Chapter 18: Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood

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1 Chapter 18: Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood 18.1 Describe Erikson s stage of ego integrity versus despair. (p. 604) 18.2 Discuss Peck s tasks of ego integrity, Joan Erikson s stage of gerotranscendence, and Labouvie- Vief s concept of emotional expertise. (pp ) 18.3 Describe the functions of reminiscence and life review in older adults lives. (p. 606) 18.4 Summarize stable and changing aspects of self-concept and personality in late adulthood. (pp ) 18.5 Discuss spirituality and religiosity in late adulthood. (pp ) 18.6 Discuss contextual influences on psychological well-being as older adults respond to increased dependency, declining health, and negative life changes; explain how the dependency-support script and the independence-ignore script reinforce passive, dependent behavior. (pp ) 18.7 Summarize the role of social support and social interaction in promoting physical health and psychological well-being in late adulthood. (pp ) 18.8 Describe social theories of aging, including disengagement theory, activity theory, continuity theory, and socioemotional selectivity theory. (pp ) 18.9 Explain how communities, neighborhoods, and housing arrangements affect elders social lives and adjustment. (pp ) Describe changes in social relationships in late adulthood, including marriage, gay and lesbian partnerships, divorce, remarriage, cohabitation, and widowhood; discuss never-married, childless older adults. (pp ) Explain how sibling relationships and friendships change in late life. (pp ) Describe older adults relationships with adult children, adult grandchildren, and greatgrandchildren. (pp ) Discuss elder maltreatment, risk factors, and strategies for prevention. (pp ) Discuss the decision to retire, adjustment to retirement, and involvement in leisure activities. (pp ) Discuss the meaning of optimal aging. (pp ) Note: Answers to practice tests are at the end of this document. Chapter 18 Practice Test 1. In Erikson s theory of development, ego integrity versus despair involves a. the desire to make a final contribution to the next generation b. heavy depression and disability for most adults c. a final attempt to reconcile with one s enemies d. coming to terms with one s life 1

2 2. A special form of reminiscence that involves reflecting on and reconsidering past experiences with the goal of achieving greater self-understanding is called a. retrospection c. life review b. recognition d. recall 3. In long-term studies of personality traits, elders who seemed to have come to terms with life despite its imperfections showed an increase in a. conscientiousness c. neuroticism b. agreeableness d. extroversion 4. In James Fowler s theory of the faith development, many mature adults forge new faith capacities, including a. becoming aware of their own belief system as one of many possible worldviews b. opening themselves to other religious perspectives as sources of inspiration c. contemplating the deeper significance of religious symbols and rituals d. all of the above 5. May stops by her mother June s house twice a day to check on her. If June is having trouble getting dressed or making the bed, then May helps her and the two women chat while they work. However, if June has no trouble with tasks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher, then May withdraws and attends to other jobs. May s behavior toward June a. illustrates the dependency-support script b. illustrates the independence-ignore script c. neither A nor B d. both A and B 6. As Mr. and Mrs. Awai aged, they tended to reduce contacts with acquaintances. Instead, they became more deeply involved in a smaller number of relationships with their closest friends. Their behavior is consistent with the a. socio-emotional selectivity theory c. mutuality theory b. disengagement theory d. activity theory 7. Elders housing preferences reflect a strong desire for a. living in a temperate climate c. aging in place b. moving near children d. relocation 8. The relationship between elders psychological well-being and their contacts with their children is best described by saying that a. contact with children has no effect on elders well-being b. contact with children affects only elderly women, not men c. almost any contact with children improves well-being d. warm bonds improve well-being; conflict reduces it 2

3 9. The incidence of elder abuse is because. a. underestimated; most acts take place in private and victims are often unable or unwilling to complain b. underestimated; most social workers do not believe elders claims of abuse or neglect c. overestimated; normal accidents and injuries that result from physical aging are mistaken for signs of abuse d. overestimated; elders make up stories of abuse to gain attention and sympathy 10. Which age group reports the greatest awareness of public affairs and votes at the highest rate? a. middle-aged adults c. elderly adults b. emerging adults d. young adults Chapter 19: Death, Dying, and Bereavement 19.1 Describe the physical changes of dying, noting the three phases of death. (pp ) 19.2 Explain ways to promote death with dignity. (pp ) 19.3 Discuss age-related changes in conception of and attitudes toward death, including ways to enhance child and adolescent understanding. (pp ) 19.4 Cite factors that influence death anxiety, noting its relation to age and citing personal and cultural variables related to the fear of death. (p. 645) 19.5 Describe and evaluate Kübler-Ross s theory of typical responses to dying, and discuss factors that influence dying patients responses. (pp ) 19.6 List goals associated with an appropriate death, and summarize contextual factors that influence a person s adaptation to death. (pp ) 19.7 Evaluate the extent to which homes, hospitals, and the hospice approach meet the needs of dying people and their families. (pp ) 19.8 Discuss euthanasia and assisted suicide and the controversies surrounding them; recognize two forms of an advance medical directive. (pp ) 19.9 Describe bereavement and the phases of grieving, indicating factors that influence variations in grief responses. (pp ) Describe bereavement interventions. (pp. 663, 665) Explain how death education can help people cope with death more effectively. (p. 665) Chapter 19 Practice Test 1. Which phase of the dying process involves gasps and muscle spasms during the first moments in which the body can no longer sustain life? a. terminal death c. mortality b. clinical death d. agonal 3

4 2. An important service doctors and other medical people can provide to dying people is a. mood enhancers to keep them cheerful and optimistic b. comfortable surroundings and no decisions to make c. knowledge about their condition and their options d. protection from too much clinical information 3. An understanding of death is based on five ideas, including: a. control, determination, and intentionality b. permanence, inevitability, and cessation c. equality, individuality, and accessibility d. peacefulness, acceptance, and integrity 4. Among elders in Western cultures such as the United States, which factor seems to have a greater impact on reducing death anxiety? a. identification with an organized religion b. the conviction that there is an afterlife c. good physical health for one s age d. a spiritual sense of life s meaning 5. According to Kübler-Ross, the function of a phase is self-protective, allowing the person to deal with a terminal illness at his or her own pace. a. bargaining c. denial b. acceptance d. anger 6. When asked about a good death, most dying patients mention a. achieving a sense of control over the time that remains b. clarifying the meaning of one s life and death c. confronting and preparing for death d. all of the above 7. The primary aim of the is to provide a caring community sensitive to the dying person s needs so patients and family members can prepare for death in ways that are satisfying to them. a. emergency room procedure c. hospice approach b. intensive care unit d. home-choice 8. In the United States today, passive euthanasia for patients whose death is imminent or who are in a permanent vegetative state is considered a. an unusual procedure that must be court ordered b. permissible only for patients who are very old c. an ordinary part of normal medical practice d. immoral and unethical and rarely occurs 4

5 9. One way in which children frequently cope with the death of close family members is to a. thinking about and mentally speaking to them regularly, sometimes for years b. imagine that they have just stepped out and will return c. put the blame for the death onto some bad person d. avoid thinking about or remembering them 10. When people you care about have recently experienced the death of a loved one, your best response is to provide a. sympathetic listening and simple presence b. encouragement to return to normal life c. privacy to be alone with their feelings d. advice about how they should react Answers to Practice Tests Ch. 18: 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. d 5. d 6. a 7. c 8. d 9. a 10. c Ch. 19: 1. d 2. c 3. b 4. d 5. c 6. d 7. c 8. c 9. a 10. a 5

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