Analysis of Z-axis Rigid of PCB CNC Drilling Machines

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1 TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering Vol.10, No.6, October 2012, pp. 1409~ Analysis of Z-axis Rigid of PCB CNC Drilling Machines Liang-jin Cai*, Chang-tao Cai, Fei-Da Mac Mechanical Engineering and Automation of Xihua University, Sichuan Chengdu , China *corresponding author, Abstract This article for the printed circuit board (PCB) CNC drilling machine dynamic character and rigidity analysis of Z-axis, With ADAMS motion simulation of the Z-axis program, come to the bit offset of the rig during the drilling process in the X-axis and Y-axis direction, and then use the quadratic elements of the completed prototype data test, the measured data and simulation data compare validation to identify the impact of the motion parameters of accuracy of ultra-high-speed electric spindle drilling. Using ANSYS on the overall structure (in particular, the structure of Z-axis) to optimize the structure analysis, the optimal structural parameters. This article both specific theoretical analysis, but also the experimental verification, through theoretical analysis and experimental validation of the Z-axis structure play an important role to improve the ultra-high-speed electric spindle dynamic accuracy and rigidity in the drilling process. Keywords: rigid analysis, motion simulation, ultra-high-speed electric spindle, structural optimization, dynamic performance Copyright 2012 Universitas Ahmad Dahlan. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction With the rapid development of industrialization, automation and information technology, high reliability requirements of the multi-functional, lightweight, miniaturization of electronic products, making the PCB to the high-density, high integration and miniaturization, multilayer and special functional direction rapidly. Therefore, the mechanical dynamic characteristics of the PCB CNC drilling machines in the high-speed state and rigid control, as the development of high-speed (300Krpm above) and precision (within ± 0.002mm) important part of the PCB CNC drilling machine. At this stage the majority of PCB CNC rigs drilling frequency is still very low, most of the rigs drilling a frequency of about 400/min, however, a relatively high point of China - Han, Tian Ma rig drilling frequency can reach 500/min, Due to insufficient rigidity of the ultrahigh-speed electric spindle drilling and the overall machine tool dynamic characteristics (especially the Z-axis dynamic characteristics) and other reasons, the domestic PCB CNC rigs drilling accuracy is relatively low, in the case of open fast drilling. This paper studies the PCB CNC drilling machine is Pengzhou s Da Li Precision Mechanism Ltd DLD26A PCB CNC drilling machine, currently the company's PCB CNC drilling machine has the problems of open fast drilling, dynamic characteristics of machine tool s difference and less rigid, causing the borehole accuracy is not high, the unreasonable structural design and machining technology of low level is the effect of the machine tool improving the performance of the key to factor. 2. Z axis Scheme At present, the market for high integration, high-precision double-sided and multilayer printed circuit board to demand more and more urgent, therefore, developed with independent intellectual property rights of the high precision, high performance PCB NC drilling machine is currently the primary task. The developed prototype quality reached the advanced level at home and abroad, some domestic and foreign leading PCB NC drilling machine some parameters as shown in Table 1. As you can see from Table 1, the domestic PCB CNC drilling machine drilling range has reached the advanced level in foreign countries, but the precision of hole, positioning accuracy, repeatability are lagging behind the foreign drilling rig. The PCB CNC drilling machine has three main Z axis research program. (1) A linear bearing (rigid connection) a universal coupling (flexible connection) in Figure 1. Received June 14, 2012; Revised September 29, 2012; Accepted October 3, 2012

2 1410 e-issn: X (2) Aerostatic bearing (flexible connection) Coupling (rigid connection) in Figure 2. (3) Aerostatic bearing (flexible connection) a universal coupling (flexible connection) in Figure 3. Table 1 PCB CNC drilling parameter table Parameter Range of Z axis Positioning Repeat Precision Spindle Name drilling mm speed m/min precision mm accuracy mm drilling mm speed Kr/min China-Han ±0.005 ± ± /200 Japan-Hitachi ±0.004 ±0.002 ± /200 Germany ±0.004 ±0.002 ± /300 SCHMOLL Switzerland ±0.004 ±0.002 ± /300 POSALUX USA-EXCELLON ±0.005 ± ± /200 Figure 1 Z-axis Option I Figure 2 Z-axis Option II Figure 3 Z-axis Option III Figure 4 Workbench meshing Figure 5 Z-axis aerostatic bearing meshing Figure 6 Z axis universal coupling meshing Figure 7 Machine stationary parts of the mesh TELKOMNIKA IJEE Vol. 10, No. 6, October 2012 :

