# Constant Current Add on card for Xgen platforms.

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2 PowerMod K Xg1 1.5 Xg2 2.5 Xg Xg Xg Fig 3: K Factors of PowerMods Constant Current Adjustment: Utilising external circuitry and the voltage adjustment method described above, the Xgen powermod may be used as a constant current source. The external circuitry is shown in Figure 4 below: Figure 4: Constant Current Circuit Theory of Operation: A current sense resistor (R1) is connected in series with the load to be powered by the powermod. The voltage drop across this current sense resistor is proportional to the current flowing through it; however, this voltage drop will be very small and will need to be amplified in order to be used to control the Vtrim signal. The op-amp U1 is used as a differential amplifier, and the resistors R2, R3, R4 and R5 set the gain of this amplifier. The gain should be selected so that the maximum current required by the application will result in the maximum possible voltage output (of upper voltage rail) from the op-amp (see opamp datasheet for this value). The following formulae should be used once the R1 value has been selected and the Max Current determined: U2 is used as a comparator, and compares the output U1 (a voltage representation of the current flowing through the load) with a DC reference which sets the desired current output of the module. If the DC reference is higher than the output of U1, the output of U2 is pulled to ground, and capacitor C1 is discharged, reducing the voltage at Vtrim, which reduces the output voltage, reducing the current flowing through the load. If the DC reference is lower than the output of U1, the output of U2 will be pulled to the upper rail, and the capacitor C1 is charged, increases the voltage at Vtrim, which increases the output, increasing the current flowing through the load. The loop is now closed and the DC reference and external circuit controls the constant current through the load. The DC reference can easily be set using the 5 V bias supply in a potential divider circuit removing the requirement for an external DC reference. The Zener Diode Z1 should be chosen to ensure that the Vtrim voltage does not go above 2.5 V (the maximum value that should be applied to the Vtrim pin). The value of R6 is chosen in conjunction with the modules potentiometer setting to set the modules Vtrim range. This is because the resistor R6 and the potentiometer form a potential divider that sets the voltage reference for the main error amplifier circuit. Worked Example The following example shows an application where the Xgen is used in a constant current mode of operation in order to drive a constant current through a heating element thats resistance changes with respect to its temperature. The heating elements initial resistance is around 6 Ω, and the constant current required is 3.3 A. The application also required scope for two elements to be connected in series. The requirements of this application are therefore: Constant Current Output: Lower Voltage Limit: Upper Voltage Limit: 3.3 A 16 V 39.6 V A 2 mω resistor was chosen as the current sense resistor, and 1 kω was chosen for R2 and R3. Finally, a dual op-amp (LM2904) with an upper rail of approximately 3.75 V was used. If a maximum output current of 4 A chosen it will E01.R00 Page 2 of 5

3 provide some scope to trim the current higher if required. Using the formula given earlier in this document: try to increase the voltage at the Vtrim pin (by charging C1) to increase output voltage. When the output voltage eventually come up, the voltage at the Vtrim pin will be at its max, resulting in a high voltage across the load, generating a large current through the load. The circuit will now sense the high current and will act to reduce the Vtrim voltage by discharging the capacitor C1 until the output current meets its setpoint, at which point the module will output a constant current. With these resistance values, the DC reference required to give 3.3 A can be calculated as follows: A 47 uf capacitor was chosen for C1, which gives a stable output. A smaller capacitor value will result in a more responsive circuit. Finally we must choose the resistor R6 and the potentiometer set point. This can be done through trial and error and depends upon the choice of opamp, the set-point of the on-board potentiometer and the value of R6 (the lower the value of R6, the wider the constant current range, the setting of the on board potentiometer will set the median of the constant current range). This can be done through trial and error (a good starting point is nominal voltage for the pot, and 9.1 kω for R6. Figure 6: Overshoot on mains start up The completed circuit for this application is shown in Figure 5 below: J3 -Sense Vtrim V+ V- Load Common J4 J2 1k 1k 470k 5 V Bias 470k - + U1 DC Ref - + U2 9.1k 47uF 2.5V Figure 5: Constant Current Circuit Due to the nature of this circuit, an overshoot occurs during start-up. This is the case because on all occasions the 5 V bias voltage comes up before the module output voltage. As a result the constant current circuit will be operating before any output voltage is present. Without any feedback voltage present, there will be no current flowing through the load. The constant current circuit will therefore Figure7: Overshoot on enable In a more sensitive application, this overshoot can be reduced if required. The duration of this overshoot depends on the length of time it takes to discharge the capacitor C1. This can be shortened E01.R00 Page 3 of 5

4 by reducing C1 s capacitance. As mentioned previously, the peak of this can be set by the selection of R6, or by carefully considering Z1 which limits the max voltage at Vtrim. These are trade off of course, and will limit the current trim range, so it is important to consider these points carefully. In summary: In summary, if you are designing a system which requires the Xgen to be used as a constant current supply, the external circuit as described above can be implemented. In order to ensure the optimum solution we would advise to contcat to discuss any opportunity in detail with our technical team. Excelsys Technologies Ltd. is a modern worldclass power supplies design company providing quality products to OEM equipment manufacturers around the world. This is achieved by combining the latest technology, management methods and total customer service philosophy with a 20 year tradition of reliable and innovative switch mode power supply design, manufacture and sales. If there are any further points you wish to discuss from this paper please contact E01.R00 Page 4 of 5

5 Further information on our products can also be found at E01.R00 Page 5 of 5

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