# Lab 8: DC generators: shunt, series, and compounded.

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1 Lab 8: DC generators: shunt, series, and compounded. Objective: to study the properties of DC generators under no-load and full-load conditions; to learn how to connect these generators; to obtain their armature voltage vs. armature current load curves. Equipment: Power Supply, DAI, Synchronous motor (8241), Direct current machine (DC generator) (8211), 2 Variable Resistance modules (8311), Timing belt. Theory: A DC machine can run either as a motor or as a generator. A motor converts electrical power into mechanical power while a generator converts mechanical power into electrical power. A generator must, therefore, be mechanically driven in order that it may produce electricity. Since the field winding is an electromagnet, current must flow through it to produce a magnetic field. This current is called the excitation current, and can be supplied to the field winding in one of two ways: it can come from a separate, external dc source, in which case the generator is called a separately excited generator; or it can come from the generator's own output, in which case the generator is called a self-excited generator. Assume that the shunt field is excited by a dc current, thereby setting up a magnetic flux in the generator. If the rotor (or more correctly, the armature) is rotated by applying mechanical effort to the shaft, the armature coils will cut the magnetic flux, and a voltage will be induced in them. This voltage is ac and in order to get dc out of the generator, a rectifier must be employed. This role is carried out by the commutator and the brushes. The voltage induced in the coils (and, therefore, the dc voltage at the brushes) depends only upon two things - the speed of rotation and the strength of the magnetic field. If the speed is doubled, the voltage doubles. If the field strength is increased by 20%, the voltage also increases by 20%. Although separate excitation requires a separate dc power source, it is useful in cases where a generator must respond quickly and precisely to an external control source, or when the output voltage must be varied over a wide range. With no electrical load connected to the generator, no current flows and only a voltage appears at the output. But if a resistance load is connected across the output, current will flow and the generator will begin to deliver electric power to the load. The machine driving the generator must then furnish additional mechanical power to the generator. This is often accompanied by increased noise and vibration of the motor and the generator, together with a drop in speed. The separately excited generator has many applications. However, it does have the disadvantage that a separate direct current power source is needed to excite the shunt field. This is costly and sometimes inconvenient; and the self-excited DC generator is often more suitable. In a self-excited generator, the field winding is connected to the generator output. It may be connected across the output, in series with the output, or a combination of the two. The Page 1

3 source. The generator regulation can be evaluated as follows: ENL EFL regulation = 100 % (08-1) E where E NL and E FL are the no-load and full-load output voltages of the generator. Experiment: 1) Due to its constant speed, synchronous motor (Fig. 08-1) will be used to mechanically drive the DC generators. Therefore, couple the synchronous motor and the generator and connect the synchronous motor according to Figure FL Figure 08-1 Page 3

4 Figure 08-2 Notice that the terminals 1, 2, and 3 of the PS provide fixed 3-phase power for the three stator windings. Terminals 8 and N of the PS provide fixed DC power for the rotor winding. Set the rheostat control knob to its 8 o clock position (synchronous motor will be explained in later experiments). 2) Construct the circuit implementing the DC separately excited shunt generator as shown in Figure Have your instructor to check your circuit. Figure ) Set up the load resistance to all switches are open. Make sure that the switch in the synchronous motor is open (lower position). Caution: the switch in the synchronous motor should be closed (upper position) ONLY when the motor is running! Turn ON the PS. The synchronous motor should start running. Close the motor s switch. Vary the shunt field current by changing the DC voltage on the PS. 4) Measure and record in a Data table the values of armature voltage E A, armature current I A, and field current I F for the values of field current from 0 ma to 400 ma with steps of 50 ma. Turn OFF the PS. Page 4

9 8) Calculate and report the regulation from no-load to full-load (1 A) using the data collected in Part 13 for the self-excited shunt generator. Compare it to the regulation of the separately excited shunt generator. What do you conclude? 9) Did you observe any considerable generator voltage build up when the direction of rotation was reversed in Part 14? Explain. 10) Using Matlab and the data collected in Part 18, plot the armature voltage E A vs. the armature current I A regulation curve for the DC compound generator. 11) Calculate and report the regulation from no-load to full-load (1 A) using the data collected in Part 18 for the DC compound generator. 12) Using Matlab and the data collected in Part 21, plot the armature voltage E A vs. the armature current I A regulation curve for the DC compound generator. Which of the compound generators (Part 18 or Part 21) was a differential compound generator? Why? 13) Using Matlab and the data collected in Part 25, plot the armature voltage E A vs. the armature current I A regulation curve for the DC series generator. To what do you attribute the open circuit voltage observed in Parts 23 and 25? 14) Calculate and report the regulation from no-load to full-load (1 A) using the data collected in Part 25 for the DC series generator. 15) Compare the characteristics of the DC generators studied in this laboratory exercise: a) Separately excited shunt generator; b) Self-excited shunt generator; c) Compound generator; d) Differential compound generator; e) Series generator. Page 9

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