3 TELKOMNIKA IJEE e-issn: X 1411 The first Z axis scheme adopts linear bearing and a universal joint, The advantage of linear bearing s: (1) carrying the ball and spindle in point contact, the use of small load. (2) The ball with a minimum frictional resistance to rotation, thereby obtaining high precision and smooth motion. Disadvantages: The positioning performance is not good. Universal coupling plays a major role in regulating heart and self-aligning effect is good. The second Z axis scheme adopts aerostatic bearing (floating sleeve) and coupling, the advantage of aerostatic bearing: (1) the air static pressure bearing and spindle without contact, reducing the Z axis motion load. (2) the air static pressure bearing has a positioning guiding function. Coupling self-aligning effect is bad. The third Z axis scheme adopts aerostatic bearing and universal joints. Using ANSYS on the PCB NC drilling machine of the whole structure by optimization of structure, obtain the optimal structure parameters, the following is part of the structure of the finite element mesh model. 3. Rigid analysis The motion simulation is built by solving the nonlinear equations of the displacement and velocity to determine the displacement, velocity and time relationships, each of the above three structures do motion simulation, and X and Y of the PCB CNC machine tool feed direction of movement vibration components come to the vibration amplitude of the bit. The first drill vibration amplitude of the Z axis structure is as follows Figure 8 shows, the drill bit vibration amplitude of the second Z-axis structure is as follows Figure 9 shows the third Z-axis structure drill vibration amplitude as follows as shown in Figure 10. Figure 8 the first structural drill vibration curve Figure 9 the second structure drill vibration curve Figure 10 the third structural drill vibration curve Figure 11 the third structure optimized drill vibration curves The third structure is the best of several options can be drawn from the drill bit vibration curve. Using ANSYS to optimize the structure of the third structure, and optimization of drill vibration amplitude shown in Figure 11. It can be seen from Figure 8 and Figure 10, the positioning of the guiding role of aerostatic bearing is better than linear bearings. Universal joint (flexible connection) than the coupling (rigid connection) more effective regulation of the dynamic performance of the ultra-high-speed electric spindle can be seen from Figure 9 and Analysis of Z-axis Rigid of PCB CNC Drilling Machines (Liang-jin Cai)

4 1412 e-issn: X Figure 10. Studies have shown that the impact of high-precision and high-speed PCB CNC drilling mechanical vibration of the main factors: poor spindle dynamic characteristics, inappropriate parts of the rigidity, accuracy and rigidity of the poor-oriented institutions, sports and the static structure of the mass ratio of inappropriate and so on. Secondary completion of the third program DLD26A prototype performance parameters were measured, and randomly select a spindle measurement data as the experimental data, the first spindle measurement data are shown in Figure 12. Figure 12 the theoretical position of the hole and the actual position deviation The following diagram 13 shows, the hole of theory and actual position deviation in the X- axis direction Figure 13-hole theory and the actual location of the deviation in the X-axis direction The following diagram 14 shows, the hole of theory and actual position deviation in the Y- axis direction TELKOMNIKA IJEE Vol. 10, No. 6, October 2012 :

5 TELKOMNIKA IJEE e-issn: X 1413 Figure 14-hole theory and the actual location of the deviation in the Y-axis direction The following diagram 15 shows, the hole of theory and actual position deviation in the XYaxis direction Figure 15-hole theory and the actual location of the deviation in the XY-axis direction Through theoretical and experimental data show that, to improve the PCB CNC drilling machine Z-axis rigid, aerostatic bearings and universal joints of the structure is the key factor. A marked improvement of the optimized PCB CNC drilling machine drill dynamic characteristics can be drawn from Figure 11. By adopting these measures, in the actual process can DLD26A type PCB CNC drilling machines to drill tiny holes range from the original φ0.3mm to φ0.1mm, greatly improve the PCB CNC drilling machine Micro-hole Machining capacity. 4. Conclusion The development objectives of the PCB CNC drilling machine is a high-precision and high speed conditions ultrafine pore and deep hole processing capacity, how the reasonable control of the motion characteristics of the PCB CNC drilling machines in the state of high-speed processing and component rigid is to achieve the key to this goal. Motion simulation can be an intuitive measure of the mechanical dynamic characteristics of the PCB CNC drilling machine, effective control of the mechanical dynamic characteristics of the PCB CNC drilling machine drilling capacity can significantly improve the state of high-speed machining. Analysis of Z-axis Rigid of PCB CNC Drilling Machines (Liang-jin Cai)

