 grams of charging stock per hour. In a run in which no sensitizer was used, using a once through operation, 10.7 percent by weight of gas oil was converted to liquid hydrocarbon boiling below 400 F. and 6.2 percent by weight was con verted to gas. Under similar conditions using a mixture of percent by weight of bromine and 0.5 percent by weight of propylene dichloride, 14.8 percent by weight of the gas oil was con verted to liquid hydrocarbon boiling below 400 F. and 9.1 percent by weight of the gas oil was converted to gas. Under the same conditions a. mixture of percent by weight of bromine and 0.5 percent by weight of 1,2,3-trichloropropane converted 15.6 percent by weight of the gas oil to liquid hydrocarbon boiling below 400 F. and 9.7 percent by weight of the gas oil to gas. From the analyses of the reaction products appearing in the table, the reaction is predomi nantly one of splitting the carbon to carbon bond as shown by the relatively large amount of un saturated hydrocarbons formed and the small amount of hydrogen formed in the reaction. The nature ofthe reaction products obtained is essen tially the same regardless of whether or not sensi tizer is used. The invention is useful in connection with known types of mineral oil thermal cracking with out catalyst. It is also useful in catalytic crack-v ing operations wherein a known solid comminuted catalyst, such as natural or synthetic alumina silica compositions, is used. The invention may also be used in connection with cracking of gases to make unsaturated hydrocarbons, such as crack ing of propane to ethylene, cracking of butane to ethylene and propylene or the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons to ole?ns or diole?ns such as buta diene.. Wherever the terms poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon or poly-chlorinated para?in areused, they are intended to include compounds in which all hydrogen has been replaced by chlorine atoms, as for example, carbon tetrachloride, hexachlor ethane and octachlorpropane. This application is a continuation-in-part of ouryapplication Serial No. 521,596,?led February 9, 1944, entitled Hydrocarbon conversion. It is claimed: 1. The method of cracking hydrocarbons,com- prising subjecting hydrocarbons to suitable crack. ing conditions of time, temperature and pressure in the presence of a small amount of a halogen selected from the group consisting of bromine and iodine and a small amount of a poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon.

7 7 > v ; 2. Method in accordance with claim 1 in which the halogen is bromine and the poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon is a poly-chlorinated par 3. Method in accordance with claim 1 in which the amount of halogen present is at least.005 mole percent and the amount of poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon is,..at least.05 mole per cent. 4. Method in accordance with claim 1 in which the minimum amount of halogen and poly-chlo rinated aliphatic hydrocarbon present is about.005 and.05 mole percent, respectively, and the maximum combined amount of the two is about 5 mole percent. 5. The method 01 cracking hydrocarbons con,taining at least 3 carbon atoms per molecule com prising subjecting said hydrocarbons to, temper ature of approximately 375 to 750 C. in the presence of asmall amount of bromine and a poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon. 6. Method in accordance with claim-5 in-which the poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon is 1,2,3-trichloropropane. 7. Method in accordance with claim 5 in which the poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon is chloroform. 8. Method in accordance with claim 5 in which the poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon is propylene dichloride Method in accordance with claim 5 in which 2,428,494 _ the bromine is present in an amount ofapproxi- _ mately.03 to_ 2 mole percent and the poly- chlorinated hydrocarbon is present in amounts or approximately 0.25 to 2 mole precent The method of cracking C4 hydrocarbons comprising subjecting said hydrocarbons to tem peratures of the order of C. in the presence of small amounts of bromine and a poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon. 11. Method in accordance with claim 10 in which the amount of bromine is not less than.005 mole percent and the amount 01 poly-chlo 18 so 40 rinated. aliphatic hydrocarbon is not less than -.05 mole percent and the maximum combined amount of, the two is about 5 mole percent. 12. Method in accordance with claim 5 inwhich the hydrocarbons are normally liquid hydrocar bone The method of "cracking hydrocarbon/oil comprising subjecting said oil to temperatures within the range of approximately 375 to 750 C. in the presence of a mixture of bromine. and a, poly-chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon, the bro-. mine. being present in amount not less than.03" mole per cent and the polychlorinated ali- phatic hydrocarbon being present in an amount not less than 0.25 mole per cent, thecombined amount of the bromine and polychlorinated ali phatic hydrocarbon being less than 1% by weight of the oil Method in accordance with claim 13 in 20 which the amount of bromine is about % by weight of the oil and the amount of polychlorin ated aliphatic hydrocarbon is about 05% by weight 01. the oil Method in accordance with claim 13 in 25. which the polychlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon is 1,2,3-trich1oropropane. 16. Method in accordance with claim 13 in which the polychlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon is propylene chloride. _ - HILLIS O. FOLKINS. CARLISIE M. THACKER.. REFERENCES crren The following references are of record in the file of this patent:..1 ~ UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,221,952 Pier et a1. Nov. 19, ,925,421 Van Peski Sept. 5, ,122,903 Winkler.._- July 5, ,063,133 Tropsch -n -_ Dec. 8, ,213,345 Marschner Y Sept. 3, 1940

