IAEA SAFETY GLOSSARY TERMINOLOGY USED IN NUCLEAR SAFETY AND RADIATION PROTECTION 2016 REVISION

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "IAEA SAFETY GLOSSARY TERMINOLOGY USED IN NUCLEAR SAFETY AND RADIATION PROTECTION 2016 REVISION"

Transcription

1 IAEA SAFETY GLOSSARY TERMINOLOGY USED IN NUCLEAR SAFETY AND RADIATION PROTECTION 2016 REVISION INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY VIENNA, 2016

2

3 Preface PREFACE TO THE 2016 REVISION This 2016 Revision of the IAEA Safety Glossary 2007 Edition is not a new Edition of the IAEA Safety Glossary and it is not an official publication of the IAEA. The draft is made available online on the IAEA public web site ( for informational purposes only. The 2016 Revision may be referenced and quoted as a web site. It is intended for use in the IAEA s official business only and may not otherwise be referenced, quoted or disseminated. The Safety Glossary 2007 Edition was issued as an IAEA publication in English. Versions of the Safety Glossary 2007 Edition in English and in the other five United Nations official languages (Arabic, Chinese, French, Spanish and Russian) are available on the IAEA public web site ( for informational purposes and may be downloaded free of charge. A multilingual version on CD-ROM may be purchased via the IAEA public web site ( The 2016 Revision has been revised and updated in consideration of new terminology and usage in safety standards issued between 2007 and the end of 2015 (in particular, Safety Standards Series Nos GSR Part 3 (Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards), GSR Part 7 (Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency) and SSR 2/1 (Rev. 1) (Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design)). The revisions and updating made reflect developments in the technical areas of application of the safety standards and changes in regulatory approaches in Member States. Account has also been taken of comments, queries, suggestions and requests received over this period from the Secretariat and from users and reviewers in Member States. Novel and revised terminology in particular in the areas of the design of nuclear power plants, emergency preparedness and response and protection against radiation risks needs to be paid careful attention. The introduction of novel concepts and terminology can lead to difficulties in comprehension, and the profusion of defined terms can complicate drafting and review. Once terms have been defined, their usage wherever applicable is necessary, and reviewers and specialists will need to verify this (see the Introduction). Terms relating to nuclear security have been excluded from this revision pending their revision and harmonization. Comment on the Safety Glossary may be provided by users of the IAEA safety standards (in English and in translation) via the safety standards web site and the IAEA safety standards contact point Please read the Foreword and the Introduction to the Safety Glossary 2007 Edition before using the Safety Glossary and before submitting comments or queries. Advice on the translation of glossary entries into the other five United Nations official languages is available from the IAEA Terminology and Reference Contact Point The IAEA acknowledges with gratitude the contributions of those who provided comments and suggestions on the IAEA Safety Glossary. The IAEA technical officer responsible for the Safety Glossary was D. Delves of the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

4

5 Foreword FOREWORD In developing and establishing standards of safety for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, clear communication on scientific and technical concepts is essential. The principles, requirements and recommendations that are established and explained in the IAEA s safety standards and elaborated upon in other publications must be clearly expressed. To this end, this Safety Glossary defines and explains technical terms used in IAEA safety standards and other safety related publications, and provides information on their usage. The primary purpose of the Safety Glossary is to harmonize terminology and usage in the IAEA safety standards for protecting people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation, and in their application. Once definitions of terms have been established, they are, in general, intended to be observed in safety standards and other safety related publications and in the work of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security generally. The achievement of consistently high quality in its publications contributes to the authority and credibility of the IAEA, and thus to its influence and effectiveness. High quality in publications and documents is achieved not only by review to ensure that the relevant requirements are met, but also by managing their preparation so as to achieve high quality in their drafting. The Safety Glossary provides guidance primarily for the drafters and reviewers of safety standards, including IAEA technical officers and consultants and bodies for the endorsement of safety standards. The Safety Glossary is also a source of information for users of IAEA safety standards and other safety and security related IAEA publications and for other IAEA staff notably writers, editors, translators, revisers and interpreters. Users of the Safety Glossary, in particular drafters of national legislation, should be aware that the terms included have been chosen and the definitions and explanations given have been drafted for the purpose mentioned above. Terminology and usage may differ in other contexts, such as in binding international legal instruments and in the publications of other organizations. The Safety Glossary (2007 Edition) was issued as an IAEA publication and a CD-ROM was issued that includes the Safety Glossary (2007 Edition) in English and versions in the other five official languages of the IAEA: Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish ( These five versions are also available for downloading from the Safety Glossary web site. The Safety Glossary has been revised and updated in the light of changes in terminology and usage in the safety standards, due in part to developments in technology and in regulatory approaches in Member States. The IAEA Secretariat invites the submission of comment concerning the definitions of technical terms and the explanations of their usage given in the Safety Glossary from users of the IAEA safety standards (in English and in translation) and of other safety related publications. A change form is provided on the Safety Glossary web site ( for the submission of suggestions for consideration in a possible future revision of the Safety Glossary. The first version of the Safety Glossary was compiled and developed by I. Barraclough and issued as a document in The Safety Glossary (2007 Edition), in which account was IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

6 Foreword taken of safety standards issued between 2000 and 2007 and of comments and suggestions submitted in the revision process and in the course of translation and editing, was published as a revised and updated multilingual version. The IAEA gratefully acknowledges the contributions of all those who provided comments and suggestions on the Safety Glossary. The IAEA technical officer responsible for the Safety Glossary was D. Delves of the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. EDITORIAL NOTE This 2016 Revision of the IAEA Safety Glossary 2007 Edition is not a new Edition of the IAEA Safety Glossary and it is not a publication of the IAEA. The draft is made available for informational purposes only. The 2016 Revision may be referenced and quoted as a web site only. It is intended for use in the IAEA s official business only and may not otherwise be referenced, quoted or disseminated. Although great care has been taken to maintain the accuracy of information contained in this publication, neither the IAEA nor its Member States assume any responsibility for consequences which may arise from its use. The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by the publisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities and institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) does not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsement or recommendation on the part of the IAEA. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

7 Contents CONTENTS INTRODUCTION i IAEA SAFETY GLOSSARY A 1 B 16 C 19 D 33 E 50 F 67 G 74 H 77 I 81 J 89 K 90 L 92 M 100 N 110 O 118 P 122 Q 135 R 137 S 155 T 174 U 178 V 182 W 188 REFERENCES 197 BIBLIOGRAPHY 201 ANNEX: SI UNITS AND PREFIXES 203 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

8

9 Introduction BACKGROUND Terminology in IAEA safety standards INTRODUCTION The IAEA s safety standards for nuclear installations, radiation protection, radioactive waste management and the transport of radioactive material have historically been developed in four separate programmes. For nuclear installations and radioactive waste management, safety standards programmes were set up to coordinate the development of standards covering the different parts of the subject. The radiation and transport safety standards programmes were each centred on one key set of safety requirements the Basic Safety Standards [1] and the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the Transport Regulations) [2], respectively with other safety requirements and guidance elaborating on particular parts of these central publications. Each of the four groups of safety standards had developed its own terminology: (a) (b) (c) (d) In 1986, the IAEA published a Radiation Protection Glossary in the former IAEA Safety Series, which provided, in English, French, Russian and Spanish, a collection of fundamental terms associated with radiation protection and their definitions. Many of the terms and definitions in this publication are now obsolete, and the Basic Safety Standards issued in 1996 (superseded in 2014 [1]) included more up to date definitions of key terms in radiation protection and safety. In 1982, a Waste Management Glossary was published by the IAEA as IAEA- TECDOC-264. A revised and updated version was issued in 1988 as IAEA-TECDOC- 447, a third edition was published in 1993 and a fourth edition was published in 2003 [3]. In nuclear safety, compilations of terms and definitions were produced for internal use, but not published. Nevertheless, the lists of definitions given in the Nuclear Safety Standards Codes published by the IAEA in 1988 provided a set of the fundamental terms. The definitions in the 2012 edition of the IAEA Transport Regulations [2] represent current terminology for transport safety. With the creation of the Department of Nuclear Safety in 1996, and the adoption of a harmonized procedure for the preparation and review of safety standards in all areas, the need for greater consistency in the use of terminology became apparent. The incorporation into the Department of the Office of Nuclear Security in 2004 further extended its scope. This Safety Glossary is intended to contribute towards harmonizing the use of terminology in IAEA safety standards and the IAEA s other safety and security related publications. Scope of protection and safety and coverage of nuclear security In the context of the IAEA s Major Programme on Nuclear Safety and Security, (radiation) protection and (nuclear) safety denotes the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks, and the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks. Nuclear safety is usually abbreviated to safety in IAEA publications. In IAEA safety standards, safety means nuclear safety unless otherwise stated. Protection and safety (i.e. radiation protection and nuclear safety) encompasses the safety of nuclear installations, radiation safety, the safety of radioactive waste management and safety in the transport of IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016 i

10 Introduction radioactive material; it does not include aspects of safety that are not related to radiation protection and nuclear safety. Safety is concerned with both radiation risks under normal circumstances and radiation risks as a consequence of incidents, as well as with other possible direct consequences of a loss of control over a nuclear reactor core, nuclear chain reaction, radioactive source or any other source of radiation. Radiation in this context means ionizing radiation. Incidents includes initiating events, accident precursors, near misses, accidents and unauthorized acts (including malicious and non-malicious acts). Safety measures include actions to prevent incidents and arrangements put in place to mitigate their consequences if they were to occur. Nuclear security denotes the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. The safety standards concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they require security for safety measures that contribute to both safety and security, such as: (a) (b) (c) (d) Appropriate provisions in the design and construction of nuclear installations and other facilities; Controls on access to nuclear installations and other facilities to prevent the loss of, and the unauthorized removal, possession, transfer and use of, radioactive material; Arrangements for mitigating the consequences of accidents and failures, which also facilitate measures for dealing with breaches in security that give rise to radiation risks; Measures for the security of the management of radioactive sources and radioactive material. GENERAL REMARKS Purpose The Safety Glossary serves a number of different purposes: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) To explain the meanings of technical terms that may be unfamiliar to the reader; To explain any special meanings ascribed to common words or terms (since words can have several different meanings, it may be necessary to clarify which meaning is intended, in particular for non-native English speakers); To define precisely how terms whose general meaning may be clear to readers are used in a particular publication or set of publications, in order to avoid ambiguity concerning some important aspect(s) of their meaning; To explain the connections or differences between similar or related terms, or the specific meanings of the same technical term in different contexts; To clarify and, if possible, reconcile differences in the usage of specialized terms in different subject areas, since such differences in usage may be potentially misleading; To recommend terms that should be used in IAEA publications and documents (and those that should not), and the definitions that should be ascribed to them. ii IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

11 Introduction Definitions of the type used in legal texts such as the Convention on Nuclear Safety [4] or the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management [5], or in regulations such as the Transport Regulations [2], are intended primarily for purpose (c) and, in some cases, do not serve the other purposes at all. Furthermore, definitions of this nature tend to be tailored to the needs of the specific text to which they relate, and hence are often not generally applicable. The definitions included in other safety standards are, however, less easily classified, tending towards a mixture of definition and explanation and of context specific and generally applicable definitions and/or explanations. For the purposes of the Safety Glossary, an effort has been made to distinguish between the definition material that could be used in the definitions in an individual publication and explanation, which is provided to assist drafters and reviewers but is not part of the definition. However, this distinction is not always as clear cut as might be wished. Note that a glossary is not the place to specify requirements or guidance. The definition of a term should contain the conditions that must be met in order for the term to be applicable, but not other conditions. This is best illustrated by an example. The definition of regulatory body indicates the conditions that must be met in order for an organization to be described as a regulatory body, but not the attributes of a regulatory body as required by IAEA safety standards. Hence, the definition specifies that it is designated by the government of a State as having legal authority for conducting the regulatory process otherwise, it is not a regulatory body. However, the definition does not, for example, specify that it is independent of organizations or bodies charged with the promotion of nuclear technologies it can be a regulatory body without being independent, even though it would then not satisfy the IAEA Safety Requirements on legal and governmental infrastructure for safety. Scope The scope of the Safety Glossary is necessarily limited, and is intended to focus on the key terms that are specific to, or that are used in a specific way in, protection and safety (and, to a limited extent, security). A number of general categories of terms that may be used in safety related publications have been specifically excluded from this Safety Glossary (except where a specific point needs to be made about a specific term). These groups of excluded terms include: (a) (b) (c) Basic terms from radiation and nuclear physics (e.g. alpha particle, decay, fission, radionuclide). An understanding of these terms is assumed. The specialized terminology of fields other than protection and safety (e.g. geology, seismology, meteorology, medicine and computing). This terminology may be used in protection and safety contexts, but the definition of such terms is left to the experts in the relevant fields. Very specialized terminology from a specific field within protection and safety (e.g. the detailed terminology of dosimetry and safety assessment). If necessary, such terminology can be defined in the specialized publications to which it is relevant. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016 iii

12 Introduction USE OF THE SAFETY GLOSSARY Interpretation of entries in the Safety Glossary The entry for each term generally starts with one or more recommended definition(s) 1. Alternative definitions are given: (a) (b) (c) (d) If the term is used in two or more distinct safety related contexts (e.g. the term clearance, which is used for an administrative mechanism for removing regulatory control from material and for a biological process affecting the movement of inhaled radionuclides in the body); or If it is necessary to include in this Safety Glossary an established definition that is still needed but is not considered suitable as a general definition (this includes, in particular, some of the definitions from the Basic Safety Standards [1] and the Transport Regulations [2] that may need to be retained in supporting publications but which would not be the preferred general definitions); or To include definitions of which drafters and reviewers of IAEA publications should be aware, even though they are unlikely to be used in IAEA publications (definitions in the main safety related conventions are an important example of this group); or For a small number of basic terms that have two distinct definitions, depending on whether they are being used in a scientific or regulatory (i.e. standards) context. An important example in the context of protection and safety is the adjective radioactive. Scientifically, something is described as radioactive if it exhibits the phenomenon of radioactivity or in the somewhat less precise, but generally accepted, usage if it contains any substance that exhibits radioactivity. Scientifically, therefore, virtually any material (including material that is considered to be waste) is radioactive. However, it is common regulatory practice to define terms such as radioactive material and radioactive waste in such a way as to include only that material or waste that is subject to regulation by virtue of the radiological hazard that it poses. Although the exact specifications vary from State to State, this typically excludes material and waste with very low concentrations of radionuclides and those that contain only natural concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides. Different definitions of a given term are numbered. Unless otherwise indicated in the text, drafters should use the most appropriate definition for their purposes. In many cases, the recommended definition(s) is/are followed by further information as appropriate, such as: (a) (b) (c) Particular notes of caution, such as for terms that do not mean what they might appear to mean (e.g. annual dose), or potential conflicts with other safety or security related terminology; denoted by Explanation of the context(s) in which the term is usually used (and, in some cases, contexts in which it should not be used); denoted by Reference to related terms: synonyms, terms with similar but not identical meanings, contrasting terms, and terms that supersede or are superseded by the term being described; denoted by 1 A few terms are included without a recommended definition. In most such cases, the term in question is the general (unqualified) term used to group a number of qualified terms, and has no special meaning in unqualified form (e.g. emergency action level, recording level, etc., are listed under level, but level itself is not defined). In some cases guidance is given on usage for terms with no definition. iv IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

