# GENERATORS AND MOTORS

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1 GENERATORS AND MOTORS A device that converts mechanical energy (energy of motion windmills, turbines, nuclear power, falling water, or tides) into electrical energy is called an electric generator. The operation of a generator depends on the relationship between electricity and magnetism. Electricity to Magnetism Deflection of a compass needle using electrical current showed that there is a relationship between electricity and magnetism. Hans Christian Oersted found that the current created a magnetic field around the wire. The amount of needle deflection depended on how much electric current was flowing in the wire. When the current was reversed, the needle moved in the opposite direction. Electromagnets When a soft iron core is inserted into a coil of wire and a current is passed through the wire, a very strong temporary magnet is produced, called an electromagnet. The strength of an electromagnet is affected by the type and size of core strength of current number of coils Magnetism to Electricity Electric effects can also be created using a magnet. Michael Faraday (and Joseph Henry) discovered electromagnetic induction in They demonstrated that moving a conducting wire through a magnetic field by moving it back and forth through the field, Faraday created the first electricity-producing generator, which could generate electrical current. They also found that moving the magnet worked as well. Faraday introduced terms such as ion, electrode, cathode, and anode to science and invented the lines of magnetic force. The farad, a unit for measuring stored electric charge, was named after him. Generators An AC generator the most common type has a coil of wire rotating inside a stationary field magnet. The central axle of an AC generator has a loop of wire attached to two slip rings. The current is switched as the loops move up and down alternatively through the magnetic field. The slip rings conduct the alternating current to the circuit through the brushes (the brush and ring assembly allows the whole loop to spin freely). The electricity produced by this type of generator is called alternating current because it changes direction (in North America it changes direction 120 times per second giving 60 Hertz or complete waves each second. In large AC generators many loops of wire are wrapped around an large iron core. Massive coils of wire rotating in huge generators can produce enough electricity to power an entire city. A DC generator is much the same as a DC motor, and is often called a dynamo. The spinning armature produces the electricity (if electricity is passed through a DC generator, it will spin like a motor). The armature is connected to a split ring commutator which enables this type of generator to send current through a circuit in only one direction. The DC generator s pulsating electricity is produced in one direction - referred to as direct current - and coincides with the spinning of the generator.

2 Electric Motors: Electric to Mechanical Energy An electric motor is constructed in exactly the same way as a generator. Instead of producing electricity, it uses electrical energy to make a wire coil spins between the poles of a magnet. Current flowing through the coils makes it an electromagnet, which is then affected by the laws of magnetic forces when it is in proximity to the field magnet. Opposite poles attract and like poles repel. All electric motors operate on this principle. Some motors run on direct current (DC). It is 'direct', because the electricity flows in only one direction. Alternating current (AC) flows back and forth 60 times per second DC Motors Faraday constructed the first motor. By coiling (copper) wire around a (iron) metal core a strong electromagnet can be made. When attached to an electrical source it will produce a strong magnetic field. To keep this electromagnet spinning in a magnetic field, the direction that the current is traveling through the coil must be switched. This is accomplished by with a gap, which allows the polarity of the electromagnet change just before it aligns with the permanent magnet. DC motors use a commutator (a split ring that breaks the flow of electricity for a moment and then reverses the flow in the coil, when the contact is broken, so is the magnetic field) and brushes (contact points with the commutator) to reverse the flow of electricity through the magnetic field. The armature (the rotating shaft with the coil wrapped around it) continues to spin because of momentum, allowing the brushes to come into contact once again with the commutator. The St. Louis Motor was designed to teach how a DC motor works AC Motors AC motors have a rotating core, or rotor, made up of a ring of non-magnetic conducting wires connected at the ends and held in a laminated steel cylinder. Surrounding the rotor is a stationary component called a stator. The stator is a two-pole electromagnet. When the motor is turned on, the attraction and repulsion between the poles of the stator and the rotor cause the rotor to spin.