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry)

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit

More information

Refining 101. Dennis Sutton March 2012

Refining 101. Dennis Sutton March 2012 1 Refining 101 Dennis Sutton March 2012 The Petroleum Industry Exploration The Petroleum Industry Exploration Production & Supply The Petroleum Industry Exploration Production & Supply REFINING The Petroleum

More information

C1 Crude Oil Quiz. A reaction between oxygen and a fuel that releases energy.

C1 Crude Oil Quiz. A reaction between oxygen and a fuel that releases energy. C1 Crude Oil Quiz 1. What is combustion? A reaction between oxygen and a fuel that releases energy. 2. Which pollutant gases are produced during the combustion of fossil fuels? Particulates, carbon dioxide,

More information

Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry

Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry Unit 2: Nature s Chemistry 1. A Fuel is a substance which burns giving out energy. 2. Oxygen is needed for anything to burn 3. Combustion is another name for burning Test for Oxygen - Relights a glowing

More information

Ch 8 Notes: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Ch 8 Notes: Chemical Equations and Reactions Name: Ch 8 Notes: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Chemical Equations A properly written chemical equation can summarize any chemical change. The following requirements will help you write and read

More information

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND CHEMICAL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY- Petrochemicals -C. R. Deddis

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING AND CHEMICAL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY- Petrochemicals -C. R. Deddis PETROCHEMICALS C. R. Deddis BP Exploration Operating Company Ltd., UK Keywords: Petrochemicals, hydrocarbons, natural gas, cracking, olefins, aromatics, polymers, fibers. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Petrochemicals

More information

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 1. Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid

More information

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key

Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key Stoichiometry Lecture Examples Answer Key Ex. 1 Balance the following chemical equations: 3 NaBr + 1 H 3 PO 4 3 HBr + 1 Na 3 PO 4 2 C 3 H 5 N 3 O 9 6 CO 2 + 3 N 2 + 5 H 2 O + 9 O 2 2 Ca(OH) 2 + 2 SO 2

More information

ASimple Guide to Oil Refining

ASimple Guide to Oil Refining ASimple Guide to Oil Refining We all know that motor oil and gasoline come from crude oil. What many people do not realize is that crude oil is also the starting point for many diverse products such as

More information

Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes

Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes Chapter 11 Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes 11.1 Organic Compounds Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1 Organic Compounds An organic compound Is a compound

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1

Alkanes. Chapter 1.1 Alkanes Chapter 1.1 Organic Chemistry The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties What s so special about carbon? Carbon has 4 bonding electrons. Thus, it can form 4 strong covalent bonds

More information

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? 12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons

More information

Chemistry in society. Homework exercise. Equilibrium, Hess Law, Enthalpy

Chemistry in society. Homework exercise. Equilibrium, Hess Law, Enthalpy hemistry in society Homework exercise Equilibrium, Hess Law, Enthalpy Equilibrium Exercise 1 1) reaction can be described as + + a) Write an equation to show the forwards reaction b) Write an equation

More information

Specific Heat Capacity

Specific Heat Capacity Specific Heat Capacity Specific Heat Capacity The amount of energy it takes to heat up 1 gram of a substance by 1 C What heats up faster, metal or water? Calorie Energy changes can also be measured in

More information

5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C

5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C 1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )

More information

1. Which of the following is not one of the common states of matter? a. solid b. plasma c. liquid d. gas

1. Which of the following is not one of the common states of matter? a. solid b. plasma c. liquid d. gas CHAPTER 2 1. Which of the following is not one of the common states of matter? a. solid b. plasma c. liquid d. gas 2. A pure substance which can be decomposed into two or more pure substances is a(n) a.

