# Wind Load Provisions in the 2001 Supports Specifications

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3 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 3 where the wind speed V is defined as the fastest-mile wind speed and the resulting pressure p z is dependent on height above ground. The proper value of the fastest-mile wind speed used in Eq. 3 is taken from one of three different wind speed maps depending upon the desired recurrence interval. GUST EFFECT FACTOR As stated previously, one of the major changes presented in the 001 specifications is the use of 3-second gust wind speeds instead of fastest-mile wind speeds. Examination of relationships between wind speed and duration originally advanced by Durst and presented in ANSI/ASCE 7-95 suggests that the ratio of the fastest-mile to 3- second gust wind speed is approximately equal to 0.8 (6, 10). The ratio of the fastest-mile wind speed to the 3- second gust wind speed is determined using the ratio of probable maximum wind speed averaged over t seconds to an hourly mean speed in Figure 1 (6). The gust duration for fastest-mile wind speed is the time it takes a column of air at a given velocity to travel one mile. The gust duration for the 3-second gust wind speed is 3 seconds. From Figure 1 the ratio V(t) to an hourly speed V 3600s is determined for the fastest-mile wind speeds and the 3-second gust wind speeds. These ratios are used to calculate the ratio of the fastest-mile wind speed to the 3-second gust wind speed as follows: V V fm () t 3 sec V V 3600s 3600s V = V fm () t 3 sec 0.8 where V fm is the fastest-mile wind speed, V 3-sec is the 3-second gust wind speed, and V 3600s is the hourly mean wind speed. Table 1 provides values for ratios of V fm to V 3600s and V 3-sec to V 3600s for various wind speeds, which were determined from Figure 1. With V fm /V 3600s and V 3-sec /V 3600s known, the ratio V fm /V 3-sec can be determined and is provided in Table 1. The values determined graphically in Table 1 for V fm /V 3-sec are approximately equal to the selected value for V fm /V 3-sec of 0.8. Table provides fastest-mile wind speed equivalents for the 3-second gust wind speed of the 001 Supports Specifications for 50-, 5-, and 10-year mean recurrence intervals. The relationship between the fastest-mile wind speeds and the 3-second gust wind speeds may be represented by the following equation: ( G V ) G V fm fm 3 sec 3 sec Eq. 4 = Eq. 5 where G fm is the gust effect factor associated with the fastest-mile wind speed and G 3-sec is the gust effect factor associated with the 3-second gust wind speed. The 3-second gust can be determined as follows: V fm G G 3 sec = fm = ( ) = ( 1.066) = Eq. 6 V 3 sec If the velocity, V, that is input into the wind speed equation is a 3-second gust wind speed instead of a fastest-mile wind speed, then Eq. 3 must be modified by multiplying 1.3V by 0.8 as follows: p z ( V ) Cd Ch = δ Eq. 7 Eq. 7 can then be written in terminology that is more consistent with ANSI/ASCE 7-95 as follows: p z = δ K z G V Cd Eq. 8 where G, which is referred to herein as the gust effect factor, becomes (1.066) or 1.14; K z, which is referred to herein as the velocity pressure exposure coefficient, replaces C h ; and C d continues to be termed the drag coefficient.