13 Introduction (d) Miscellaneous information: for example, the units in which a quantity is normally measured, recommended parameter values and references; denoted by. This supplementary information is not part of the definition, but it is included to assist drafters and reviewers in understanding how to use (or how not to use) the term in question. Note that the use of italics in the text denotes a term or subterm with an entry in the Safety Glossary. The use of bold italics in the text denotes a subterm with its definition or with an explanation. Use by drafters Drafters of safety and security related IAEA publications in particular safety standards should, as far as possible, use the terms in this Safety Glossary with the meanings given. Terms should also be used consistently, especially in safety standards. Variety of expression a virtue in most forms of writing should be avoided if there is any possibility of causing confusion or ambiguity. Terms that are not listed in this Safety Glossary may be used, provided that there is no suitable alternative term listed in the Safety Glossary. A publication may contain a list of key terms used in that publication and their definitions. However, the first question concerning the inclusion of the definition of any term in a publication should always be whether the term actually needs to be defined. Terms should be defined explicitly in a publication only if a definition is essential to the correct understanding of that publication. If the term is used with its usual meaning, or if its meaning in a particular publication will be obvious to the reader from the context, then there should be no need for a definition. A term whose meaning is imprecise may need to be defined, if the imprecision actually detracts from a correct understanding of the text; in many cases, however, the precise meaning of a term will not matter for the purposes of a given publication. Similarly, obvious derivatives of a defined term need not themselves be defined unless there is some specific ambiguity that needs to be addressed. If it is considered necessary to include a term in a list of definitions in an individual publication, the recommended definition should be used wherever possible. If the recommended definition is not suitable (e.g. if the subject of the publication falls outside the scope of the existing definition), the wording of the definition may be modified, but its meaning should not be changed. The technical officer responsible for the Safety Glossary should be informed of any such modifications to the wording of definitions. Similarly, definitions of any additional usually more specialized terms needed in a specific publication can be provided by the drafters or the technical officer responsible for the publication, and included either in the text (in the main body of the text or footnotes) or in a list of definitions. Such definitions should be copied for information to the technical officer responsible for the Safety Glossary. Some terms and usages that have been used in the past and/or are used in the publications of other organizations, but whose use is discouraged in IAEA publications, are included in the Safety Glossary. Such terms are listed in square brackets, and should be used only if they are essential to refer to other publications; alternative terms for use in IAEA publications are recommended. Similarly, some definitions are in square brackets, indicating that they have been included for information but should not be used as working definitions for IAEA publications. The technical officer and reviewers for a publication are responsible for ensuring that any definitions given in that publication are in accordance with these rules. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016 v

14 Introduction Terms defined in this Safety Glossary are likely to be used in informing the public on matters concerning nuclear safety and security and radiation risks, and in covering these matters in the news media. The technical terms that must be used to explain difficult concepts will be interpreted and employed by writers, journalists and broadcasters who do not have a clear understanding of their significance. It must be borne in mind by drafters, reviewers and editors that certain terms that have specific and clear meanings in their scientific or technical context may be subject to misrepresentation or misunderstanding in a more general context. The incautious use of language can and does give rise to widespread false impressions among the public that are difficult or impossible to correct. In attempting to summarize, interpret and simplify technical texts so as to communicate with a broader audience, therefore, care must be taken not to oversimplify by omitting conditions and qualifications, and not to mislead in using terms with both scientific and more general meanings. Potentially misleading words include, for example, attributable, contamination, [excess, statistical] deaths, exposure, illicit trafficking [in nuclear or radioactive material], nuclear [terrorism, trafficking], protection, radioactive, risk and safe, and their related words and phrases. This caution applies in particular to matters of life and health, especially fatal accidents and other major incidents, and other emotionally charged subjects. Finally, there are cases where special safety or IAEA meanings are attached so strongly to words that the use of those words in their everyday sense could cause confusion. Examples include activity, critical, justification, practice, requirement, recommendation, guide and standard (and also shall and should ). Although it would be unreasonable to prohibit the use of such words in their everyday sense in any IAEA publications, particular care should be taken to ensure that they are not used in a manner that could be ambiguous. Use by reviewers Reviewers should consider whether each term included in a list of definitions in an individual publication really needs to be defined, and if so whether a list of definitions (as opposed to the text or a footnote) is the most appropriate place for the definition. (Reviewers should also consider, of course, whether any terms not defined in the publication need to be defined.) If a draft safety standard or other safety related publication gives a definition different from that recommended in the Safety Glossary, reviewers should check: (a) (b) That the definition recommended in the Safety Glossary could not reasonably have been used; That the definition given in the draft publication reflects essentially the same meaning as the recommended definition. Reviewers should make any appropriate recommendations to the IAEA technical officer responsible for the publication. Reviewers will need to verify that drafters select, use and relate defined terms and other words in such a way that clear distinctions are drawn and may be inferred between, for example: events and situations (see the entry for event); accidents and other incidents; what is actual (i.e. what is), possible (i.e. what might be) or potential (i.e. what could become), and what is hypothetical (i.e. what is postulated or assumed); and what is observed or determined objectively and what is decided or declared subjectively. Novel and revised terminology in particular in the areas of the design of nuclear power plants, emergency preparedness and response and protection against radiation risks needs to be paid careful attention. The introduction of novel concepts and terminology can lead to vi IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

15 Introduction difficulties in comprehension, and the profusion of defined terms can complicate drafting and review. Once terms have been defined, their usage wherever applicable is necessary, and reviewers and specialists will need to verify this (see the Introduction). FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SAFETY GLOSSARY The Safety Glossary is intended to be reviewed and revised as necessary, to represent accurately the current terminology of the IAEA safety standards. This is subject to appropriate consultation, as the Safety Glossary is also intended to bring about stability and harmonization in terminology and usage. Comment on the Safety Glossary may be provided by users of the IAEA safety standards (in English and in translation) via the safety standards web site and the IAEA safety standards contact point Please read the Foreword and this Introduction to the Safety Glossary 2007 Edition before using the Safety Glossary and before submitting comments or queries. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016 vii

16

17 A A A 1 The activity value of special form radioactive material that is listed in Table 2 or derived in Section IV [both of the Transport Regulations] and is used to determine the activity limits for the requirements of [the Transport] Regulations. (From Ref. [2], Sections II and IV and Table 2.) 2 A 1 is the maximum activity of special form radioactive material that can be transported in a Type A package. Fractions and multiples of A 1 are also used as criteria for other package types, etc. 3 The corresponding value for any other form of radioactive material is A 2. A 2 The activity value of radioactive material, other than special form radioactive material, that is listed in Table 2 or derived in Section IV [both of the Transport Regulations] and is used to determine the activity limits for the requirements of [the Transport] Regulations. (From Ref. [2], Sections II and IV and Table 2.) A 2 is the maximum activity of any radioactive material other than special form radioactive material that can be transported in a Type A package. Fractions and multiples of A 2 are also used as criteria for other package types, etc. The corresponding value for special form radioactive material is A 1. abnormal operation See plant states (considered in design): anticipated operational occurrence. absorbed dose See dose quantities. absorbed fraction The fraction of energy emitted as a specified radiation type in a specified source region that is absorbed in a specified target tissue. absorption 1. See sorption. 2. See lung absorption type. absorption type, lung See lung absorption type. 2 3 Note that the use of italics in the text denotes a term or subterm with an entry in the Safety Glossary. Explanations, cross-references and miscellaneous information are denoted by. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

18 A accelerogram A recording of ground acceleration, usually in three orthogonal directions (i.e. components), two in the horizontal plane and one in the vertical plane. acceptable limit See limit. acceptance criteria Specified bounds on the value of a functional indicator or condition indicator used to assess the ability of a structure, system or component to perform its design function. accident 1. Any unintended event, including operating errors, equipment failures and other mishaps, the consequences or potential consequences of which are not negligible from the point of view of protection and safety. accident conditions. 4 See plant states (considered in design). beyond design basis accident. See plant states (considered in design). criticality accident. An accident involving criticality. Typically, a criticality accident is an accidental release of energy as a result of unintentionally producing a criticality in a facility in which fissile material is used. A criticality accident is also possible for fissile material in storage or in transport, for example. design basis accident. See plant states (considered in design). nuclear accident. [Any accident involving facilities or activities from which a release of radioactive material occurs or is likely to occur and which has resulted or may result in an international significant transboundary release that could be of radiological safety significance for another State.] (From Ref. [6].)! This is not explicitly stated to be a definition of nuclear accident, but it is derived from the statement of the scope of application in Article 1 of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident. However, this Convention has a limited scope of application, and it is unreasonable to consider a nuclear accident to be only an accident that results or may result in an international significant transboundary release. 5 severe accident. See plant states (considered in design). 2. See event and International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES)! There is a fundamental mismatch between the terminology used in safety standards and the designations used in INES. In short, events that would be considered accidents according to the safety standards definition may be accidents or incidents (i.e. not accidents) in INES terminology. This is not a serious day to day problem because the 4 5 Note that the use of bold italics in the text denotes a subterm. Particular notes of caution or potential conflicts with other terminology are denoted by!. 2 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

19 A two areas are quite separate and have quite different purposes. However, it is a potential cause of confusion in communication with the news media and the public. accident conditions See plant states (considered in design). accident management See plant states (considered in design). accident precursor An initiating event that could lead to accident conditions. activation The process of inducing radioactivity in matter by irradiation of that matter. In the context of nuclear installations, activation is used to refer to the unintentional induction of radioactivity in moderators, coolants, and structural and shielding materials, caused by irradiation with neutrons. In the context of the production of radioisotopes, activation is used to refer to the intentional induction of radioactivity by neutron activation. In other contexts, activation is an incidental side-effect of irradiation carried out for other purposes, such as the sterilization of medical products or enhancement of the colour of gemstones for aesthetic reasons.! Care may be needed to avoid confusion when using the term activation in its everyday sense of bringing into action (e.g. of safety systems, for which actuation may be used). activation product A radionuclide produced by activation. Often used to distinguish from fission products. For example, in decommissioning waste comprising structural materials from a nuclear facility, activation products might typically be found primarily within the matrix of the material, whereas fission products are more likely to be present in the form of contamination on surfaces. active component A component whose functioning depends on an external input such as actuation, mechanical movement or supply of power. An active component is any component that is not a passive component. Examples of active components are pumps, fans, relays and transistors. It is emphasized that this definition is necessarily general in nature, as is the corresponding definition of passive component. Certain components, such as rupture discs, check valves, safety valves, injectors and some solid state electronic devices, have characteristics that require special consideration before designation as an active component or a passive component. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

20 A Contrasting term: passive component. See also component, core components and structures, systems and components.! Care may be needed to avoid confusion with radioactive components. activity 1. The quantity A for an amount of radionuclide in a given energy state at a given time, defined as: dn A( t) dt where dn is the expectation value of the number of spontaneous nuclear transformations from the given energy state in the time interval dt. The rate at which nuclear transformations occur in a radioactive material. The equation is sometimes given as: dn A( t) dt where N is the number of nuclei of the radionuclide, and hence the rate of change of N with time is negative. Numerically, the two forms are identical. The SI unit for activity is reciprocal second (s 1 ), termed the becquerel (Bq). Formerly expressed in curies (Ci); activity values may be given in Ci (with the equivalent in Bq in parentheses) if they are being quoted from a reference that uses Ci as the unit. specific activity. Of a radionuclide, the activity per unit mass of that nuclide. The specific activity of a material is the activity per unit mass or volume of the material in which the radionuclides are essentially uniformly distributed. The specific activity of a material, for the purposes of the Transport Regulations, is the activity per unit mass of the material in which the radionuclides are essentially uniformly distributed. (From Ref. [2].) The distinction in usage between specific activity and activity concentration is controversial. Some regard the terms as synonymous, and may favour one or the other (as above). ISO 921 [7] distinguishes between specific activity as the activity per unit mass and activity concentration as the activity per unit volume. Another common distinction is that specific activity is used (usually as activity per unit mass) with reference to a pure sample of a radionuclide or, less strictly, to cases where a radionuclide is intrinsically present in the material (e.g. carbon-14 in organic materials, uranium-235 in natural uranium), even if the abundance of the radionuclide is artificially changed. In this usage, activity concentration (which may be activity per unit mass or per unit volume) is used for any other situation (e.g. when the activity is in the form of contamination in or on a material). In general, the term activity concentration is more widely applicable, is more selfevident in meaning, and is less likely than specific activity to be confused with unrelated terms (such as specified activities ). Activity concentration is therefore preferred to specific activity for general use in safety related IAEA publications. 4 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

21 A 2. See facilities and activities. activity concentration See activity (1): specific activity. activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) The value of aerodynamic diameter such that 50% of the airborne activity in a specified aerosol is associated with particles smaller than the AMAD, and 50% of the activity is associated with particles larger than the AMAD. Used in internal dosimetry for simplification as a single average value of aerodynamic diameter representative of the aerosol as a whole. The AMAD is used for particle sizes for which deposition depends principally on inertial impaction and sedimentation (i.e. typically those greater than about 0.5 m). activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD). For smaller particles, deposition typically depends primarily on diffusion, and the activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) defined in an analogous way to the AMAD, but with reference to the thermodynamic diameter of the particles is used. aerodynamic diameter. The aerodynamic diameter of an airborne particle is the diameter that a sphere of unit density would need to have in order to have the same terminal velocity when settling in air as the particle of interest. thermodynamic diameter. The thermodynamic diameter of an airborne particle is the diameter that a sphere of unit density would need to have in order to have the same diffusion coefficient in air as the particle of interest activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) See activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). actuated equipment An assembly of prime movers and driven equipment used to accomplish one or more safety tasks. actuation device A component that directly controls the motive power for actuated equipment. Examples of actuation devices include circuit breakers and relays that control the distribution and use of electric power and pilot valves controlling hydraulic or pneumatic fluids. acute exposure See exposure situations. acute intake See intake (2). IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