More information

Name AP Chemistry / / Chapter 13 Collected AP Exam Free Response Questions 1980 2010 Answers

Name AP Chemistry / / Chapter 13 Collected AP Exam Free Response Questions 1980 2010 Answers Name AP Chemistry / / Chapter 13 Collected AP Exam Free Response Questions 1980 2010 Answers 1980 - #6 NH 4 Cl(s) NH 3 (g) + HCl(g) ΔH = +42.1 kilocalories Suppose the substances in the reaction above

More information

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education

Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education *0123456789* CHEMISTRY 0620/03 Paper 3 Theory (Core) For Examination from 2016 SPECIMEN PAPER 1 hour

More information

Chapter 7: Stoichiometry - Mass Relations in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Stoichiometry - Mass Relations in Chemical Reactions Chapter 7: Stoichiometry - Mass Relations in Chemical Reactions How do we balance chemical equations? How can we used balanced chemical equations to relate the quantities of substances consumed and produced

More information

N O T E S. Environmental Forensics. Identification of Natural Gas Sources using Geochemical Forensic Tools. Dispute Scenarios

N O T E S. Environmental Forensics. Identification of Natural Gas Sources using Geochemical Forensic Tools. Dispute Scenarios Environmental Forensics N O T E S V o l u m e 2 9 Identification of Natural Gas Sources using Geochemical Forensic Tools By Paul Boehm, Ph.D. and Tarek Saba, Ph.D. F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n o

More information

Crude Oil & Natural Gas Properties. Crude Oil Refinement. - Relations between physical properties of the crude oil and its derivatives

Crude Oil & Natural Gas Properties. Crude Oil Refinement. - Relations between physical properties of the crude oil and its derivatives Crude Oil & Natural Gas Properties Crude Oil Refinement General appearance of crude oil Chemical Composition of crude oil Origin of Oil -Physical Properties of Crude Oil - Relations between physical properties

More information

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons

Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes. Hydrocarbons Topic 7 National 4 & 5 Chemistry Summary Notes Hydrocarbons A vast number of different hydrocarbons exist and so chemists have grouped them into sub-sets to make them easier to study. In this topic we

More information

Definition of Chemistry. Matter. Look at PLE#1

Definition of Chemistry. Matter. Look at PLE#1 Definition of Chemistry Chemistry is a physical science that deals with the composition, structure and properties of substances and the reactions they undergo. As a science, chemistry involves the intuitive

More information

Q1. The table shows how much carbon dioxide is produced when you transfer the same amount of energy by burning coal, gas and oil.

Q1. The table shows how much carbon dioxide is produced when you transfer the same amount of energy by burning coal, gas and oil. Q. The table shows how much carbon dioxide is produced when you transfer the same amount of energy by burning coal, gas and oil. (a) Use the information from the table to complete the bar-chart. The second

More information

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems to try at the end of the chapter. Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,39, 41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,87,89, 4.1 Physical States

More information

Synfuels GASRICH Transport Light Gas Technology

Synfuels GASRICH Transport Light Gas Technology Synfuels GASRICH Transport Light Gas Technology Storage and Transport of Light Gas and LNG Blends Abstract The Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry is well established and growing. Recently depressed Natural

More information

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1

H 3 C CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3. Copyright 2012 Nelson Education Ltd. Chapter 1: Organic Compounds 1.1-1 Section 1.1: Alkanes Mini Investigation: Arranging Carbon Atoms, page 10 A. Three different molecules of C 5 H 12 are possible. B. Five arrangements are possible for C 6 H 14, as predicted: H 3 C CH 2

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

FUEL OIL Crude Condensate Naphtha Ethane Reformate

FUEL OIL Crude Condensate Naphtha Ethane Reformate FUEL OIL Crude The Crude Overview gives a summary of the daily price movements of the benchmark WTI (West Texas Intermediate) and Brent futures contracts on the NYMEX and IPE exchanges, detailing any significant

More information

Fact Sheet Technology. Bergius-Pier Process (1)

Fact Sheet Technology. Bergius-Pier Process (1) tec Energy Technology Projects Subject: Bergius 1: 1924 1945 Rev: April 2006 Fact Sheet Technology The information included in this document is property of. Use and reproduction of this document, without

More information

ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13

ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13 ALKENES, ALKYNES and AROMATIC COMPOUNDS Chapter 13 13.1 Introduction An ALKENE is a hydrocarbon with a double C bond that looks like C=C An ALKYNE is a hydrocarbon with a triple C bond that looks like