5 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 5 interval and open terrain conditions. This wind speed map is based on a statistical analysis of peak gust data collected at 485 weather stations (1, 16) and from predictions of hurricane wind speeds (14, 15, 17). In addition, this document contains a modified set of importance factors that are used to convert wind pressures corresponding to a 50-year mean recurrence interval to wind pressures associated with other mean recurrence intervals. The importance factors are 1.15, 1.0, 0.87, and 0.71 for the 100, 50, 5, and 10-year mean recurrence intervals, respectively. The new ANSI/ASCE 7-95 importance factors, which are multiplied by pressures, are not the same as the ANSI/ASCE 7-93 importance factors, which are multiplied by wind speeds. In addition, the 3-second gust wind speeds in the hurricane prone areas in the ANSI/ASCE 7-95 wind speed map have been increased so that only one set of importance factors is required for site locations inside or outside hurricane-prone areas. The 001 Supports Specifications incorporate a modified version of the 3-second gust wind speed map, shown in Figure, and the importance factors presented in ANSI/ASCE The modifications to the wind speed map consist of the metrication of the notes and labels. No substantive changes were made to the placement of the wind speed isotachs. The wind speed map presented in Figure identifies several locations that are designated as special wind regions. These special wind regions include mountainous terrain, gorges and other special regions. If a structure is located in one of these special wind regions, it may be subjected to wind speeds that are higher than indicated in the wind speed map. Therefore, care must be exercised in selecting the design wind speed. The design wind speed may be determined by consulting the authority that has jurisdiction over the special wind region. Otherwise, the appropriate wind speed can be determined through the analysis of local meteorological data. ASCE 7-95 presents proper procedures for analyzing the local meteorological data. In no case shall the wind speed be reduced below that presented in the wind speed map. VARIATION OF WIND SPEED WITH HEIGHT It is widely recognized that the variation of wind speed with height depends upon the local exposure conditions. This variation is caused by the frictional drag offered by various types of terrain. Since 198, widely accepted wind design procedures have involved the use of four different terrain exposure conditions that are designated as exposures A, B, C, and D (7). The conditions associated with these four different exposure conditions are defined in ANSI/ASCE For a specified set of conditions, the wind pressures associated with the different exposures increase as the exposure conditions progress from A to D, with exposure A resulting in the least pressure and exposure D resulting in the greatest pressure. Examination of the above exposure definitions shows that there are few areas that qualify as exposure A. Further, it is clear that highway signs, luminaires, and traffic signals are generally located along roadways that provide corridors of open exposures that are more typical of exposure C than any of the other exposure conditions. These facts make it difficult to endorse the general use of either exposures A or B for the design of highway signs, luminaires and traffic. This is particularly the case, since the use of both exposures A and B result in lower design loads than the use of exposure C. Because of its limited area of applicability, exposure D has only been widely recognized in wind design procedures since the early 1980 s (7). The AASHTO specifications have historically incorporated the general use of exposure C for all locations with no apparent difficulties. Therefore, it is recommended that highway signs, luminaires, and traffic signals continue to be designed for exposure C only. The velocity pressure exposure coefficient, K z, which appears in Eq. 10, expresses the variation of wind speed with height, is calculated using the following relationship presented in ASCE 7-95: K z α z =.01 Eq. 11 z g where z is height about the ground or 4.57 m (15 ft) whichever is greater, and z g and α are constants that vary with the exposure condition (6). Based on information presented in ASCE 7-95, α should be taken to be 9.5 and z g should be taken to be 74.3 m (900 ft) for exposure C. These values are for 3-second gust wind speeds and are different to similar constants that have been used for fastest-mile wind speeds. On average, there is a 7 percent decrease in the height factor for the 001 Supports Specifications when compared to the 1994 Supports Specifications.

9 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 9 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 Ratio of Fastest-Mile Wind Speed to 3-Second Gust Wind Speed TABLE Fastest-Mile Wind Speed Equivalents for 3-Second Wind Gust Wind Speed TABLE 3 Percentage Change in Wind Pressure in Selected Areas for 50-Year Mean Recurrence Interval TABLE 4 Comparison of Wind Pressures at 30 Feet Above Ground Line

10 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 10 TABLE 1 Ratio of Fastest-Mile Wind Speed to 3-Second Gust Wind Speed Location Fastest- Mile Wind Speed V fm, m/s (mph) Gust Duration for Fastest-Mile Wind Speed t, sec Ratio of Probable Maximum Speed Averaged Over t Seconds to Hourly Mean Speed V fm (t)/v 3600s Ratio of Probable Maximum Speed Averaged Over t Seconds to Hourly Mean Speed V 3-sec /V 3600s V fm /V 3-sec Non-Hurricane 31 (70) Non-Hurricane 36 (80) Non-Hurricane 40 (90) Hurricane 40 (90) Hurricane 45 (100) Hurricane 49 (110) Selected Value 0.8

11 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 11 TABLE Fastest-Mile Wind Speed Equivalents for 3-Second Wind Gust Wind Speed 3-Second Gust Wind Speed V 3-sec Wind Speed, m/s (mph) V fm, m/s (mph) 50-year mean recurrence interval Equivalent Fastest-Mile Wind Speed V fm, m/s (mph) 5-year mean recurrence interval V fm, m/s (mph) 10-year mean recurrence interval 38 (85) 31. (69.7) 9.1 (65.0) 6. (58.7) 40 (90) 33.0 (73.8) 30.8 (68.8) 7.8 (6.1) 45 (100) 36.7 (8.0) 34. (76.5) 30.9 (69.1) 49 (110) 40.3 (90.) 37.6 (84.1) 34.0 (76.0) 54 (10) 44.0 (98.4) 41.0 (91.8) 37.1 (8.9) 58 (130) 47.7 (106.6) 44.4 (99.4) 40.1 (89.8) 63 (140) 51.3 (114.8) 47.9 (107.1) 43. (96.7) 67 (150) 55.0 (13.0) 51.3 (114.7) 46.3 (103.6)