22 A additive risk projection model See model: risk projection model. adsorption See sorption. advection The movement of a substance or the transfer of heat by the motion of the gas (usually air) or liquid (usually water) in which it is present. Sometimes used with the more common meaning transfer of heat by the horizontal motion of the air but in IAEA publications is more often used in a more general sense, in particular in safety assessment, to describe the movement of a radionuclide due to the movement of the liquid in which it is dissolved or suspended. Usually contrasted with diffusion, where the radionuclide moves relative to the carrying medium. aerodynamic dispersion See dispersion. ageing General process in which characteristics of a structure, system or component gradually change with time or use. Although the term ageing is defined in a neutral sense the changes involved in ageing may have no effect on protection or safety, or could even have a beneficial effect it is most commonly used with a connotation of changes that are (or could be) detrimental to protection and safety (i.e. as a synonym of ageing degradation). non-physical ageing. The process of becoming out of date (i.e. obsolete) owing to the evolution of knowledge and technology and associated changes in codes and standards. Examples of non-physical ageing effects include the lack of an effective containment or emergency core cooling system, the lack of safety design features (such as diversity, separation or redundancy), the unavailability of qualified spare parts for old equipment, incompatibility between old and new equipment, and outdated procedures or documentation (e.g. which thus do not comply with current regulations). Strictly, this is not always ageing as defined above, because it is sometimes not due to changes in the structure, system or component itself. Nevertheless, the effects on protection and safety, and the solutions that need to be adopted, are often very similar to those for physical ageing. The term technological obsolescence is also used. physical ageing. Ageing of structures, systems and components due to physical, chemical and/or biological processes (ageing mechanisms). Examples of ageing mechanisms include wear, thermal or embrittlement, corrosion and microbiological fouling. radiation 6 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

23 A The term material ageing is also used. ageing degradation Ageing effects that could impair the ability of a structure, system or component to function within its acceptance criteria. Examples include reduction in diameter due to wear of a rotating shaft, loss in material toughness due to radiation embrittlement or thermal ageing, and cracking of a material due to fatigue or stress corrosion cracking. ageing management Engineering, operations and maintenance actions to control within acceptable limits the ageing degradation of structures, systems and components. Examples of engineering actions include design, qualification and failure analysis. Examples of operations actions include surveillance, carrying out operating procedures within specified limits and performing environmental measurements. life management (or lifetime management). The integration of ageing management with economic planning: (1) to optimize the operation, maintenance and service life of structures, systems and components; (2) to maintain an acceptable level of safety and performance; and (3) to improve economic performance over the service life of the facility. agricultural countermeasure See countermeasure. air kerma See kerma. aircraft cargo aircraft. Any aircraft, other than a passenger aircraft, that is carrying goods or property. (From Ref. [2].) passenger aircraft. An aircraft that carries any person other than a crew member, a carrier s employee in an official capacity, an authorized representative of an appropriate national authority, or a person accompanying a consignment or other cargo. (From Ref. [2].) ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) See optimization of protection and safety. alert See emergency class. ambient dose equivalent See dose equivalent quantities. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

24 A analysis Often used interchangeably with assessment, especially in more specific terms such as safety analysis. In general, however, analysis suggests the process and result of a study aimed at understanding the subject of the analysis, while assessment may also include determinations or judgements of acceptability. Analysis is also often associated with the use of a specific technique. Hence, one or more forms of analysis may be used in assessment. cost benefit analysis. A systematic technical and economic evaluation of the positive effects (benefits) and negative effects (disbenefits, including monetary costs) of undertaking an action. A decision aiding technique commonly used in the optimization of protection and safety. This and other techniques are discussed in Ref. [8]. event tree analysis. An inductive technique that starts by hypothesizing the occurrence of basic postulated initiating events and proceeds through their logical propagation to system failure events. The event tree is the diagrammatic illustration of alternative outcomes of specified postulated initiating events. Fault tree analysis considers similar chains of events, but starts at the other end (i.e. with the results rather than the causes ). The completed event trees and fault trees for a given set of events would be similar to one another. fault tree analysis. A deductive technique that starts by hypothesizing and defining failure events and systematically deduces the events or combinations of events that caused the failure events to occur. The fault tree is the diagrammatic illustration of the events. Event tree analysis considers similar chains of events, but starts at the other end (i.e. with the causes rather than the results ). The completed event trees and fault trees for a given set of events would be similar to one another. safety analysis. Evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the operation of a facility or the conduct of an activity. The formal safety analysis is part of the overall safety assessment; i.e. it is part of the systematic process that is carried out throughout the design process (and throughout the lifetime of the facility or the activity) to ensure that all the relevant safety requirements are met by the proposed (or actual) design. Safety analysis is often used interchangeably with safety assessment. However, when the distinction is important, safety analysis should be used as a documented process for the study of safety, and safety assessment should be used as a documented process for the evaluation of safety for example, evaluation of the magnitude of hazards, evaluation of the performance of safety measures and judgement of their adequacy, or quantification of the overall radiological impact or safety of a facility or activity. sensitivity analysis. A quantitative examination of how the behaviour of a system varies with change, usually in the values of the governing parameters. A common approach is parameter variation, in which the variation of results is investigated for changes in the value of one or more input parameters within a 8 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

25 A reasonable range around selected reference or mean values, and perturbation analysis, in which the variations of results with respect to changes in the values of all the input parameters are obtained by applying differential or integral analysis. uncertainty analysis. An analysis to estimate the uncertainties and error bounds of the quantities involved in, and the results from, the solution of a problem. annual dose See dose concepts. annual limit on exposure (ALE) See limit. annual limit on intake (ALI) See limit. annual risk See risk (3). anticipated operational occurrence See plant states (considered in design). anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) For a nuclear reactor, an accident for which the initiating event is an anticipated operational occurrence and in which the system for fast shutdown of the reactor fails to function. applicant Any person or organization applying to a regulatory body for authorization (or approval) to undertake specified activities. Strictly, an applicant would be such from the time at which an application is submitted until the requested authorization is either granted or refused. However, the term is often used a little more loosely than this, in particular in cases where the authorization process is long and complex. approval The granting of consent by a regulatory body. Typically used to represent any form of consent from the regulatory body that does not meet the definition of authorization. However, the usage in the Transport Regulations [2] (see multilateral approval and unilateral approval below the term approval is not separately defined) is that approval is essentially synonymous with authorization. multilateral approval. Approval by the relevant competent authority of the country of origin of the design or shipment, as applicable, and also, where the consignment is to be transported through or into any other country, approval by the competent authority of that country. (From Ref. [2].) IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

26 A unilateral approval. An approval of a design that is required to be given by the competent authority of the country of origin of the design only. (From Ref. [2].) area controlled area. A defined area in which specific protection measures and safety provisions are or could be required for controlling exposures or preventing the spread of contamination in normal working conditions, and preventing or limiting the extent of potential exposures. A controlled area is often within a supervised area, but need not be. The term radiation area is sometimes used to describe a similar concept, but controlled area is preferred in IAEA publications. operations area. A geographical area that contains an authorized facility. It is enclosed by a physical barrier (the operations boundary) to prevent unauthorized access, by means of which the management of the authorized facility can exercise direct authority. This applies to larger facilities. [radiation area.] See controlled area. site area. A geographical area that contains an authorized facility, authorized activity or source, and within which the management of the authorized facility or authorized activity or first responders may directly initiate emergency response actions. This is typically the area within the security perimeter fence or other designated property marker. It may also be the controlled area around a radiography source or an inner cordoned off area established by first responders around a suspected hazard. This area is often identical to the operations area, except in situations (e.g. research reactors, irradiation installations) where the authorized facility is on a site where other activities are being carried out beyond the operations area, but where the management of the authorized facility can be given some degree of authority over the whole site area. The term activity is used here in the sense of activity (2). site boundary. The boundary of the site area. supervised area. A defined area not designated as a controlled area but for which occupational exposure conditions are kept under review, even though specific protection measures or safety provisions are not normally needed. See also controlled area. area monitoring See monitoring (1). area survey See survey. 10 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

27 A arrangements (for emergency response) See emergency arrangements. arrangements (for operations) The integrated set of infrastructural elements necessary to provide the capability for performing a specified function or task required to carry out a specified operation. The infrastructural elements may include authorities and responsibilities, organization, coordination, personnel, plans, procedures, facilities, equipment or training. assessment 1. The process, and the result, of analysing systematically and evaluating the hazards associated with facilities and activities, and associated protection and safety measures. Assessment is often aimed at quantifying performance measures for comparison with criteria. In IAEA publications, assessment should be distinguished from analysis. Assessment is aimed at providing information that forms the basis of a decision on whether or not something is satisfactory. Various kinds of analysis may be used as tools in doing this. Hence an assessment may include a number of analyses. consequence assessment. Assessment of the radiological consequences (e.g. doses, activity concentrations) of normal operation and possible accidents associated with an authorized facility or part thereof.! Care should be taken in discussing consequences in this context to distinguish between radiological consequences of events causing exposure, such as doses, and health consequences, such as cancers, that could result from doses. Consequences of the former type generally imply a probability of experiencing consequences of the latter type. See also end point. This differs from risk assessment in that probabilities are not included in the assessment. dose assessment. Assessment of the dose(s) to an individual or group of people. For example, assessment of the dose received or committed by an individual on the basis of results from workplace monitoring or bioassay. The term exposure assessment is also sometimes used. exposure assessment. See assessment (1): dose assessment. hazard assessment. Assessment of hazards associated with facilities, activities or sources within or beyond the borders of a State in order to identify: (a) (b) those events and the associated areas for which protective actions and other emergency response actions may be required within the State; actions that would be effective in mitigating the consequences of such events. performance assessment. Assessment of the performance of a system or subsystem and its implications for protection and safety at an authorized facility. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

28 A This differs from safety assessment in that it can be applied to parts of an authorized facility (and its surroundings), and does not necessarily require the assessment of radiological impacts. radiological environmental impact assessment. Assessment of the expected radiological impacts of facilities and activities on the environment for the purposes of protection of the public and protection of the environment against radiation risks. risk assessment. Assessment of the radiation risks and other risks associated with normal operation and possible accidents involving facilities and activities. This will normally include consequence assessment, together with some assessment of the probability of those consequences arising. safety assessment 1. Assessment of all aspects of facilities and activities that are relevant to protection and safety; for an authorized facility, this includes siting, design and operation of the facility. This will normally include risk assessment. See also probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). 2. Analysis to predict the performance of an overall system and its impact, where the performance measure is the radiological impact or some other global measure of the impact on safety. 3. The systematic process that is carried out throughout the design process (and throughout the lifetime of the facility or the activity) to ensure that all the relevant safety requirements are met by the proposed (or actual) design. Safety assessment includes, but is not limited to, the formal safety analysis; i.e. it includes the evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the operation of a facility or the conduct of an activity. Stages in the lifetime of a facility or activity at which a safety assessment is carried out and updated and the results used by the designers, the operating organization and the regulatory body include: (a) Site evaluation for the facility or activity; (b) Development of the design; (c) Construction of the facility or implementation of the activity; (d) Commissioning of the facility or of the activity; (e) Commencement of operation of the facility or conduct of the activity; (f) Normal operation of the facility or normal conduct of the activity; (g) Modification of the design or operation; (h) Periodic safety reviews; (i) Life extension of the facility beyond its original design life; (j) Changes in ownership or management of the facility; (k) Decommissioning and dismantling of a facility; (l) Closure of a disposal facility for radioactive waste and the post-closure phase; (m) Remediation of a site and release from regulatory control. See Ref. [9]. 12 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

29 A 2. Activities carried out to determine whether requirements are met and processes are adequate and effective, and to encourage managers to implement improvements, including safety improvements. This usage originated in quality assurance and related fields.! The IAEA revised the requirements and guidance in the subject area of quality assurance for safety standards on management systems for the safety of facilities and activities involving the use of ionizing radiation. The terms quality management and management system have been adopted in the revised standards in place of the terms quality assurance and quality assurance programme. Assessment activities may include reviewing, checking, inspecting, testing, surveillance, auditing, peer evaluation and technical review. These activities can be divided into two broad categories: independent assessment and self-assessment. independent assessment. Assessments such as audits or surveillance carried out to determine the extent to which the requirements for the management system are fulfilled, to evaluate the effectiveness of the management system and to identify opportunities for improvement. They can be conducted by or on behalf of the organization itself for internal purposes, by interested parties such as customers and regulators (or by other persons on their behalf), or by external independent organizations. This definition applies in management systems and related fields. Persons conducting independent assessments do not participate directly in the work being assessed. Independent assessment activities include internal and external audit, surveillance, peer evaluation and technical review, which are focused on safety aspects and areas where problems have been found. An audit is used in the sense of a documented activity performed to determine by investigation, examination and evaluation of objective evidence the adequacy of, and adherence to, established procedures, instructions, specifications, codes, standards, administrative or operational programmes and other applicable documents, and the effectiveness of their implementation. self-assessment. A routine and continuing process conducted by senior management and also by management at other levels to evaluate the effectiveness of performance in all areas of their responsibility. This definition applies in management systems and related fields. Self-assessment activities include review, surveillance and discrete checks, which are focused on preventing, or identifying and correcting, management problems that hinder the achievement of the organization s objectives, in particular safety objectives. Self-assessment provides an overall view of the performance of the organization and the degree of maturity of the management system. It also helps to identify areas for improvement in the organization, to determine priorities, and to set a baseline for further improvement. See management system review: senior management. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