More information

Lecture Notes Chemistry E-1. Chapter 3

Lecture Notes Chemistry E-1. Chapter 3 Lecture Notes Chemistry E-1 Chapter 3 http://inserbia.info/news/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/tamiflu.jpg http://nutsforhealthcare.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/tamiflu-moa.jpg The Mole A mole is a certain

More information

Molar Mass of Butane

Molar Mass of Butane Cautions Butane is toxic and flammable. No OPEN Flames should be used in this experiment. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the molar mass of butane using Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures

More information

3. Of energy, work, enthalpy, and heat, how many are state functions? a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) 4 ANS: c) 2 PAGE: 6.1, 6.2

3. Of energy, work, enthalpy, and heat, how many are state functions? a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) 4 ANS: c) 2 PAGE: 6.1, 6.2 1. A gas absorbs 0.0 J of heat and then performs 15.2 J of work. The change in internal energy of the gas is a) 24.8 J b) 14.8 J c) 55.2 J d) 15.2 J ANS: d) 15.2 J PAGE: 6.1 2. Calculate the work for the

More information

Energy Balances and Numerical Methods Design Project. Production of Acrylic Acid

Energy Balances and Numerical Methods Design Project. Production of Acrylic Acid Process Description Energy Balances and Numerical Methods Design Project Production of Acrylic Acid Figure 1 is a preliminary process flow diagram (PFD) for the acrylic acid production process. The raw

More information

Investigation of the Properties of Products of Estonian Oil Shale Decomposition through the Bitumen Stage

Investigation of the Properties of Products of Estonian Oil Shale Decomposition through the Bitumen Stage Investigation of the Properties of Products of Estonian Oil Shale Decomposition through the Bitumen Stage Abstract Jüri Soone, Svjatoslav Doilov, and Aleksei Zaidentsal Prof. Jüri Soone, Narva road, PK4372,

More information

Executive summary. Introduction

Executive summary. Introduction Executive summary Genoil Inc. has designed, built and operated a 10 bbl/d Upgrader Pilot Demonstration Unit (PDU), used to convert heavy oil into a full body crude. The Upgrader was commissioned in June

More information

On-line Dissolved Gas Analysis

On-line Dissolved Gas Analysis On-line Dissolved Gas Analysis accord. to IEC 567/ASTM 3612 Online-Monitoring of transformers Automatic on-line analysis of 11 gases The analysis is done in 2 steps with high selectivity and accuracy fully

More information

Last Time: Neutralization Equations

Last Time: Neutralization Equations Announcements & Agenda (0/8/07) You should be reading Ch 10! and Ch 11! Open review today @ pm! Quiz on Friday! Today Introduction to Organic Chemistry (10.1) Alkanes (10.), Properties of Alkanes (10.4)

More information

Exploring Gas Laws. Chapter 12. Solutions for Practice Problems. Student Textbook page 477

Exploring Gas Laws. Chapter 12. Solutions for Practice Problems. Student Textbook page 477 Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page 477 1. Problem At 19 C and 100 kpa, 0.021 mol of oxygen gas, O 2(g), occupy a volume of 0.50 L. What is the molar volume

More information

Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen

Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen Atomic mass: p + = protons; e - = electrons; n 0 = neutrons p + + n 0 = atomic mass o For carbon-12, 6p + + 6n 0 = atomic mass of 12.0 o For chlorine-35, 17p + + 18n 0 = atomic mass of 35.0 atomic mass

More information

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

More information

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,69,77,79,81,83 4.1 Physical States of Matter Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies

More information

Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry

Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCE Centre Number Chemistry Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry Candidate Number Thursday 13 January 2011 Morning Time: 1 hour

More information

Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY. Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK

Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY. Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK Bellahouston Academy S2 CHEMISTRY Part 1 Matter HOMEWORK Name May 2012 HOMEWORK SHEET 1: States of Matter There are three states of matter: solid liquid gas Heat a solid to its melting point and it will

More information

Alkenes and Alkynes. Chapter 1.2

Alkenes and Alkynes. Chapter 1.2 Alkenes and Alkynes Chapter 1.2 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Alkenes and alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons An alkene is a hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon-carbon double bond An alkyne is a

More information

Year 12 Summer Chemistry Knowledge Enhancement Project. Year 12 Chemistry

Year 12 Summer Chemistry Knowledge Enhancement Project. Year 12 Chemistry Year 12 Chemistry Welcome to the start of your chemistry A-level journey. The next two years will be both challenging and rewarding. Provided you are willing to put in the effort, you will even have fun!

