Chapter 15: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood

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1 Chapter 15: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 15.1 Describe physical changes of middle adulthood, including those related to vision, hearing, the skin, muscle-fat makeup, and the skeleton. (pp , 505) 15.2 Summarize the reproductive changes experienced by middle-aged men and women, noting the timing of menopause; discuss women s psychological reactions to menopause. (pp. 504, ) 15.3 Discuss sexuality in midlife, noting changes in frequency of sexual activity and intensity of sexual response. (p. 509) 15.4 Discuss cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis, noting sex differences, risk factors, and interventions. (pp ) 15.5 Explain how hostility and anger affect health problems. (pp ) 15.6 Discuss the benefits of stress management, including both problem-centered and emotioncentered coping. (pp ) 15.7 Describe the benefits of exercise and an optimistic outlook for dealing effectively with the physical challenges of midlife; note how many get too little exercise. (pp ) 15.8 Describe changes in crystallized and fluid intelligence during middle adulthood, and discuss individual and group differences in intellectual development. (pp ) 15.9 Describe changes in information processing in midlife, paying special attention to speed of processing, attention, and memory. (pp ) Summarize the cognitive changes of midlife that are associated with practical problem solving, expertise, and creativity. (pp ) Discuss the relationship between vocational life and cognitive development. (pp ) Discuss the challenges of adult learners and the benefits of continuing education in midlife. (pp ) Note: Answers to practice tests are at the end of this document. Chapter 15 Practice Test 1. Presbyopia is a. yellowing of the lens b. a limited ability to see in dim light c. the inability of the lens to adjust to focus light from nearby objects d. a disease in which pressure builds up within the eye due to poor fluid drainage 1

2 2. Women who view menopause as a report more negative physical and emotional symptoms. a. biocultural event c. symbol of aging b. medical problem d. life transition 3. Among single middle aged adults, are more likely to have had no sexual partners in the previous year, due to. a. women; decreased availability of an acceptable partner b. men; competition for partners c. women; lack of interest d. men; impotence 4. Aside from benign skin cancers, the most common form of cancer in men is. a. prostate cancer c. colon cancer b. bladder cancer d. lung cancer 5. Frequent and angry outbursts; rude, disagreeable behavior; and critical and condescending nonverbal cues during social interactions are all aspects of a. expressed hostility c. mental illness b. competitiveness d. insensitivity 6. Adults who cope most effectively with stress tend to a. use a mixture of problem-centered and emotion-centered techniques b. use problem-centered techniques almost exclusively c. use emotion-centered techniques almost exclusively d. be very skillful at avoiding stressful situations 7. The ability to use accumulated knowledge and experience with good judgment is called intelligence. a. crystallized c. stored b. analytical d. fluid 8. As an older person s neural processing slows, the person will often minimize the effects by a. withdrawing and doing fewer and fewer activities b. pushing to complete tasks as quickly as possible c. using experience to plan further ahead in a task d. concentrating more on new, unfamiliar tasks 9. Compared with younger individuals, when solving everyday problems middle-aged adults a. are more likely to consult with other people b. are more likely to give up prematurely c. tend to make poorer decisions d. tend to select better strategies 2

3 10. Which of the following is true of adults returning to college? a. Social support can make the difference between continuing and dropping out. b. Succeeding at coordinating education, family, and work demands often leads to gains in self-efficacy and admiration from family members, friends, and co-workers. c. Their return is often triggered by a life transition. d. All of the above Chapter 16: Emotional and Social Development in Middle Adulthood After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 16.1 Describe Erikson s stage of generativity versus stagnation and related research findings, noting the generativity features of life stories. (pp ) 16.2 Discuss Levinson s and Vaillant s views of psychosocial development in middle adulthood, noting gender similarities and differences. (pp ) 16.3 Summarize research examining whether most middle-aged adults experience a midlife crisis. (pp ) 16.4 Describe changes in self-concept in middle adulthood, including possible selves, selfacceptance, autonomy and environmental mastery, and gender identity. (pp ) 16.5 Cite changes in gender identity (i.e. masculine and feminine traits) in midlife. (pp ) 16.6 Describe stability and change in the big five personality traits in adulthood. (pp ) 16.7 Describe the middle adulthood phase of the family life cycle, and discuss midlife relationships with a marriage partner, adult children, grandchildren, and aging parents. (pp ) 16.8 Describe midlife sibling relationships and friendships. (pp ) 16.9 Discuss job satisfaction and career development in middle adulthood, including gender differences and experiences of ethnic minorities. (pp ) Describe career change and unemployment in middle adulthood. (p. 556) Discuss the importance of planning for retirement, noting various issues that middle-aged adults should address. (pp ) Chapter 16 Practice Test 1. According to Erikson, the term encompasses everything accomplished that can outlive the self and ensure society s continuity and improvement. a. generativity c. autonomy b. stagnation d. eternity 3

4 2. According to McAdams, the more adults emphasize in their life stories, the higher their life satisfaction, self-esteem, and certainty that the challenges of life are meaningful, manageable, and rewarding. a. successful events c. redemptive themes b. positive events d. lofty ideals 3. Based on research cited in the text, which of the following tend to be most sensitive to physical aging over the midlife years? a. females who never attended college b. males who never attended college c. college educated females d. college educated males 4. In his mid-forties, Edgar felt enormous turmoil, dissatisfaction, and unhappiness with his life. He decided to quit his job, leave his family, and start a new life. Research on midlife crisis indicates that Edgar s experience is a. fairly common for men, but uncommon for women b. very unusual for middle-aged adults c. very common for people in midlife d. generative 5. Possible selves are the dimension of self-concept. a. positive c. temporal b. negative d. most inaccurate 6. When researchers surveyed over 2,000 middle-aged individuals about personality changes, the overwhelming majority said that they had, which. a. changed a great deal; reinforces the view of middle adulthood as a period of turmoil and change b. changed very little; reinforces the view of middle adulthood as a period of slowing down and digging in c. stayed the same or changed very little; contradicts the view of middle adulthood as a period of turmoil and change. d. changed a great deal; contradicts the view of middle adulthood as a period of slowing down and developing consistency 7. Today, a longer life expectancy means that many adults will spend as much as of their lifespan as grandparents. a. one tenth c. one third b. one quarter d. one half 4

5 8. Compared to adult men, adult women report a. a sense of obligation in their friendships b. less satisfaction with their friendships c. more friendships as they get older d. a greater number of close friends 9. Compared with younger workers, middle-aged workers who lose their jobs involuntarily are more likely to experience a. greater optimism and determination b. greater psychological distress c. increases in their generativity d. a sense of freedom and relief 10. An invisible barrier that effectively prevents many women and ethnic minorities from advancing to the top levels of their profession is called the a. quota system c. job marker b. network limit d. glass ceiling Ch. 15: 1. c 2. b 3. a 4. a 5. a 6. a 7. a 8. c 9. d 10. d Ch. 16: 1. a 2. c 3. b 4. b 5. c 6. c 7. c 8. d 9. b 10. d 5

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