3 TRANSFORMERS AND POWER Transmission of Electricity through the Power Grid Transformers are used to change the amount of voltage with hardly any energy loss. Voltage change is necessary because the most efficient way to transmit current over long distances is at high voltage and then reduced when it reaches its destination, where it will be used. A step-up transformer increases voltage at the generating plant prior to distribution to the power grid over high voltage transmission lines, whereas, a step-down transformer reduces voltage just before entering your home. From the Grid into Your Home Coming in contact with a power transmission line can prove to be deadly. By touching it, a short circuit can occur, because the electricity is trying to find a path to the ground - you can complete the circuit, and it may be fatal. Power needs to enter your home safely. Electrical power enters a meter on the side of your house where electrical usage is recorded on little dials Power is then routed into the service panel (usually in the basement). The main circuit breaker shuts off all the power in the house at once, in case of an overload. The individual circuit breakers in the service panel control the branch circuits, located throughout the entire house. Each branch circuit is connected in parallel to wall plugs, lights and wall switches within a particular area of the house. Each branch circuit is a series of 14 gauge electrical cables that contain: 2 live insulated wires (white neutral; and black hot); And, a ground wire (bare copper wire, or insulated green). Home Wiring To install or change electrical wiring in your home a permit is necessary and all work done must meet a set of standards called the electrical code.

4 Digital Devices The four basic elements of a circuit are present in a microcircuit, as well as a normal electrical circuit, although they may be in different forms. Conductors are thin traces of copper, instead of wires. Resistors and lamps are similar, but the switches are very different. To process the digital information switches in microcircuits use binary code 0 and 1 - for on and off. These electronic digital switches are transistors solid state components that are controlled by electronic signals. The transistors can then control other signals. Measuring Electric Power Power is defined as energy per unit time. Electric power describes the amount of electric energy that is converted into other forms of energy (heat, light, sound, or motion) every second. The formula that is used is: Electrical power measures voltage and current and the formula is as follows: Power (watts) = Energy (joules) / Time (seconds) A kilowatt is 1000 watts. The electrical power formula can be manipulated as follows to determine Power, Current or Voltage use: Model Problem Do your own model problems online and get immediate results. (Good for homework questions as well.) Paying For Electrical Energy The power rating of a device can be used to determine the amount of energy the device uses. Multiply the power rating by the time the device is operating. (E) Energy in joules (P) Power in watts (J/s) (t) time in seconds E = P x t P = E / t t = E / P Kilowatt Hours is used as a unit for energy. The energy calculation is the same, except that hours are substituted for seconds and kilowatts (kw) are substituted for watts. Electricity meters bills you for every kilowatt hour used. measure the energy used in kilowatt hours and then Power Rating The power rating on an energy using device tells you how many joules of energy ( 1 W = 1J/s ) the device uses every second it is on. ENERGUIDE labels help consumers make comparisons of energy use, when purchasing large appliances. Measuring energy inputs and energy outputs allows you to calculate the efficiency of devices and systems. The large number indicates the approximate amount of energy the appliance uses in 1 year.

5 EFFICIENCY Electric Devices and Efficiency Energy is neither created nor destroyed. It doesn't appear and then disappear, but is transformed from one form to another. Known as the Law of Conservation of Energy, no device is able to be 100% efficient in transforming energy. Most of the energy transformed in a light bulb is wasted as heat. Most often, the energy is lost, or dissipated as heat. Mechanical systems also dissipate energy to their surroundings, but not as obvious as the heat loss. Much of the dissipated energy is sound. The efficiency of a device is the ratio of the useful energy that comes out of a device to the total energy that went in. The more input energy converted to output energy, the more efficient the device is. Efficiency ( % ) = useful energy output (J) x 100% total input energy (J) Comparing efficiencies of devices by their energy cost and their environmental impact can be an important decision that can affect sustainability of our resources, by helping us to make better consumer choices. Incandescent light bulbs (5% is light energy, while 95% is heat) Halogen lights (filled with high-pressure gas, with traces of iodine) (15%). Florescent lights (20%) are even more efficient Hybrid gasoline-electric vehicles are more efficient than gas-powered vehicles. Model Problem Calculate the efficiency of an 1000W kettle that takes 4 min to boil water. To heat the water to boiling point, it takes 196,000 J of energy. What is the efficiency of the kettle? Given: P = 1000 W Efficiency t = 4.00 min Useful energy output ( E output )= 1.96 X 10 5 J t = 4.00 X 60s/min = 240s Solution: Efficiency = 1.96 X 10 5 J 100% 2.40 X 10 5 J X E input = Pt 1000W x 240s = 2.40 X 10 5 J Efficiency = 81.7% Formula: efficiency = Useful energy output X 100% Total energy input The kettle is about 81.7% efficient.

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