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

More information

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes

Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes. Alkanes Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes Alkanes Single bonds between carbon atoms General formula: C n H (2n+2) The maximum amount of hydrogen atoms are bonded so alkanes are referred to as saturated 1 IUPAC name Molecular

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Some H o f values are tabulated in Table 8.2 (above)

Some H o f values are tabulated in Table 8.2 (above) 8.10 Standard Heats of Formation We cannot have a table for the H values for every reaction there is, because there are too many of them. However, as we saw with Hess s Law, we can express any reaction

More information

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass

Nuclear Structure. particle relative charge relative mass proton +1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons, neutrons and electrons Nuclear Structure particle relative charge relative mass proton 1 1 atomic mass unit neutron 0 1 atomic mass unit electron -1 negligible mass Protons and neutrons make up

More information

AP Chemistry. Unit #3. Chapter 3 Zumdahl

AP Chemistry. Unit #3. Chapter 3 Zumdahl AP Chemistry Unit #3 Chapter 3 Zumdahl Stoichiometry C6H12O6 + 6 O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O Students should be able to: Calculate the atomic weight (average atomic mass) of an element from the relative abundances

More information

4. Magnesium has three natural isotopes with the following masses and natural abundances:

4. Magnesium has three natural isotopes with the following masses and natural abundances: Exercise #1 Atomic Masses 1. The average mass of pennies minted after 1982 is 2.50 g and the average mass of pennies minted before 1982 is 3.00 g. In a sample that contains 90.0% new and 10.0% old pennies,

More information

Calorimetry: Heat of Vaporization

Calorimetry: Heat of Vaporization Calorimetry: Heat of Vaporization OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION - Learn what is meant by the heat of vaporization of a liquid or solid. - Discuss the connection between heat of vaporization and intermolecular

More information

Chemistry *P44269A0120* P44269A. Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Paper: 2C. Tuesday 9 June 2015 Afternoon Time: 1 hour. Instructions. Information.

Chemistry *P44269A0120* P44269A. Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Paper: 2C. Tuesday 9 June 2015 Afternoon Time: 1 hour. Instructions. Information. Write your name here Surname Other names Pearson Edexcel Certificate Pearson Edexcel International GCSE Chemistry Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Paper: 2C Centre Number Candidate Number Tuesday 9 June 2015 Afternoon

More information

Physical pharmacy. dr basam al zayady

Physical pharmacy. dr basam al zayady Physical pharmacy Lec 7 dr basam al zayady Ideal Solutions and Raoult's Law In an ideal solution of two volatile liquids, the partial vapor pressure of each volatile constituent is equal to the vapor pressure

More information

AT 2305 Automotive Fuels & Lubricants

AT 2305 Automotive Fuels & Lubricants AT 2305 Automotive Fuels & Lubricants Unit I Introduction to Automotive Fuels: Automobile: Suitable Engine Classification IC Engines (A type of Heat Engine) Heat Engine: Heat Energy Mechanical Energy Fuel

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

Organic Chemistry Questions

Organic Chemistry Questions Organic Chemistry Questions 1 Molecules of 1-propanol and 2-propanol have different (1) percentage compositions (2) molecular masses (3) molecular formulas (4) structural formulas 2 Which compound is an

More information

7.1 Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

7.1 Stoichiometry and Percent Yield score /10 pts. Name Class Date 7.1 Stoichiometry and Percent Yield Mole Ratios An example: The combustion of propane is used to heat many rural homes in winter. Balance the equation below for the combustion

More information

Coal Gasification & Fischer-Tropsch

Coal Gasification & Fischer-Tropsch Coal Gasification & Fischer-Tropsch CCTR Basic Facts File #1 Brian H. Bowen, Marty W. Irwin The Energy Center at Discovery Park Purdue University Potter Engineering Center, 500 Central Drive West Lafayette,

More information

2/4/2011. 3.4 Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes

2/4/2011. 3.4 Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes. Naming Alkanes 3.4 Systematic nomenclature devised by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Name has four parts 1. Prefix which specifies the location of functional groups and other substituents

More information

Chapter 2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphur Trioxide

Chapter 2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphur Trioxide Chapter 2 Chemical and Physical Properties of Sulphur Dioxide and Sulphur Trioxide 2.1 Introduction In order to appreciate the impact of the properties of liquid sulphur dioxide and liquid sulphur trioxide

More information

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7. Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1.