6 1414 e-issn: X Motion simulation analysis on the three programs, obtained using the aerostatic bearing (vibration-rotation accuracy, dynamic characteristics, etc.) and the universal joint program with the best dynamic performance. Practice has proved that the PCB CNC drilling machine speed electric spindle drilling process, the torque and rigidity of the two key factors that affect the quality of drilling and the application of the universal joint solution to these two factors significantly increase the fine holes drilling accuracy. Acknowledgment The paper is funded by Key Subject Construction Project of Sichuan Province (No.SZD ). References [1] XF4000-6D drilling machine, [2] Zhu jiasheng, Li GuoLong Yin Chao, Liu Fei. The development and application of numerical control drilling machine in printed circuit boards, a dual-spindle, six. Modern Manufacturing Engineering. 2005; 10: [3] Wang Bing, Wang Chengyong, Song Yuexian, Chen Ming. Printed circuit board high-speed CNC drilling machine characteristics and key technology. Tools.2009, 43 (12):1-10. [4] Wang Xing, Song Fumin, Xiao Junjun. PCB CNC drilling machine development and application of the Review. Manufacturing processes and equipment.2009 (171): [5] Zulkifli Tahir, Nur Azman Abu, Shahrin Sahib, Nanna Suryana Herman. CNC PCB Drilling Machine using Novel Natural Approach to Euclidean TSP. 2010: [6] Liu Hongjun, Zhang Qingfei. Parallel mechanism based on ADAMS flexible body deformation and vibration simulation analysis. Manufacturing Automation. 2012; 34 (1):75-77 [7] Kuanmin Mao,Bin Li,Jun Wu,Xinyu Shao. Stiffness influential factors-based dynamic modeling and its parameter identification method of fixed joints in machine tools. International Journal of Machine Tools&Manufacture. 2010; 50: [8] MF Chen, WL Huang, YP Chen. Design of the aerostatic linear guide way with a passive disk-spring Compensator for PCB drilling machine. Teratology International. 2010; 43: [9] Xiao Shuhong, Zheng Guangyuan, Chen YuLian. Aerostatic bearing applications in ultra-high-speed micro-hole drilling motor spindles. Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Technology. 2007; 36(2): [10] Dingli Guang, Feng Zhijun, Ding Wei. PCB porous high-speed drilling machine application of the air bearing. Mechanical Design and Manufacture. 2008; 3: [11] Lin Jian, Wang Mulan, Yan Hua, Tang Yudong. Linear motor driven table structure finite element analysis and optimization. China Manufacturing Information. 2010; 39(11): [12] Wu Jungang, Zhang li, Wang Ying Zhang, Xu Zongjun, Li Jian. PCB CNC drilling machine multi-body system dynamics modeling and simulation. Design and Research. 2005; 3: 6-8. [13] Wang Ying Zhang, Li Jian, Wu Jungang, Chen Xu. PCB CNC drilling machine modeling and simulation of multibody system dynamics. Mechanical and Electronic. 2004; 11: [14] Li Jian, Wang Ying Zhang, Xu Zongjun. PCB CNC drilling machine drilled body s multi-body dynamics analysis and research. Computer Simulation. 2006; 23(11): [15] Mohammad Khairudin, Zaharuddin Mohamed, Abdul Rashid Husain. Dynamic Model and Robust Control of Flexible Link Robot Manipulator. TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering. 2011; 9(2): [16] Didik R. Santoso. A Simple Instrumentation System for Large Structure Vibration Monitoring TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering. 2010; 8(3): TELKOMNIKA IJEE Vol. 10, No. 6, October 2012 :

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