12 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 1 TABLE 3 Percentage Change in Wind Pressure in Selected Areas for 50-Year Mean Recurrence Interval Area City 1994 Wind Speed for Fastest-mile, m/s (mph) 1994 Wind Speed for 3- Second Gust, m/s (mph) 001 Wind Speed for Fastest-mile, m/s (mph) 001 Wind Speed for 3- Second Gust, m/s (mph) Percentage Change in Wind Pressure I - 45 (100) 55 (1) 31 (70) 38 (85) -51 percent I - 40 (90) 49 (110) 31 (70) 38 (85) -40 percent I - 36 (80) 44 (98) 31 (70) 38 (85) -3 percent I - 31 (70) 38 (85) 31 (70) 38 (85) 0 percent I - 7 (60) 33 (73) 31 (70) 38 (85) +36 percent II II Houston, Texas New Orleans, Louisiana 40 (90) 49 (110) 43 (97) 53 (118) +16 percent 41 (9) 50 (11) 48 (107) 58 (130) +35 percent II Miami, 49 (110) 60 (134) 54 (11) 66 (148) +1 percent Florida II New York 38 (85) 46 (104) 41 (9) 50 (11) +17 percent III - 40 (90) 49 (110) 33 (74) 40 (90) -3 percent III - 36 (80) 44 (98) 33 (74) 40 (90) -14 percent III - 31 (70) 38 (85) 33 (74) 40 (90) +1 percent

13 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 13 TABLE 4 Comparison of Wind Pressures at 30 Feet Above Ground Line Location AASHTO 1994 Fastest-Mile Wind Speed, m/s (mph) AASHTO Second Gust Wind Speed, m/s (mph) Life / Importance Factor AASHTO (1994) Pressure, Pa (psf) AASHTO (001) Pressure, Pa (psf) Ratio 001 to 1994 Specifications Common 31 (70) 40 (90) 50-years/ (3.3) 1116 (3.) 1.00 Common 36 (80) 40 (90) 50-years/ (30.5) 111 (3.) 0.76 Common 31 (70) 40 (90) 5 years/ (3.3) 967 (0.) 0.87 Common 36 (80) 40 (90) 5 years/ (30.5) 967 (0.) 0.66 Common 7 (60) 40 (90) 10 years/ (17.1) 790 (16.5) 0.96 Common 31 (70) 40 (90) 10 years/ (3.3) 790 (16.5) 0.71 Lander, WY 40 (90) 40 (90) 50-years/ (38.5) 111 (3.) (80) 40 (90) 5 years/ (30.5) 967 (0.) (70) 40 (90) 10 years/ (3.3) 790 (16.5) 0.71 Miami, FL 49 (110) 67 (150) 50-years/ (57.6) 3088 (64.5) (100) 67 (150) 5 years/ (47.6) 686 (56.1) (80) 67 (150) 10 years/ (30.5) 193 (45.8) 1.50 Fresno, CA 7 (60) 38 (85) 50-years/ (17.1) 991 (0.7) 1.1 (50) 38 (85) 5 years/ (11.9) 86 (18.0) 1.51 (50) 38 (85) 10 years/ (11.9) 704 (14.7) 1.4 Assumptions: height at 9.14 m (30 ft) above ground line; C d = 1.0

14 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 14 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 Ratio of Probable Maximum Speed Averaged over t sec to Hourly Mean Speed (6). FIGURE Basic Wind Speed Map for the 001 Supports Specifications, mph (m/s) (6). FIGURE 3 Fastest Mile Wind Speeds as Presented in 1994 Supports Specifications for the 50-year Mean Recurrence Interval ().

15 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 15 FIGURE 1 Ratio of Probable Maximum Speed Averaged over t sec to Hourly Mean Speed (6).

16 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 16 FIGURE Basic Wind Speed Map for the 001 Supports Specifications, mph (m/s) (6).

17 Fouad H. Fouad and Elizabeth Calvert 17 FIGURE 3 Fastest Mile Wind Speeds as Presented in 1994 Supports Specifications for the 50-year Mean Recurrence Interval ().

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