More information

Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134)

Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134) Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134) 1. Helium atoms do not combine to form He 2 molecules, What is the strongest attractive

More information

HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE. Physical Science 10: Periodic Table

HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE. Physical Science 10: Periodic Table HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE Physical Science 10: Periodic Table WILLMAR PUBLIC SCHOOL 2013-2014 EDITION CHAPTER 10 Periodic Table In this chapter you will: 1. Describe how Mendeleev arranged the elements in his

More information

Chemistry *P42864A0120* P42864A. Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Paper: 2C. Thursday 16 January 2014 Afternoon Time: 1 hour. Instructions. Information.

Chemistry *P42864A0120* P42864A. Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Paper: 2C. Thursday 16 January 2014 Afternoon Time: 1 hour. Instructions. Information. Write your name here Surname Other names Pearson Edexcel Certificate Pearson Edexcel International GCSE Chemistry Unit: KCH0/4CH0 Paper: 2C Centre Number Candidate Number Thursday 16 January 2014 Afternoon

More information

Formulas, Equations and Moles

Formulas, Equations and Moles Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations and Moles Interpreting Chemical Equations You can interpret a balanced chemical equation in many ways. On a microscopic level, two molecules of H 2 react with one molecule

More information

Iron is. Temperature is a(n) property of a substance. Select two that apply. Which of the following is a chemical change?

Iron is. Temperature is a(n) property of a substance. Select two that apply. Which of the following is a chemical change? Posting ID: 419903 Course: CHE 105 2015 SU Instructor: Sarah Edwards Question #: 1 Iron is. A. a compound B. a heterogenous mixture C. a homogenous mixture D. an element Question #: 2 Temperature is a(n)

More information

Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry

Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry Chapter Goals Balance equations for simple chemical reactions. Perform stoichiometry calculations using balanced chemical equations. Understand the meaning of the term

More information

Molar Mass of Butane

Molar Mass of Butane Suggested reading: Chang 10 th edition text pages 175-201 Cautions Butane is toxic and flammable. No OPEN Flames should be used in this experiment. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine

More information

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound

EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound EXPERIMENT 12: Empirical Formula of a Compound INTRODUCTION Chemical formulas indicate the composition of compounds. A formula that gives only the simplest ratio of the relative number of atoms in a compound

More information

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State

EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State EXAMPLE EXERCISE 4.1 Change of Physical State State the term that applies to each of the following changes of physical state: (a) Snow changes from a solid to a liquid. (b) Gasoline changes from a liquid

More information

Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information

Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Goal is to understand and become proficient at working with: 1. Chemical equations (Balancing REVIEW) 2. Some simple patterns of reactivity 3. Formula weights (REVIEW) 4. Avogadro's

More information

Chemistry CHEM1. Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry. Surname. Other Names. Centre Number. Candidate Number. Candidate Signature

Chemistry CHEM1. Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry. Surname. Other Names. Centre Number. Candidate Number. Candidate Signature Surname Other Names Centre Number Candidate Number Candidate Signature General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination January 2013 Chemistry Unit 1 Foundation Chemistry CEM1 Thursday

More information

CHEM 105 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99. = -163 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Ni(CO) 4 (g) = -260 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Cr(CO) 6 (g)

CHEM 105 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99. = -163 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Ni(CO) 4 (g) = -260 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Cr(CO) 6 (g) CHEM 15 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99 NAME (please print) 1. a. given: Ni (s) + 4 CO (g) = Ni(CO) 4 (g) H Rxn = -163 k/mole determine H f for Ni(CO) 4 (g) b. given: Cr (s) + 6 CO (g) = Cr(CO) 6 (g) H Rxn = -26

More information

4/16/13 Objective Review ionic and covalent bonding Identify the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations 4/15/13

4/16/13 Objective Review ionic and covalent bonding Identify the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations 4/15/13 4/15/13 Illustrate bonding Describe the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations Find the charge of the ions below: (int: Ignore the neutrons and compare p and e) 1.5 protons, 6 electrons,

More information

Chemical Reactions, Counting Atoms, and Balancing Chemical Equations.

Chemical Reactions, Counting Atoms, and Balancing Chemical Equations. Chemical Reactions, Counting Atoms, and Balancing Chemical Equations. A Chemical Reaction is A process where one or more elements or compounds are changed into one or more different substances A process

More information

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance.