30 A assisted operation An operation undertaken by a State or group of States to which assistance is provided by or through the IAEA in the form of materials, services, equipment, facilities or information pursuant to an agreement between the IAEA and that State or group of States. The word operation is used here in its usual sense. atmospheric dispersion See dispersion. attenuation The reduction in intensity of radiation passing through matter due to processes such as absorption and scattering. By analogy, also used in other situations in which some radiological property, characteristic or parameter is gradually reduced in the course of passing through a medium (e.g. the reduction in activity concentration in groundwater passing through the geosphere due to processes such as sorption). attributable risk See risk (3). audit See assessment (2): independent assessment. authorization The granting by a regulatory body or other governmental body of written permission for a person or organization (the operator) to conduct specified activities. Authorization could include, for example, licensing (issuing a licence), certification (issuing a certificate) or registration. The term authorization is also sometimes used to describe the document granting such permission. Authorization is generally a more formal process than approval. Approval is typically used to represent any form of consent from the regulatory body that does not meet the definition of authorization. However, the usage in the Transport Regulations [2] is that approval is essentially synonymous with authorization. See approval: multilateral approval and unilateral approval. authorized activity See facilities and activities. authorized discharge See discharge (1). 14 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

31 A authorized facility See facilities and activities. authorized limit See limit. authorized party The person or organization (the operator) responsible for an authorized facility or an authorized activity that gives rise to radiation risks who has been granted written permission (i.e. authorized) by a regulatory body or other governmental body to conduct specified activities. The authorized party for an authorized facility or an authorized activity is usually the operating organization or the registrant or licensee (although forms of authorization other than registration or licensing may apply). [10] authorized termination of responsibility The release by the regulatory body of an operator (or a former operator) from any further regulatory responsibilities in relation to an authorized facility or authorized activity. This may be a separate process from termination of an authorization; e.g. termination of the responsibility to maintain active institutional control over a disposal facility or termination of the authorization for decommissioning. authorized transfer The transfer of regulatory responsibility for specified radioactive material from one operator to another.! This does not necessarily involve any movement of the material itself. authorized use See use. availability The ability of an item or a system to be in a state to perform a required function under given conditions at a given instant of time or over a given time interval, given that the necessary external resources are provided [11]. The definition was previously The fraction of time for which a system is capable of fulfilling its intended purpose. Reliability represents essentially the same information, but in a different form. averted dose See dose concepts. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

32 B backfill B Material used to refill excavated portions of a disposal facility after waste has been emplaced. background The dose or dose rate (or an observed measure related to the dose or dose rate) attributable to all sources other than the one(s) specified. Strictly, this applies to measurements of dose rate or count rate from a sample, where the background dose rate or count rate must be subtracted from all measurements. However, background is used more generally, in any situation in which a particular source (or group of sources) is under consideration, to refer to the effects of other sources. It is also applied to quantities other than doses or dose rates, such as activity concentrations in environmental media. barrier natural background. The doses, dose rates or activity concentrations associated with natural sources or any other sources in the environment that are not amenable to control. This is normally considered to include doses, dose rates or activity concentrations associated with natural sources, global fallout (but not local fallout) from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident. A physical obstruction that prevents or inhibits the movement of people, radionuclides or some other phenomenon (e.g. fire), or provides shielding against radiation. See also cladding (material), containment, defence in depth. intrusion barrier. Components of a disposal facility designed to prevent inadvertent access to the waste by people, animals or plants. multiple barriers. Two or more natural or engineered barriers used to isolate radioactive waste in, and to prevent or to inhibit migration of radionuclides from, a disposal facility.! The term chemical barrier is sometimes used in the context of waste disposal to describe the chemical effect of a material that enhances the extent to which radionuclides react chemically with the material or with the host rock, thus inhibiting the migration of the radionuclides. This is not strictly a barrier as defined above (unless the material also constitutes a physical barrier), but the effect may be equivalent to that of a barrier, and it may therefore be convenient to regard it as such. multiple safety functions. In the context of the fulfilment of multiple safety functions by a disposal system, the containment and isolation of waste (the confinement function) is fulfilled by two or more natural or engineered barriers of the disposal facility, by means of diverse physical and chemical properties or processes, together with operational controls. 16 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

33 B Bayesian statistics Bayesian statistics provide a means for probabilistic inference that depends on the specification of prior distributions for all unknown parameters, followed by an application of Bayes theorem to incorporate the extra information included in the data. Bayesian statistics can be used in volcanology, for example, as a method to help constrain the results and uncertainty estimates of statistical and numerical modelling, by taking advantage of as much data and relevant information as are available. In contrast, frequentist statistics rely on patterns of past events to model the likelihood that an event will occur in the future. Bayesian methods can incorporate more geological information into an estimate of probability of occurrence than is possible with a frequentist approach. becquerel (Bq) The SI unit of activity, equal to one (transformation) per second. Supersedes the non-si unit curie (Ci). 1 Bq = 27 pci ( Ci) approximately. 1 Ci = Bq. beyond design basis accident See plant states (considered in design). bioassay Any procedure used to determine the nature, activity, location or retention of radionuclides in the body by direct (in vivo) measurement or by in vitro analysis of material excreted or otherwise removed from the body. Sometimes referred to as radio-bioassay. biological half-life See half-life (2). biosphere That part of the environment normally inhabited by living organisms. In practice, the biosphere is not usually defined with great precision, but is generally taken to include the atmosphere and the Earth s surface, including the soil and surface water bodies, seas and oceans and their sediments. There is no generally accepted definition of the depth below the surface at which soil or sediment ceases to be part of the biosphere, but this might typically be taken to be the depth affected by basic human activities, in particular, farming. In the safety of radioactive waste management, in particular, the biosphere is normally distinguished from the geosphere. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

34 B buffer Any substance placed around a waste package in a disposal facility to serve as a barrier to restrict the access of groundwater to the waste package and to reduce by sorption and precipitation the rate of eventual migration of radionuclides from the waste. The above definition is clearly specific to the safety of radioactive waste management. The term buffer (e.g. in buffer solution) is also used, in its usual scientific sense (and therefore usually without specific definition), in a variety of contexts. burnable absorber Neutron absorbing material, used to manage reactivity, with the particular capability of being depleted by neutron absorption. A burnable absorber is used to manage reactivity by flattening the radial neutron flux within a reactor and to compensate for the depletion of fissile material due to operation of the reactor, thereby improving the utilization of the fuel. burnable poison See burnable absorber and poison. bypass 1. A device to inhibit, deliberately but temporarily, the functioning of a circuit or system by, for example, short circuiting the contacts of a relay. maintenance bypass. A bypass of safety system equipment during maintenance, testing or repair. operational bypass. A bypass of certain protective actions when they are not necessary in a particular mode of plant operation.! An operational bypass may be used when the protective action prevents, or might prevent, reliable operation in the required mode. 2. A route that allows fission products released from a reactor core to enter the environment without passing through the containment or other enclosure designed to confine and reduce a radioactive release in the event of an emergency. This route may be established intentionally by the operator or as a result of the event. 18 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

35 C calibration C A set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, or values represented by a material measure or a reference material, and the corresponding values realized by measurement standards [11]. The previous entry was A measurement of, or adjustment to, an instrument, component or system to ensure that its accuracy or response is acceptable. A calibration may be expressed by a statement, calibration function, calibration diagram, calibration curve, or calibration table. In some cases, it may consist of an additive or multiplicative correction of the indication with associated measurement uncertainty. Calibration should not be confused with adjustment of a measuring system, often mistakenly called self-calibration, or with verification of calibration. calibration of a dosemeter. The process by which a dosemeter is characterized with a calibration factor. The calibration factor is the quotient of the conventionally true value of the measured quantity and the indicated value of the dosemeter under reference conditions. If the dosemeter is used under reference conditions, the value of the measured quantity is the product of the indicated value and the calibration factor. If the dosemeter is used under non-reference conditions, the value of the measured quantity is the product of the indicated value, the calibration factor and additional correction factor(s). model calibration. The process whereby predictions by a model are compared with field observations and/or experimental measurements from the system being modelled, and the model is adjusted for bias if necessary to achieve a best fit to the measured and/or observed data. canister, waste! This usage of the term is not universally accepted. The terms model validation and model verification are more commonly used to describe related processes in relation to models. bias. A measure of the systematic error between an actual or true value and a prediction by a model or a measured mean value. The bias of a model represents the tendency of a model to overpredict or to underpredict. See container, waste. capable fault See fault, geological. capable volcano See volcano, capable. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

36 C carers and comforters Persons who willingly and voluntarily help (other than in their occupation) in the care, support and comfort of patients undergoing radiological procedures for medical diagnosis or medical treatment. cargo aircraft See aircraft. carrier Any person, organization or government undertaking the carriage of radioactive material by any means of transport. cause The term includes both carriers for hire or reward (known as common or contract carriers in some countries) and carriers on own account (known as private carriers in some countries). (From Ref. [2].) certificate direct cause. The latent weakness (and the reasons for the latent weakness) that allows or causes the observed cause of an initiating event to happen, including the reasons for the latent weakness. Corrective actions designed to address direct causes are sometimes termed repairs. latent weakness. An undetected degradation in an element of a safety layer. Such a degradation could lead to that element failing to perform as expected if it were called upon to perform a function. observed cause. The failure, action, omission or condition that directly leads to an initiating event. root cause. The fundamental cause of an initiating event, correction of which will prevent recurrence of the initiating event (i.e. the root cause is the failure to detect and correct the relevant latent weakness(es) and the reasons for that failure). Corrective actions designed to address root causes are sometimes termed remedies. A legal document issued by the regulatory body stating the applicable conditions to be met for certification and certifying compliance with regulatory requirements if the conditions are met. Certificates are required for some package types [2]. certification See certificate. 20 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

37 C channel An arrangement of interconnected components within a system that initiates a single output. A channel loses its identity where single output signals are combined with signals from other channels (e.g. from a monitoring channel or a safety actuation channel). The above definition is specific to a particular area of nuclear safety. The term channel is also used in its usual senses (and therefore usually without specific definition) in a variety of contexts. characterization 1. Determination of the nature and activity of radionuclides present in a specified place. For example, characterization is the determination of the radionuclides present in a bioassay sample or in an area contaminated with radioactive material (e.g. as a first step in planning remediation). For the latter example, care should be taken to avoid confusion with the existing, and different, definition of the term site characterization. 2. Determination of the character of something. This is the standard dictionary definition, and would not need to be included in an individual glossary. It is included here only to distinguish the usual usage from the more restricted usage indicated in (1). characterization of waste. Determination of the physical, mechanical, chemical, radiological and biological properties of radioactive waste to establish the need for further adjustment, treatment or conditioning, or its suitability for further handling, processing, storage or disposal. Characterization of waste, in accordance with requirements established or approved by the regulatory body, is a process in the predisposal management of waste that at various steps provides information relevant to process control and provides assurance that the waste form or waste package will meet the waste acceptance criteria for the processing, storage, transport and disposal of the waste. site characterization (of the site for a disposal facility). Detailed surface and subsurface investigations and activities at a site to determine the radiological conditions at the site or to evaluate candidate disposal sites to obtain information to determine the suitability of the site for a disposal facility and to evaluate the long term performance of a disposal facility at the site. chemisorption See sorption. Site characterization is a stage in the siting of a disposal facility; it follows area survey and precedes site confirmation for a disposal facility. Site characterization may also refer to the siting process for any other authorized facility. See also site evaluation, which includes site characterization and is not specific to a disposal facility site, and area survey. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

38 C child In dosimetry (e.g. in tables of dose per unit intake values), a child is often assumed to be a 10 year old. If such an assumption is made, it should be clearly stated. See also infant and reference individual. chronic intake See intake (2). cladding 1. An external layer of material applied directly to another material to provide protection in chemically reactive conditions (e.g. cladding over ferritic material to prevent corrosion). 2. Typically, the tube of material that houses nuclear fuel pellets and provides the containment (means of confinement) of radionuclides produced during fission. Cladding may also provide structural support. The cladding tube, together with the end cups or plugs, also typically provides structural support. cleanup See remediation. clearance 1. Removal of regulatory control by the regulatory body from radioactive material or radioactive objects within notified or authorized facilities and activities. Removal from regulatory control in this context refers to regulatory control applied for radiation protection purposes. Conceptually, clearance freeing certain materials or objects in authorized facilities and activities from further control is closely linked to, but distinct from and not to be confused with, exemption determining that controls do not need to be applied to certain sources and facilities and activities. Various terms (e.g. free release ) are used in different States to describe this concept. A number of issues relating to the concept of clearance and its relationship to other concepts were resolved in Ref. [12]. 2. The net effect of the biological processes by which radionuclides are removed from a tissue, organ or area of the body. The clearance rate is the rate at which these biological processes occur. clearance level See level. clearance rate See clearance (2). 22 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

39 C cliff edge effect An instance of severely abnormal conditions caused by an abrupt transition from one status of a facility to another following a small deviation in a parameter or a small variation in an input value. In a nuclear power plant, a cliff edge effect is an instance of severely abnormal plant behaviour caused by an abrupt transition from one plant status to another following a small deviation in a plant parameter; and thus a sudden large variation in plant conditions in response to a small variation in an input. closure 6 1. Administrative and technical actions directed at a disposal facility at the end of its operating lifetime e.g. covering of the disposed waste (for a near surface disposal facility) or backfilling and/or sealing (for a geological disposal facility and the passages leading to it) and the termination and completion of activities in any associated structures. For other types of facilities, the term decommissioning is used. The terms siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning are normally used to delineate the six major stages of the lifetime of an authorized facility and of the associated licensing process. In the special case of disposal facilities for radioactive waste, decommissioning is replaced in this sequence by closure. 2. [The completion of all operations at some time after the emplacement of spent fuel or radioactive waste in a disposal facility. This includes the final engineering or other work required to bring the facility to a condition that will be safe in the long term.] (From Ref. [5].) cloud shine Gamma radiation from radionuclides in an airborne plume. See ground shine. sky shine. Radiation emitted upwards and deflected by the air back down to the ground. The presence of sky shine could result in an increase in neutron flux rates further away from the facility. Sky shine can be an important consideration in health physics for high energy experimental accelerator facilities as well as installations with medical linear accelerators for radiation therapy, in relation to the evaluation of shielding designs and to environmental monitoring. coincidence (as a feature of design) A feature of protection system design such that two or more overlapping or simultaneous output signals from several channels are necessary in order to produce a protective action signal by the logic. 6 The terms siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning are normally used to delineate the six major stages of the lifetime of an authorized facility and of the associated licensing process. In the special case of disposal facilities for radioactive waste, decommissioning is replaced in this sequence by closure. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

40 C collective dose See dose concepts. commissioning 6 The process by means of which systems and components of facilities and activities, having been constructed, are made operational and verified to be in accordance with the design and to have met the required performance criteria. Commissioning may include both non-nuclear and/or non-radioactive and nuclear and/or radioactive testing. committed dose 1. See dose concepts. 2. See dose (2). committed effective dose See dose quantities. committed equivalent dose See dose quantities. common cause failure See failure. common mode failure See failure. competent authority Any body or authority designated or otherwise recognized as such for any purpose in connection with the [Transport] Regulations. (From Ref. [2].)! This term is used only with reference to the Transport Regulations [2] for consistency with terminology used in the wider field of regulation of the transport of dangerous goods. Otherwise, the more general term regulatory body should be used, with which competent authority is essentially synonymous. compliance assurance A systematic programme of measures applied by a regulatory body that is aimed at ensuring that the provisions of regulations are met in practice. Compliance assurance is a systematic programme of measures applied by a competent authority that is aimed at ensuring that the provisions of the [Transport] Regulations are met in practice. (From Ref. [2].) The term may be used in a variety of contexts with essentially the same meaning, but often without explicit definition. 24 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

41 C component One of the parts that make up a system. A component may be a hardware component (e.g. wires, transistors, integrated circuits, motors, relays, solenoids, pipes, fittings, pumps, tanks and valves) or a software component (e.g. modules, routines, programmes, software functions). A component may be made up of other components. See also active component, passive component, structures, systems and components and core components. computational model See model. computer system validation See validation (1). computer system verification See verification (1). concept of operations See emergency plan. conceptual model See model. condition based maintenance See maintenance: predictive maintenance. condition indicator See indicator. condition monitoring See monitoring (2). conditional probability value (CPV) The upper bound for the conditional probability that a particular type of event will cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The term is used in the detailed event screening process for site evaluation. conditional risk See risk (3). IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

42 C conditioning See waste management, radioactive (1). configuration management The process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility s structures, systems and components (including computer systems and software), and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. Configuration is used in the sense of the physical, functional and operational characteristics of the structures, systems and components and parts of a facility. confinement Prevention or control of releases of radioactive material to the environment in operation or in accidents. Confinement is closely related in meaning to containment, but confinement is typically used to refer to the safety function of preventing the escape of radioactive material, whereas containment refers to the means for achieving that function.! The Transport Regulations adopt a different distinction between confinement and containment, namely that confinement relates to preventing criticality and containment to preventing releases of radioactive material (see confinement system and containment system). The main issue here is the differences in usage between the safety of nuclear installations and safety in the transport of radioactive material. Both terms, containment and confinement, are used in both areas (in the Transport Regulations, in the form of confinement system and containment system), and the usages of containment are (it seems) conceptually consistent, but the usages of confinement are not. Confinement in nuclear safety is the safety function that is performed by the containment. confinement system The assembly of fissile material and packaging components specified by the designer and agreed to by the competent authority as intended to preserve criticality safety. (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations. See confinement for more general usage. A confinement system as defined in the Transport Regulations has the primary function of controlling criticality (as compared with the containment system, the function of which is to prevent leakage of radioactive material). Discussions with experts in the field confirmed that a distinct term is needed to describe this distinct concept, and that confinement is the term that has become established, but have failed to reveal any compelling reasons for the choice of that particular word. consequence assessment See assessment (1). 26 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

43 C consignee Any person, organization or government that is entitled to take delivery of a consignment. (From Ref. [2].) consignment Any package or packages, or load of radioactive material, presented by a consignor for transport. (From Ref. [2].) consignor Any person, organization or government that prepares a consignment for transport. (From Ref. [2].) constraint A prospective and source related value of individual dose (see dose constraint) or of individual risk (see risk constraint) that is used in planned exposure situations as a parameter for the optimization of protection and safety for the source, and that serves as a boundary in defining the range of options in optimization. construction 6 The process of manufacturing and assembling the components of a facility, the carrying out of civil works, the installation of components and equipment and the performance of associated tests. consumer product A device or manufactured item into which radionuclides have deliberately been incorporated or produced by activation, or which generates ionizing radiation, and which can be sold or made available to members of the public without special surveillance or regulatory control after sale. Consumer products include items such as smoke detectors and luminous dials into which radionuclides have deliberately been incorporated and ion generating tubes. It does not include building materials, ceramic tiles, spa waters, minerals and foodstuffs and it excludes products and appliances installed in public places (e.g. exit signs). container, waste The vessel into which the waste form is placed for handling, transport, storage and/or eventual disposal; also the outer barrier protecting the waste from external intrusions. The waste container is a component of the waste package. For example, molten high level waste glass would be poured into a specially designed container (canister), where it would cool and solidify.! Note that the term waste canister is considered to be a specific term for a container for spent fuel or vitrified high level waste. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

44 C containment Methods or physical structures designed to prevent or control the release and the dispersion of radioactive substances. Although related to confinement, containment is usually used to refer to methods or structures that perform a confinement function in facilities and activities, namely preventing or controlling the release of radioactive substances and their dispersion in the environment. See confinement for a more extensive discussion. In the context of waste disposal, the containment of the radionuclides associated with the waste is through the provision of engineered barriers and natural barriers, including the waste form and packaging, backfill materials, the host environment and geological formations, for confinement of the radionuclides within the waste matrix, the packaging and the disposal facility and thus its isolation from the environment. containment system 1. A structurally closed physical barrier (especially in a nuclear installation) designed to prevent or control the release and the dispersion of radioactive substances, and its associated systems. 2. The assembly of components of the packaging specified by the designer as intended to retain the radioactive material during transport. (From Ref. [2].) Containment system is consistent with the general safety usage of containment, unlike confinement system and confinement. contamination 1. Radioactive substances on surfaces, or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable, or the process giving rise to their presence in such places. Also used less formally to refer to a quantity, namely the activity on a surface (or on a unit area of a surface). Contamination does not include residual radioactive material remaining at a site after the completion of decommissioning.! The term contamination may have a connotation that is not intended. The term contamination refers only to the presence of radioactivity, and gives no indication of the magnitude of the hazard involved. 2. The presence of a radioactive substance on a surface in quantities in excess of 0.4 Bq/cm 2 for beta and gamma emitters and low toxicity alpha emitters, or 0.04 Bq/cm 2 for all other alpha emitters. (From Ref. [2].) This is a regulatory definition of contamination, specific to the Transport Regulations. Levels below 0.4 Bq/cm 2 or 0.04 Bq/cm 2 would still be considered contamination according to the scientific definition (1). fixed contamination. Contamination other than non-fixed contamination. (From Ref. [2].) 28 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

45 C non-fixed contamination. Contamination that can be removed from a surface during routine conditions of transport. (From Ref. [2].) Also termed removable contamination. contamination zone A zone in which special protective actions are necessary, owing to actual or potential air contamination or loose surface contamination in excess of a specified level. control 1. The function or power or (usually as controls) means of directing, regulating or restraining. It should be noted that the usual meaning of the English word control in safety related contexts is somewhat stronger (i.e. more active) than that of its usual translations and other similar words in some other languages. For example, control typically implies not only checking or monitoring something but also ensuring that corrective or enforcement measures are taken if the results of the checking or monitoring indicate such a need. This is in contrast, for example, to the more limited usage of the equivalent word in French and Spanish. institutional control. Control of a radioactive waste site by an authority or institution designated under the laws of a State. This control may be active (monitoring, surveillance, remedial work) or passive (land use control) and may be a factor in the design of a facility (e.g. a near surface disposal facility). Most commonly used to describe controls over a disposal facility after closure or a facility undergoing decommissioning. Also refers to the controls placed on a site that has been released from regulatory control under the condition of observing specified restrictions on its future use to ensure that these restrictions are complied with. The term institutional control is more general than regulatory control (i.e. regulatory control may be thought of as a special form of institutional control). Institutional control measures may be passive, they may be imposed for reasons not related to protection or safety (although they may nevertheless have some impact on protection and safety), they may be applied by organizations that do not meet the definition of a regulatory body, and they may apply in situations which do not fall within the scope of facilities and activities. As a result, some form of institutional control may be considered more likely to endure further into the future than regulatory control. regulatory control. [Any form of control or regulation applied to facilities or activities by a regulatory body for reasons relating to radiation protection or to the safety or security of radioactive sources.] (From Ref. [13].)! This definition is particular to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources [13]. See also institutional control. In the Nuclear Security Series, the phrase out of regulatory control is used for a situation in which nuclear material or other radioactive material is present IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

46 C without an appropriate authorization, either because controls have failed for some reason, or because they never existed. 2. A standard of comparison used to check the inferences deduced from an experiment. In protection and safety, a control is most commonly a sample or a group of people that has not been exposed to radiation from a particular source; the occurrence of particular effects in a sample or group of people that has been exposed is compared with that in the control to provide some indication of the effects that may be attributable to the exposure. For example, a case control study is a common type of epidemiological study in which the incidence of health effects (the cases ) in a population that has been exposed to radiation from a particular source is compared with the incidence in a similar population (the control ) that has not been exposed, to investigate whether exposure due to that source may be causing health effects. controlled area See area. conveyance (a) For transport by road or rail: any vehicle; (b) For transport by water: any vessel, or any hold, compartment, or defined deck area of a vessel; (c) For transport by air: any aircraft. (From Ref. [2].) core components The elements of a reactor core, other than fuel assemblies, that are used to provide structural support of the core construction, or the tools, devices or other items that are inserted into the reactor core for core monitoring, flow control or other technological purposes and are treated as core elements. Examples of core components are reactivity control devices or shutdown devices, neutron sources, dummy fuel, fuel channels, instrumentation, flow restrictors and burnable absorbers. corrective maintenance See maintenance. cost benefit analysis See analysis. countermeasure An action aimed at alleviating the radiological consequences of an accident. Countermeasures are forms of intervention They may be protective actions or remedial actions, and these more specific terms should be used where possible. 30 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

47 C agricultural countermeasure. Action taken to reduce contamination of food, agricultural or forestry products before they reach consumers. Note that restrictions on the sale, movement or use of contaminated food, agricultural or forestry products (i.e. measures to prevent their reaching consumers) are countermeasures, but are not considered to be agricultural countermeasures. cradle to grave approach An approach in which all the stages in the lifetime of a facility, activity or product are taken into consideration. For example, the cradle to grave approach to the safety and security of radioactive sources. See ageing management. See life cycle management. critical (adjective)! In view of the number of special meanings attached to this word, particular care should be taken when using the adjective critical in its more common English senses (i.e. to mean extremely important, or as a derivative of the verb criticize ). 1. Having a reactivity of zero. Also used, more loosely, when the reactivity is greater than zero. See criticality. 2. Relating to the highest doses or risks attributable to a specified source. As in, for example, critical exposure pathway or critical radionuclide. 3. Capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction. As in, for example, critical mass. critical assembly An assembly containing fissile material intended to sustain a controlled fission chain reaction at a low power level, used to investigate reactor core geometry and composition. A critical assembly as a device that is designed and used to sustain nuclear reactions may be subject to frequent changes to the configuration of the reactor core and the lattice, and may frequently be used as a mock-up of a configuration of a reactor core. [critical group] [A group of members of the public which is reasonably homogeneous with respect to its exposure for a given radiation source and is typical of individuals receiving the highest effective dose or equivalent dose (as applicable) from the given source.] See representative person. [hypothetical critical group]. A hypothetical group of individuals which is reasonably homogeneous with respect to the risk to which its members are subject from a given IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

48 C radiation source, and is representative of the individuals likely to be most at risk from the given source. critical level See minimum significant activity (MSA). criticality The state of a nuclear chain reacting medium when the chain reaction is just self-sustaining (or critical), i.e. when the reactivity is zero. Often used, slightly more loosely, to refer to states in which the reactivity is greater than zero. criticality accident See accident. criticality safety index (CSI) A number assigned to a package, overpack or freight container containing fissile material that is used to provide control over the accumulation of packages, overpacks or freight containers containing fissile material. (From Ref. [2].) The procedure for calculating the criticality safety index and the restrictions on the total sum of the criticality safety index in a freight container or aboard a conveyance are prescribed in Sections V and VI of the Transport Regulations [2]. crust, Earth s The outermost solid layer of the Earth. The Earth s crust represents less than 1% of the Earth s volume and varies in thickness from approximately 6 km beneath the oceans to approximately 60 km beneath mountain chains. [curie (Ci)] Unit of activity, equal to Bq (exactly). Superseded by the becquerel (Bq). Activity values may be given in Ci (with the equivalent in Bq in parentheses) if they are being quoted from a reference which uses that unit. Originally, the activity of a gram of radium. 32 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

49 D D dangerous source See source (2). [de minimis]! The appropriate terminology of exemption, clearance, etc., should be used in IAEA publications. A general term used historically to describe concepts that would now be referred to by terms such as exemption or clearance. The term is also sometimes used to describe a related (and controversial) philosophy that assessments of collective dose should exclude that portion delivered at very low individual dose rates. The term de minimis is still used in some specific contexts, such as the London Convention 1972 [14]. Derived from the Latin maxim de minimis non curat lex (the law does not concern itself with trivia). decay constant, For a radionuclide in a particular energy state, the quotient of dp by dt, where dp is the likelihood for of a single nucleus of undergoing a spontaneous nuclear transition from that energy state in the time interval dt. dp 1 dn λ dt N dt A N where N is the number of nuclei of concern existing at time t and A is the activity. The decay constant is a constant of proportionality describing the likelihood that a single nucleus will undergo a spontaneous nuclear transition from a higher energy state to a lower energy state within a differential time period. It also corresponds to: N / N λ lim t 0 t Unit: reciprocal second (s 1 ). 1 dn N dt A N The activity is the decay constant multiplied by the number of nuclei of the radionuclide present. The decay constant is related to the radioactive half-life, T ½, of the radionuclide by the expression: decision limit ln2 λ T 1 2 See minimum significant activity (MSA). IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