Indiana's Academic Standards 2010 ICP Indiana's Academic Standards 2016 ICP. map) that describe the relationship acceleration, velocity and distance. .1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations

More information

Welcome to the World of Chemistry

Welcome to the World of Chemistry Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of

More information

CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GASES

CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GASES CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GASES The behavior of natural gas, whether pure methane or a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons and the nonhydrocarbons nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, must

More information

Petroleum. (Crude Oil) TST 4C Group 7

Petroleum. (Crude Oil) TST 4C Group 7 Petroleum (Crude Oil) TST 4C Group 7 Points to discuss: 1. What is petroleum? 2. What are the uses of petroleum? 3. Should petroleum be used as a fuel or as a resource of chemicals? 1. What is petroleum?

More information

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products?

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + _3 C(s) 2 Fe(s) + _3 CO(g) a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9 2. Which of the following equations

More information

F322: Chains, Energy and Resources Alkanes.

F322: Chains, Energy and Resources Alkanes. F322: Chains, Energy and Resources 2.1.2 Alkanes. 1. Kerosene is used as a fuel for aeroplane engines. Kerosene is obtained from crude oil. Name the process used to obtain kerosene from crude oil and explain

More information

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296)

Name Date Class CHEMICAL QUANTITIES. SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) 10 CHEMICAL QUANTITIES SECTION 10.1 THE MOLE: A MEASUREMENT OF MATTER (pages 287 296) This section defines the mole and explains how the mole is used to measure matter. It also teaches you how to calculate

More information

CHM220 Addition lab. Experiment: Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkenes*

CHM220 Addition lab. Experiment: Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkenes* CM220 Addition lab Experiment: Reactions of alkanes, alkenes, and cycloalkenes* Purpose: To investigate the physical properties, solubility, and density of some hydrocarbon. To compare the chemical reactivity

More information

Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry. 許富銀 ( Hsu Fu-Yin)

Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry. 許富銀 ( Hsu Fu-Yin) Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry 許富銀 ( Hsu Fu-Yin) 1 Stoichiometry The study of the numerical relationship between chemical quantities in a chemical reaction is called stoichiometry.

More information

Lecture Notes: Mixtures, Compounds & Solutions

Lecture Notes: Mixtures, Compounds & Solutions Lecture Notes: Mixtures, Compounds & Solutions The physical properties of any substance include size, shape, state, and color. Changing a physical property of a substance does not change the chemical make-up.

More information

LIMITING REAGENT PROBLEMS

LIMITING REAGENT PROBLEMS LIMITING REAGENT PROBLEMS The first step in solving a limiting reagent problem is being able to recognize that you have a limiting reagent problem. Suppose you were given the following problem: A 50.6

More information

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test NAME Section 7.1 The Mole: A Measurement of Matter A. What is a mole? 1. Chemistry is a quantitative science. What does this term mean?

More information

Unit 2: Quantities in Chemistry

Unit 2: Quantities in Chemistry Mass, Moles, & Molar Mass Relative quantities of isotopes in a natural occurring element (%) E.g. Carbon has 2 isotopes C-12 and C-13. Of Carbon s two isotopes, there is 98.9% C-12 and 11.1% C-13. Find

More information

Polymers: Introduction

Polymers: Introduction Chapter Outline: Polymer Structures Hydrocarbon and Polymer Molecules Chemistry of Polymer Molecules Molecular Weight and Shape Molecular Structure and Configurations Copolymers Polymer Crystals Optional

More information

Gen Chem I Exam 1 Review (Chapters 1 & 2)

Gen Chem I Exam 1 Review (Chapters 1 & 2) Gen Chem I Exam 1 Review (Chapters 1 & 2) 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. All of the following are properties of antimony. Which one

More information

States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS]

States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS] OpenStax-CNX module: m38210 1 States of Matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory - Gr10 [CAPS] Free High School Science Texts Project This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative

More information

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner Grade Level/Subject APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner Enduring Understanding Chemistry Stage 1: Desired Results Topic 3: Kinetics: The Kinetic Theory can explain the phases of matter, the energetics

More information

Petrochemical Industry Ethylene Plant

Petrochemical Industry Ethylene Plant Petrochemical Industry Ethylene Plant Application note The Ethylene Plant provides the base feedstock for a number of critical products used throughout the petrochemical industry. Compounds ranging from

More information