50 D decommissioning 6 1. Administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of the regulatory controls from a facility.! This does not apply for that part of a disposal facility in which radioactive waste is emplaced, or for certain facilities used for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) or of residues from the mining and processing of radioactive ores. For all of these the term closure is used instead of decommissioning.! Decommissioning typically includes dismantling of the facility (or part thereof) to reduce the associated radiation risks, but in the IAEA s usage this need not be the case. A facility could, for example, be decommissioned without dismantling and the existing structures subsequently put to another use (after decontamination). The use of the term decommissioning implies that no further use of the facility (or part thereof) for its existing purpose is foreseen. Actions for decommissioning are taken at the end of the operating lifetime of a facility to retire it from service with due regard for the health and safety of workers and members of the public and protection of the environment. Subject to national legal and regulatory requirements, a facility (or its remaining parts) may also be considered decommissioned if it is incorporated into a new or existing facility, or even if the site on which it is located is still under regulatory control or institutional control. The actions will need to be such as to ensure the long term protection of the public and protection of the environment, and typically include reducing the levels of residual radionuclides in the materials and on the site of the facility so that the materials can be safely recycled, reused or disposed of as exempt waste or as radioactive waste and the site can be released for unrestricted use or otherwise reused. For a disposal facility, the corresponding term is closure. 2. [All steps leading to the release of a nuclear facility, other than a disposal facility, from regulatory control. These steps include the processes of decontamination and dismantling.] (From Ref. [5].) decommissioning plan. A document containing detailed information on the proposed decommissioning of a facility. The approved decommissioning plan describes the actions (including decontamination and/or the removal of structures, systems and components) to be taken in carrying out procedures, processes and work activities for the purposes of decommissioning. The decommissioning plan is considered to have been fulfilled when the approved end state of the facility has been reached. dismantling. The taking apart, disassembling and tearing down of the structures, systems and components of a facility for the purposes of decommissioning. The two main types of dismantling are immediate dismantling and deferred dismantling. immediate dismantling begins shortly after permanent shutdown. Equipment and the structures, systems and components of a facility containing radioactive material are removed and/or are decontaminated to a level that permits the removal of regulatory 34 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

51 D control from the facility and its release, either for unrestricted use or with restrictions on its future use. deferred dismantling is deferred after permanent shutdown. For a nuclear installation, the nuclear fuel is first removed. Part or all of a facility containing radioactive material is either processed or put in such a condition that it can be put into storage. The facility is maintained until it can subsequently be decontaminated and/or dismantled. Deferred dismantling can involve the early dismantling of some parts of the facility and the early processing of some radioactive material and its removal from the facility, as preparatory steps for storage of the remaining parts of the facility. entombment. The encasing of part or all of a facility in a structure of long lived material for the purposes of decommissioning. Entombment is not considered an acceptable strategy for decommissioning a facility following planned permanent shutdown. Entombment may be considered acceptable only under exceptional circumstances (e.g. following a severe accident). In this case, the entombment structure is maintained and surveillance is continued until the radioactive inventory decays to a level permitting termination of the licence and unrestricted release of the structure. decontamination The complete or partial removal of contamination by a deliberate physical, chemical or biological process. This definition is intended to include a wide range of processes for removing contamination from people, equipment and buildings, but to exclude the removal of radionuclides from within the human body or the removal of radionuclides by natural weathering or migration processes, which are not considered to be decontamination. See remediation. decontamination factor The ratio of the activity per unit area (or per unit mass or volume) before a particular decontamination technique is applied to the activity per unit area (or per unit mass or volume) after application of the technique. This ratio may be specified for a particular radionuclide or for gross activity. The background activity may be first deducted from the activity per unit area both before and after a particular decontamination technique is applied. decorporation The action of the biological processes by means of which incorporated radionuclides are removed from the human body. Decorporation may be promoted by chemical or biological agents. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

52 D deep sea disposal See disposal (3). defence in depth A hierarchical deployment of different levels of diverse equipment and procedures to prevent the escalation of anticipated operational occurrences and to maintain the effectiveness of physical barriers placed between a radiation source or radioactive material and workers, members of the public or the environment, in operational states and, for some barriers, in accident conditions. The objectives of defence in depth are: (a) (b) (c) To compensate for human induced events and component failures; To maintain the effectiveness of the barriers by averting damage to the facility and to the barriers themselves; To protect workers, members of the public and the environment from harm in accident conditions in the event that these barriers are not fully effective. The Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Fundamentals) [15] (para. 3.31) states that Defence in depth is implemented primarily through the combination of a number of consecutive and independent levels of protection that would have to fail before harmful effects could be caused to people or to the environment. If one level of protection or barrier were to fail, the subsequent level or barrier would be available. When properly implemented, defence in depth ensures that no single human induced event, organizational shortcoming or technical failure could lead to harmful effects, and that the combinations of failures that could give rise to significant harmful effects are of very low probability. The independent effectiveness of the different levels of defence is a necessary element of defence in depth. Five levels of defence in depth are discussed in Ref. [16] (See Ref. [16] for further information): (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The purpose of the first level of defence is to prevent deviations from normal operation and the failure of items important to safety. The purpose of the second level of defence is to detect and control deviations from normal operation in order to prevent anticipated operational occurrences from escalating to accident conditions. The purpose of the third level of defence is to prevent damage to the reactor core and releases of radioactive material requiring off-site protective actions and to return the plant to a safe state by means of inherent and/or engineered safety features, safety systems and procedures. The purpose of the fourth level of defence is to prevent the progress of, and to mitigate the consequences of, accidents that result from failure of the third level of defence by preventing accident sequences that lead to large radioactive releases or early radioactive releases from occurring. The purpose of the fifth and final level of defence is to mitigate radiological consequences of a large release or an early release of radioactive material that could potentially result from an accident. early release of radioactive material. A release of radioactive material for which offsite protective actions are necessary but are unlikely to be fully effective in due time. 36 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

53 D large release of radioactive material. A release of radioactive material for which offsite protective actions that are limited in terms of times and areas of application are insufficient for protecting people and the environment. The International Nuclear Safety Group (INSAG) defined five levels of defence in depth (See Ref. [17] for further information): (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Level 1: Prevention of abnormal operation and failures. Level 2: Control of abnormal operation and detection of failures. Level 3: Control of accidents within the design basis. Level 4: Control of severe plant conditions, including prevention of accident progression and mitigation of the consequences of severe accidents. Level 5: Mitigation of radiological consequences of significant releases of radioactive material. The levels of defence are sometimes grouped into three safety layers: hardware, software and management control. In the context of waste disposal, the term multiple barriers is used to describe a similar concept. Note that defence in depth is used with a different meaning in the IAEA Nuclear Security Series in the context of nuclear security. defined deck area The area of the weather deck of a vessel, or of a vehicle deck of a roll-on/roll-off ship or a ferry, that is allocated for the stowage of radioactive material. (From Ref. [2].) dependability A general term describing the overall trustworthiness of a system; i.e. the extent to which reliance can justifiably be placed on this system. Reliability, availability and safety are attributes of dependability. depleted uranium See uranium. derived air concentration (DAC) A derived limit on the activity concentration in air of a specified radionuclide, calculated such that the reference individual, breathing air with constant contamination at the DAC with the breathing behaviour of a reference worker for a working year, would receive an intake corresponding to the annual limit on intake for the radionuclide in question. The parameter values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for calculating DACs are a breathing rate of 1.2 m 3 /h and a working year of 2000 h [18 20]. The breathing behaviour of a reference worker as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection [19]. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

54 D derived limit See limit. design 1. The process and the result of developing a concept, detailed plans, supporting calculations and specifications for a facility and its parts The description of fissile material excepted in the [Transport] Regulations, special form radioactive material, low dispersible radioactive material, package or packaging that enables such an item to be fully identified. The description may include specifications, engineering drawings, reports demonstrating compliance with regulatory requirements, and other relevant documentation. (From Ref. [2].) This is a much more restricted definition than (1), and is specific to the Transport Regulations. design basis The range of conditions and events taken explicitly into account in the design of structures, systems and components and equipment of a facility, according to established criteria, such that the facility can withstand them without exceeding authorized limits. Used as a noun, with the definition above. Also often used as an adjective, applied to specific categories of conditions or events to mean included in the design basis ; as, for example, in design basis accident, design basis external events and design basis earthquake. design basis accident See plant states (considered in design). design basis external events The external event(s) or combination(s) of external events considered in the design basis of all or any part of a facility. design basis probability value (DBPV) A value of the annual probability for a particular type of event to cause unacceptable radiological consequences. It is the ratio between the screening probability level and the conditional probability value. The term is used in the detailed event screening process for site evaluation. design extension conditions See plant states (considered in design). design life See life, lifetime. 38 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

55 D detection limit See minimum detectable activity (MDA). determination level See minimum detectable activity (MDA). deterministic analysis Analysis using, for key parameters, single numerical values (taken to have a probability of 1), leading to a single value for the result. In the safety of nuclear installations, for example, this implies focusing on accident types, releases of radioactive material and consequences, without considering the probabilities of different event sequences. Typically used with either best estimate or conservative values, based on expert judgement and knowledge of the phenomena being modelled. Contrasting terms: probabilistic analysis or stochastic analysis. See probabilistic analysis. deterministic effect See health effects (of radiation). detriment See radiation detriment. deviation A departure from specified requirements. diagnostic exposure See exposure, categories of: medical exposure. diagnostic reference level See level: reference level. diffusion The movement of radionuclides relative to the medium in which they are distributed, under the influence of a concentration gradient. Usually used for the movement of airborne radionuclides (e.g. from discharges or resulting from an accident) relative to the air, and for movement of dissolved radionuclides (e.g. in groundwater or surface water, from migration following waste disposal, or in surface water from discharges) relative to the water. See also advection (where the radionuclide does not move relative to the carrying medium, but moves with it) and dispersion. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

56 D direct cause See cause. direct disposal See disposal (1). directional dose equivalent See dose equivalent quantities. discharge 1. Planned and controlled release of (usually gaseous or liquid) radioactive substances to the environment. Strictly, the act or process of releasing the radioactive substances, but also used to describe the radioactive substances released. authorized discharge. Discharge in accordance with an authorization. radioactive discharges. Radioactive substances arising from sources within facilities and activities which are discharged as gases, aerosols, liquids or solids to the environment, generally with the purpose of dilution and dispersion. 2. [A planned and controlled release to the environment, as a legitimate practice, within limits authorized by the regulatory body, of liquid or gaseous radioactive material that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation.] (From Ref. [5].) dismantling See decommissioning. dispersal The spreading of radioactive material in the environment. In normal language synonymous with dispersion, but tends to be used in a general sense, not implying the involvement of any particular processes or phenomena, e.g. the uncontrolled spreading of material that has escaped from confinement, or as a result of damage to (or the destruction of) a sealed source, special form radioactive material or low dispersible radioactive material. dispersion The spreading of radionuclides in air (aerodynamic dispersion) or water (hydrodynamic dispersion) resulting mainly from physical processes affecting the velocity of different molecules in the medium. Often used in a more general sense combining all processes (including molecular diffusion) that result in the spreading of a plume. The terms atmospheric dispersion and hydrodynamic dispersion are used in this more general sense for plumes in air and water, respectively. 40 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

57 D In usual language synonymous with dispersal, but dispersion is mostly used more specifically as defined above, whereas dispersal is typically (though not universally) used as a more general expression. disposal See also advection and diffusion. 1. Emplacement of waste in an appropriate facility without the intention of retrieval. In some States, the term disposal is used to include discharges of effluents to the environment. In some States, the term disposal is used administratively in such a way as to include, for example, incineration of waste or the transfer of waste between operators.! In IAEA publications, disposal should be used only in accordance with the more restrictive definition given above.! In many cases, the only element of this definition that is important is the distinction between disposal (with no intent to retrieve) and storage (with intent to retrieve). In such cases, a definition is not necessary; the distinction can be made in the form of a footnote at the first use of the term disposal or storage (e.g. The use of the term disposal indicates that there is no intention to retrieve the waste. If retrieval of the waste at any time in the future is intended, the term storage is used. ).! The term disposal implies that retrieval is not intended and would require deliberate action to regain access to the waste; it does not mean that retrieval is not possible. For storage in a combined storage and disposal facility, for which a decision may be made at the time of its closure whether to remove the waste stored during the operation of the storage facility or to dispose of it by encasing it in concrete, the question of intention of retrieval may be left open until the time of closure of the facility. Contrasted with storage. direct disposal. Disposal of spent fuel as waste. geological disposal. Disposal in a geological disposal facility. See also repository. The term intermediate depth disposal is sometimes used for the disposal of low and intermediate level waste, e.g. in boreholes (i.e. between near surface disposal and geological disposal). near surface disposal. Disposal, under an engineered cover, with or without additional engineered barriers, in a near surface disposal facility. sub-seabed disposal. Disposal in a geological disposal facility in the rock underlying the seabed. 2. [The emplacement of spent fuel or radioactive waste in an appropriate facility without the intention of retrieval.] (From Ref. [5].) 3. The act or process of getting rid of waste, without the intention of retrieval. The terms deep sea disposal and seabed disposal do not strictly satisfy definitions (1) or (2), but are consistent with the everyday meaning of disposal and are used as such. deep sea disposal. Disposal of waste packaged in containers on the deep ocean floor. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

58 D! The commonly used, but informal, term sea dumping should not be used in IAEA publications. As practised until 1982 in accordance with the requirements of the London Convention 1972 [14]. seabed disposal. Emplacement of waste packaged in suitable containers at some depth into the sedimentary layers of the deep ocean floor. disposal facility This may be achieved by direct emplacement, or by placing the waste in specially designed penetrators which, when dropped into the sea, embed themselves in the sediment. An engineered facility where waste is emplaced for disposal. Synonymous with repository. disposal system. The system of properties of the site for a disposal facility, design of the disposal facility, physical structures and items, procedures for control, characteristics of waste and other elements that contribute in different ways and over different timescales to the fulfilment of safety functions for disposal. geological disposal facility. A facility for radioactive waste disposal located underground (usually several hundred metres or more below the surface) in a stable geological formation to provide long term isolation of radionuclides from the biosphere. near surface disposal facility. A facility for radioactive waste disposal located at or within a few tens of metres of the Earth s surface. disposal system The practice of disposal of waste in a near surface disposal facility with an engineered cover is also referred to as shallow land burial of waste See disposal facility. disposition Consigning of, or arrangements for the consigning of, radioactive waste for some specified (interim or final) destination, for example for the purpose of processing, disposal or storage. disused source See source (2). diversity The presence of two or more independent (redundant) systems or components to perform an identified function, where the different systems or components have different attributes so as to reduce the possibility of common cause failure, including common mode failure. Examples of such attributes are: different operating conditions, different working principles or different design teams (which provide functional diversity), and different sizes of equipment, different manufacturers, and types of equipment (which provide 42 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

59 D dose diversity of equipment) that use different physical methods (which provide physical diversity). functional diversity. Application of diversity at the level of functions in applications in process engineering (e.g. for the actuation of a trip on both a pressure limit and a temperature limit). 1. A measure of the energy deposited by radiation in a target. For definitions of the most important such measures, see dose quantities and dose concepts. 2. Absorbed dose, committed equivalent dose, committed effective dose, equivalent dose, effective dose or organ dose, as indicated by the context. committed dose. committed equivalent dose or committed effective dose. dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) The ratio between the risk or radiation detriment per unit effective dose for high doses and/or dose rates and that for low doses and dose rates. Used in the estimation of risk coefficients for low doses and dose rates from observations and epidemiological findings at high doses and dose rates. Supersedes the dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF). dose assessment See assessment (1). dose coefficient Used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and others as a synonym for dose per unit intake, but sometimes also used to describe other coefficients linking quantities or concentrations of activity to doses or dose rates, such as the external dose rate at a specified distance above a surface with a deposit of a specified activity per unit area of a specified radionuclide.! To avoid confusion, the term dose coefficient should be used with care. [dose commitment] See dose concepts. dose concepts annual dose. The dose from external exposure in a year plus the committed dose from intakes of radionuclides in that year. The individual dose, unless otherwise stated.! This is not, in general, the same as the dose actually delivered during the year in question, which would include doses from radionuclides remaining in the body IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

60 D from intakes in previous years, and would exclude doses delivered in future years from intakes of radionuclides during the year in question. averted dose. The dose prevented by protective actions. collective dose. The total radiation dose incurred by a population. This is the sum of all of the individual doses to members of the population. If the doses continue for longer than a year, then the annual individual doses must also be integrated over time. Unless otherwise specified, the time over which the dose is integrated is infinite; if a finite upper limit is applied to the time integration, the collective dose is described as truncated at that time. Although the upper limit for the integral for collective dose could in principle be infinite, in most assessments of collective dose the component part associated with individual doses or dose rates that are higher than the thresholds for the induction of deterministic effects would be considered separately. Unless otherwise specified, the relevant dose is normally the effective dose (collective effective dose has a formal definition). Unit: man-sievert (man Sv). This is, strictly, just a sievert, but the unit man-sievert is used to distinguish the collective dose from the individual dose which a dosimeter would measure (just as, for example, person-hours are used to measure the total effort devoted to a task, as opposed to the elapsed time that would be shown by a clock). Contrasting term: individual dose. committed dose. The lifetime dose expected to result from an intake. See dose quantities: committed equivalent dose and committed effective dose. This term partially supersedes dose commitment. [dose commitment. The total dose that would eventually result from an event (e.g. a release of radioactive material), a deliberate action or a finite portion of a practice.] More specific and precise terms such as committed dose or collective dose should be used as appropriate. individual dose. The dose incurred by an individual. Contrasting term: collective dose. lifetime dose. The total dose received by an individual during his or her lifetime. In practice, often approximated as the sum of the annual doses incurred. Since annual doses include committed doses, some parts of some of the annual doses may not actually be delivered within the lifetime of the individual, and therefore this may overestimate the true lifetime dose. For prospective assessments of lifetime dose, a lifetime is normally interpreted as 70 years. projected dose. The dose that would be expected to be received if planned protective actions were not taken. residual dose. The dose expected to be incurred after protective actions have been terminated (or after a decision has been taken not to take protective actions). 44 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

61 D dose constraint Residual dose applies in an emergency exposure situation or in an existing exposure situation. 1. A prospective and source related value of individual dose that is used in planned exposure situations as a parameter for the optimization of protection and safety for the source, and that serves as a boundary in defining the range of options in optimization. For occupational exposure, the dose constraint is a constraint on individual dose to workers established and used by registrants and licensees to set the range of options in optimizing protection and safety for the source. For public exposure, the dose constraint is a source related value established or approved by the government or the regulatory body, with account taken of the doses from planned operations of all sources under control. The dose constraint for each particular source is intended, among other things, to ensure that the sum of doses from planned operations for all sources under control remains within the dose limit. For medical exposure, the dose constraint is a source related value used in optimizing the protection of carers and comforters of patients undergoing radiological procedures, and the protection of volunteers subject to exposure as part of a programme of biomedical research. dose conversion convention The assumed relationship between potential alpha energy exposure and effective dose. Used to estimate doses from measured or estimated exposure due to radon. See exposure (4). Unit: msv per J h/m 3. dose equivalent The product of the absorbed dose at a point in the tissue or organ and the appropriate quality factor for the type of radiation giving rise to the dose. A measure of the dose to a tissue or organ designed to reflect the amount of harm caused. For radiation protection purposes the quantity dose equivalent has been superseded by equivalent dose. Dose equivalent is also a term used by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements in defining the operational quantities ambient dose equivalent, directional dose equivalent and personal dose equivalent (see dose equivalent quantities). [effective dose equivalent, H E ]. A measure of dose designed to reflect the risk associated with the dose, calculated as the weighted sum of the dose equivalents in the different tissues of the body. Superseded by effective dose. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

62 D dose equivalent quantities (operational) dose limit See limit. ambient dose equivalent, H*(d). The dose equivalent that would be produced by the corresponding aligned and expanded field in the ICRU sphere at a depth d on the radius vector opposing the direction of the aligned field. Parameter defined at a point in a radiation field. Used as a directly measurable proxy (i.e. substitute) for effective dose for use in monitoring of external exposure. The recommended value of d for strongly penetrating radiation is 10 mm. directional dose equivalent, H (d, ). The dose equivalent that would be produced by the corresponding expanded field in the ICRU sphere at a depth d on a radius in a specified direction. Parameter defined at a point in a radiation field. Used as a directly measurable proxy (i.e. substitute) for equivalent dose in the skin in monitoring of external exposure. The recommended value of d for weakly penetrating radiation is 0.07 mm. [individual dose equivalent, penetrating, H p (d)]. See dose equivalent quantities: personal dose equivalent. [individual dose equivalent, superficial, H s (d)]. See dose equivalent quantities: personal dose equivalent. personal dose equivalent, H p (d). The dose equivalent in soft tissue below a specified point on the body at an appropriate depth d. Parameter used as a directly measurable proxy (i.e. substitute) for equivalent dose in tissues or organs or (with d = 10 mm) for effective dose, in individual monitoring of external exposure. The recommended values of d are 10 mm for strongly penetrating radiation and 0.07 mm for weakly penetrating radiation. Soft tissue is commonly interpreted as the ICRU sphere. Recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements [21, 22] as a simplification of the two separate terms individual dose equivalent, penetrating, H p (d), and individual dose equivalent, superficial, H s (d), defined in Ref. [23]. dose per unit intake The committed effective dose or the committed equivalent dose resulting from intake, by a specified means (usually ingestion or inhalation), of unit activity of a specified radionuclide in a specified chemical form. Values are specified in the Basic Safety Standards [1] and recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection [20]. 46 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

63 D For intakes, synonymous with dose coefficient. Unit: Sv/Bq. dose quantities absorbed dose, D. The fundamental dosimetric quantity D, defined as: d D d m where d is the mean energy imparted by ionizing radiation to matter in a volume element and dm is the mass of matter in the volume element. The energy can be averaged over any defined volume, the average dose being equal to the total energy imparted in the volume divided by the mass in the volume. Absorbed dose is defined at a point; for the average dose in a tissue or organ, see organ dose. The SI unit for absorbed dose is joule per kilogram (J/kg), termed the gray (Gy) (formerly, the rad was used). relative biological effectiveness (RBE) weighted absorbed dose, AD T. The quantity AD T,R, defined as: AD T, R DT, R RBET, R where D T,R is the absorbed dose delivered by radiation of type R averaged over a tissue or organ T and RBE T,R is the relative biological effectiveness for radiation of type R in the production of severe deterministic effects in a tissue or organ T. When the radiation field is composed of different radiation types with different values of RBE T,R, the RBE weighted absorbed dose is given by: AD T DT, R RBET, R R The unit of RBE weighted absorbed dose is the gray (Gy), equal to 1 J/kg. RBE weighted absorbed dose is a measure of the dose to a tissue or organ, intended to reflect the risk of development of severe deterministic effects. Values of RBE weighted absorbed dose to a specified tissue or organ from any type(s) of radiation can be compared directly. committed effective dose, E( ).The quantity E( ), defined as: E ( τ) w H T T(τ) T where H T ( ) is the committed equivalent dose to tissue or organ T over the integration time elapsed after an intake of radioactive substances and w T is the tissue weighting factor for tissue or organ T. Where is not specified, it is taken to be 50 years for adults and the time to the age of 70 years (i.e. 70 years minus the age in years: so e.g. 60 years for a 10 year old child) for intakes by children. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

64 D committed equivalent dose, H T ( ). The quantity H T ( ), defined as: H T t0 τ (τ) H t0 T ( t)dt where t 0 is the time of intake, H T( t ) is the equivalent dose rate at time t in tissue or organ or T and the integration time is the time elapsed after an intake of radioactive substances. Where is not specified, it is taken to be 50 years for adults and the time to the age of 70 years (i.e. 70 years minus the age in years: so e.g. 60 years for a 10 year old child) for intakes by children. effective dose, E. The quantity E, defined as a summation of the tissue or organ equivalent doses, each multiplied by the appropriate tissue weighting factor: E w H T T T where H T is the equivalent dose in tissue or organ T and w T is the tissue weighting factor for tissue or organ T. From the definition of equivalent dose, it follows that: E T w T R w R D T,R where w R is the radiation weighting factor for radiation type R and D T,R is the average absorbed dose in the tissue or organ or T delivered by radiation type R. The SI unit for effective dose is joule per kilogram (J/kg), termed the sievert (Sv). An explanation of the quantity is given in Annex B of Ref. [24]. The rem, equal to 0.01 Sv, is sometimes used as a unit of equivalent dose and effective dose. This should not be used in IAEA publications, except when quoting directly from other publications, in which case the value in sieverts should be added in parentheses. Effective dose is a measure of dose designed to reflect the amount of radiation detriment likely to result from the dose. Effective dose cannot be used to quantify higher doses or to make decisions on the need for any medical treatment relating to deterministic effects. Values of effective dose from exposure for any type(s) of radiation and any mode(s) of exposure can be compared directly. equivalent dose, H T. The quantity H T,R, defined as: H T, R wr DT,R where D T,R is the absorbed dose delivered by radiation type R averaged over a tissue or organ T and w R is the radiation weighting factor for radiation type R. When the radiation field is composed of different radiation types with different values of w R, the equivalent dose is: H w D T R R T,R The SI unit for equivalent dose is joule per kilogram (J/kg), termed the sievert (Sv). An explanation of the quantity is given in Annex B of Ref. [24]. 48 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

65 D dose rate The rem, equal to 0.01 Sv, is sometimes used as a unit of equivalent dose and effective dose. This should not be used in IAEA publications, except when quoting directly from other publications, in which case the value in sieverts should be added in parentheses. Equivalent dose is a measure of the dose to a tissue or organ designed to reflect the amount of harm caused. Equivalent dose cannot be used to quantify higher doses or to make decisions on the need for any medical treatment relating to deterministic effects. Values of equivalent dose to a specified tissue or organ from any type(s) of radiation can be compared directly. organ dose. The mean absorbed dose D T in a specified tissue or organ T of the human body, given by: D T 1 m T mt ε D.d m m T T where m T is the mass of the tissue or organ, D is the absorbed dose in the mass element dm and ε T is the total energy imparted. Sometimes called tissue dose. The dose per unit time.! Although dose rate could, in principle, be defined over any unit of time (e.g. an annual dose is technically a dose rate), in IAEA publications the term dose rate should be used only in the context of short periods of time, e.g. dose per second or dose per hour. [dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF)] The ratio between the risk per unit effective dose for high dose rates and that for low dose rates. Superseded by dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF). double contingency principle See single failure criterion. drawdown A falling of the water level at a coastal site. driven equipment A component such as a pump or valve that is operated by a prime mover. dry storage See storage. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

66 E E early effect See health effects (of radiation). early protective actions See protective action. effective dose See dose quantities. [effective dose equivalent] See dose equivalent. effective half-life See half-life (2). [ elimination, practical ] The phrase practically eliminated was used in requirements for the design of nuclear power plants to convey the notion that, for a nuclear power plant, the possibility of the potential occurrence of certain hypothetical event sequences in scenarios could be considered to be excluded ( practically eliminated ) provided that (1) it would be physically impossible for the relevant event sequences to occur or that (2) these sequences could be considered with a high level of confidence to be extremely unlikely to arise. [16]! The phrase practically eliminated is misleading as it actually concerns the possible exclusion of event sequences from hypothetical scenarios rather than practicalities of safety. The phrase can also all too readily be misinterpreted, misrepresented or mistranslated as referring to the elimination of accidents by practical measures (or else practically in the sense of almost?). Clear drafting in natural language would be preferable. emergency A non-routine situation that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or adverse consequences for human life and health, property and the environment. This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard. All terms and definitions relating to an emergency are taken from Ref. [25]. See also emergency class. 50 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

67 E nuclear or radiological emergency. An emergency in which there is, or is perceived to be, a hazard due to: (a) (b) The energy resulting from a nuclear chain reaction or from the decay of the products of a chain reaction; or Radiation exposure. Points (a) and (b) approximately represent nuclear and radiological emergencies, respectively. However, this is not an exact distinction. Radiation emergency is used in some cases when an explicit distinction in the nature of the hazard is immaterial (e.g. national radiation emergency plan), and it has essentially the same meaning. transnational emergency. A nuclear or radiological emergency of actual, potential or perceived radiological significance for more than one State. An nuclear or radiological emergency of radiological significance for more than one State may be, for example: (1) An emergency due to a significant transboundary release of radioactive material (however, a transnational emergency does not necessarily imply a significant transboundary release of radioactive material); (2) A general emergency at a facility or other event that could result in a significant transboundary release (atmospheric or aquatic) of radioactive material; (3) An emergency arising from the discovery of the loss or illicit removal of a dangerous source that has been transported across, or is suspected of having been transported across, a national border; (4) An emergency resulting in significant disruption to international trade or travel; (5) An emergency warranting the taking of protective actions for foreign nationals or embassies in the State in which it occurs; (6) An emergency resulting or potentially resulting in severe deterministic effects and involving a fault and/or problem (such as in equipment or software) that could have serious implications for safety internationally; (7) An emergency resulting in or potentially resulting in great concern among the population of more than one State owing to the actual or perceived radiological hazard. emergency action level (EAL) See level: emergency action level. emergency arrangements The integrated set of infrastructural elements made in advance that are necessary to provide the capability for performing a specified function or task required in response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. These elements may include authorities and responsibilities, organization, coordination, personnel, plans, procedures, facilities, equipment or training. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

68 E emergency class A set of conditions that warrant a similar immediate emergency response. This is the term used for communicating to the response organizations and to the public the level of response needed. The events that belong to a given emergency class are defined by criteria specific to the installation, source or activities, which, if exceeded, indicate classification at the prescribed level. For each emergency class, the initial actions of the response organizations are predefined. IAEA safety standards specify five emergency classes, namely general emergency, site area emergency, facility emergency, alert and other nuclear or radiological emergency [25]: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) general emergency. At facilities in category I or II, an emergency that warrants taking precautionary urgent protective actions, urgent protective actions and early protective actions and other emergency response actions on the site and off the site. site area emergency. At facilities in category I or II, an emergency that warrants taking protective actions and other emergency response actions on the site and in the vicinity of the site. facility emergency. At facilities in category I, II or III, an emergency that warrants taking protective actions and other emergency response actions at the facility and on the site but does not warrant taking protective actions off the site. alert. At facilities in category I, II or III, an event that warrants taking actions to assess and to mitigate the potential consequences at the facility. other nuclear or radiological emergency. An emergency in category IV that warrants taking protective actions and other emergency response actions at any location. emergency classification The process whereby an authorized official classifies an emergency in order to declare the applicable emergency class. Upon declaration of the emergency class, the response organizations initiate the predefined emergency response actions for that emergency class. emergency exposure See emergency exposure situation. emergency phase The period of time from the detection of conditions warranting an emergency response until the completion of all the emergency response actions taken in anticipation of or in response to the radiological conditions expected in the first few months of the emergency. The emergency phase typically ends when the situation is under control, the off-site radiological conditions have been characterized sufficiently well to identify whether and where food restrictions and temporary relocation are required, and all required food restrictions and temporary relocations have been put into effect. 52 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

69 E initial phase (of an emergency). The period of time from the detection of conditions warranting emergency response actions that must be taken promptly in order to be effective until the completion of all such actions. emergency plan Such emergency response actions include mitigatory actions by the operator and urgent protective actions on the site and off the site. 1. A description of the objectives, policy and concept of operations for the response to an emergency and of the structure, authorities and responsibilities for a systematic, coordinated and effective response. The emergency plan serves as the basis for the development of other plans, procedures and checklists. Emergency plans are prepared at several different levels: national, local and facility. They may include all activities planned to be carried out by all relevant organizations and authorities, or may be primarily concerned with the actions to be carried out by a particular organization. The term overall emergency plan is sometimes used for clarification when the former meaning is intended. Details regarding the accomplishment of specific tasks outlined in an emergency plan are contained in emergency procedures. concept of operations. A brief description of an ideal response to a postulated nuclear or radiological emergency, used to ensure that all those personnel and organizations involved in the development of a capability for emergency response share a common understanding. 2. A set of procedures to be implemented in the event of an accident. emergency planning distance The extended planning distance and the ingestion and commodities planning distance. extended planning distance (EPD). Distance around a facility within which emergency arrangements are made following the declaration of a general emergency to conduct monitoring and to identify areas warranting emergency response actions to be taken off the site within a period following a significant release that would allow the risk of stochastic effects among members of the public to be effectively reduced. The area within the extended planning distance serves for planning purposes and may not be the actual area in which monitoring is to be conducted to identify areas where early protective actions such as relocation are necessary. While efforts need to be made at the emergency preparedness stage to prepare for taking effective early protective actions within this area, the actual area will be determined by the prevailing conditions in an emergency. As a precaution, some urgent actions may be warranted within the extended planning distance to reduce the risk of stochastic effects among members of the public. ingestion and commodities planning distance (ICPD). Distance around a facility within which emergency arrangements are made to take effective emergency response actions following the declaration of a general emergency in order to reduce the risk of IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

70 E stochastic effects among members of the public and to mitigate non-radiological consequences as a result of the distribution, sale and consumption of food, milk and drinking water and the use of commodities other than food that may have contamination from a significant radioactive release. The area within the ingestion and commodities planning distance serves for planning purposes to prepare for emergency response actions to monitor and control commodities, including food, for either domestic use or international trade. The actual area will be determined on the basis of the prevailing conditions in an emergency. As a precaution, some urgent actions may be warranted within the ingestion and commodities planning distance to prevent the ingestion of food, milk or drinking water and to prevent the use of commodities that may have contamination following a significant radioactive release. emergency planning zone The precautionary action zone and the urgent protective action planning zone. precautionary action zone (PAZ). An area around a facility for which emergency arrangements have been made to take urgent protective actions in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency to avoid or to reduce the risk of severe deterministic effects off the site. Protective actions within this area are to be taken before or shortly after a release of radioactive material or an exposure, on the basis of prevailing conditions at the facility. urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ). An area around a facility for which emergency arrangements have been made to take urgent protective actions in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency to avert doses off the site in accordance with international safety standards. Protective actions within this area are to be taken on the basis of environmental monitoring or, as appropriate, prevailing conditions at the facility. emergency preparedness The capability to take actions that will effectively mitigate the consequences of an emergency for human life and health, property and the environment. emergency preparedness category. A category for hazards assessed by means of a hazard assessment to provide the basis for a graded approach to the application of requirements for developing generically justified and optimized arrangements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency. emergency preparedness stage. The stage when emergency arrangements for an effective emergency response are established. emergency procedures A set of instructions describing in detail the actions to be taken by emergency workers in an emergency. 54 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

71 E emergency response The performance of actions to mitigate the consequences of an emergency for human life and health, property and the environment. The emergency response may also provide a basis for the resumption of normal social and economic activity. emergency response action. An action to be taken in response to a nuclear or radiological emergency to mitigate the consequences of an emergency for human life and health, property and the environment. Emergency response actions comprise protective actions and other emergency response actions. other emergency response action. An emergency response action other than a protective action. The most common other emergency response actions are: medical examination, consultation and medical treatment; registration and long term medical followup; providing psychological counselling; and public information and other actions for mitigating non-radiological consequences and for public reassurance. emergency response commander. The individual responsible for directing the response of all organizations responding to an emergency (including the response to radiological hazards, the response to conventional hazards and law enforcement). Also referred to as incident commander. emergency response facility or emergency response location. A facility or location necessary for supporting an emergency response, for which specific functions are to be assigned at the emergency preparedness stage, and which need to be usable under emergency conditions. There are two different types of emergency response facility or emergency response location: those established in advance (e.g. a technical support centre for a nuclear power plant) and those designated at the time of an emergency (e.g. a triage area). In both cases, advance preparations are necessary to ensure their operability under emergency conditions. Depending on the emergency preparedness category and on the nature of an emergency, an emergency response facility may be designated an emergency response location. For a nuclear power plant, emergency response facilities (which are separate from the control room and the supplementary control room) include the technical support centre, the operational support centre and the emergency centre. emergency services The local off-site response organizations that are generally available and that perform emergency response functions. These may include police, firefighters and rescue brigades, ambulance services and control teams for hazardous materials. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

72 E emergency worker A person having specified duties as a worker in response to an emergency. Emergency workers may include workers employed, both directly and indirectly, by registrants and licensees, as well as personnel of response organizations, such as police officers, firefighters, medical personnel, and drivers and crews of vehicles used for evacuation. Emergency workers may or may not be designated as such in advance of an emergency. Emergency workers not designated as such in advance of an emergency are not necessarily workers prior to the emergency. employer A person or organization with recognized responsibilities, commitments and duties towards a worker in the employment of the person or organization by virtue of a mutually agreed relationship.! A self-employed person is regarded as being both an employer and a worker. end point 1. The final stage of a process, especially the point at which an effect is observed. Used, somewhat loosely, to describe a range of different results or consequences. For example, the term biological end point is used to describe a health effect (or a probability of that health effect) that could result from exposure. 2. A radiological or other measure of protection or safety that is the calculated result of an analysis or assessment. Common end points include estimates of dose or risk, estimated frequency or probability of an event or type of event (such as damage to the reactor core), expected number of health effects in a population, predicted environmental concentrations of radionuclides, etc. 3. A predetermined criterion defining the point at which a specific task or process will be considered completed. This usage often occurs in contexts such as decontamination or remediation, where the end point is typically the level of contamination beyond which further decontamination or remediation is considered unnecessary. In such a context, this criterion may also be an end point in the sense of definition (2) such criteria are often calculated on the basis of a level of dose or risk that is considered acceptable but its application to the actual decontamination or remediation operations is in the sense of definition (3). end state 1. The state of radioactive waste in the final stage of radioactive waste management, in which the waste is passively safe and does not depend on institutional control. In the context of radioactive waste management, the end state refers to disposal. 56 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

73 E 2. A predetermined criterion defining the point at which a specific task or process is to be considered completed. Used in relation to decommissioning activities as the final state of decommissioning of a facility; and used in relation to remediation as the final status of a site at the end of activities for decommissioning and/or remediation, including approval of the radiological and physical conditions of the site and remaining structures. energy fluence See fluence. enforcement The application by a regulatory body of sanctions against an operator, intended to correct and, as appropriate, penalize non-compliance with conditions of an authorization. enriched uranium See uranium. entombment See decommissioning. entrance surface dose Absorbed dose in the centre of the field at the surface of entry of radiation for a patient undergoing a radiodiagnostic examination, expressed in air and with backscatter. environment The conditions under which people, animals and plants live or develop and which sustain all life and development; especially such conditions as affected by human activities. protection of the environment. Protection and conservation of: non-human species, both animal and plant, and their biodiversity; environmental goods and services such as the production of food and feed; resources used in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and tourism; amenities used in spiritual, cultural and recreational activities; media such as soil, water and air; and natural processes such as carbon, nitrogen and water cycles. environmental monitoring See monitoring (1). epicentre The point on the Earth s surface directly above the focus (i.e. hypocentre) of an earthquake. equilibrium, radioactive The state of a radioactive decay chain (or part thereof) where the activity of each radionuclide in the chain (or part of the chain) is the same. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

74 E This state is achieved when the parent nuclide has a much longer half-life than any of the decay products, and after a time equal to several times the half-life of the longest lived of the decay products. Hence, the term secular equilibrium is also used (with secular in this context meaning eventual, as contrasted with transient equilibrium ). equilibrium equivalent concentration The activity concentration of 222 Rn or 220 Rn in radioactive equilibrium with their short lived decay products that would have the same potential alpha energy concentration as the actual (non-equilibrium) mixture. The equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon-222 is given by: EEC 222 Rn = (0.104 C( 218 Po)) + (0.514 C( 214 Pb)) + (0.382 C( 214 Bi)) where C(x) is the activity concentration of nuclide x in air. 1 Bq/m 3 EEC radon corresponds to mj/m 3. The equilibrium equivalent concentration of 220 Rn is given by: EEC 220 Rn = (0.913 C( 212 Pb)) + (0.087 C( 212 Bi)) where C(x) is the activity concentration of nuclide x in air. 1 Bq/m 3 EEC 220 Rn corresponds to mj/m 3. equilibrium factor The ratio of the equilibrium equivalent activity concentration of radon-222 to the actual radon-222 activity concentration. equipment qualification See qualification. equivalent dose See dose quantities. eruption, volcanic Any process on a volcano or at a volcanic vent that involves the explosive ejection of fragmental material, the effusion of molten lava, the sudden release of large quantities of volcanic gases (e.g. CO 2 ) or a process by which buried regions of the volcanic systems from various depths, such as the hydrothermal system, are brought to the surface during the collapse of edifices. Eruptions are magmatic if newly solidified magma is present in the eruptive products and non-magmatic (phreatic) if they involve only recycled rock fragments. Eruptions can occur over widely varying timescales (seconds to years). effusive eruption. A volcanic eruption in which coherent magma is extruded from the volcanic vent to form lava flows. explosive eruption. A volcanic eruption in which gas bubble expansion or explosive interaction between magma and water is rapid enough to break the magma apart (i.e. to fragment the magma). 58 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

75 E Explosive eruptions also occur when pressurized hydrothermal gases and superheated fluids suddenly break the host rock in a volcanic edifice. Pyroclastic flows, falls and volcano generated missiles are characteristic of explosive eruptions. phreatic eruption. A type of eruption caused by rapid volume expansion of water, or water vaporization, in the subsurface, without magma being erupted at the surface. Phreatic eruptions are usually steam explosions that occur when hot water is suddenly depressurized, but may occasionally be non-explosive expulsions of pressurized or heated aquifer waters and/or hydrothermal fluids at a volcano. Phreatic eruptions are common where rising magma interacts with groundwater, commonly in the interior of a volcano edifice. Although commonly small in scale, phreatic eruptions may be followed by larger scale phreatomagmatic eruptions or magmatic eruptions. Phreatic eruptions may generate debris flows and hot lahars. phreatomagmatic eruption. A type of explosive eruption that involves subsurface interaction of magma and water and which produces explosive mixtures of rock, steam and magma that often form pyroclastic flows and surges. Surtseyan and phreato-plinian eruptions are phreatomagmatic eruptions involving the interaction of hot pyroclasts and water, as the magma is erupted from the volcanic vent into bodies of water. plinian eruption. An explosive pyroclastic eruption characterized by a sustained eruption column that generally rises to altitiudes of km. Plinian eruptions may produce thick tephra fallout over areas of km 2 and/or pyroclastic flows and surges that travel tens of kilometres from the volcano. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, is a recent plinian eruption. strombolian eruption. A type of volcanic eruption that is intermediate in explosivity between fire fountain and plinian eruptions. Magma is less fragmented in a strombolian eruption than in a plinian eruption and gas is often released in coalesced slugs rather than in a continuous jet. Strombolian eruptions are commonly discrete events, punctuated by intervals of relative quiescence lasting from a few seconds to several hours. Strombolian eruptions, usually basaltic to andesitic in composition, form weak eruption columns that rarely exceed 5 km in height, and the volume of lava flows is generally equal to, or greater than, the volume of pyroclastic rocks. Such eruptions are characteristic of Stromboli volcano, Italy, and Izalco volcano, El Salvador. vulcanian eruption. A type of volcanic eruption characterized by discrete explosions, which produces shock waves and pyroclastic eruptions. Vulcanian eruptions typically occur when volcanic gas accumulates in a solidifying shallow conduit or dome, which pressurizes the magma to the point of brittle failure. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

76 E eruption cloud Andesitic and dacitic magmas are most often associated with vulcanian eruptions. Examples of recent vulcanian eruptions include Sakurajima volcano, Japan, Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, and Colima volcano, Mexico. A cloud of tephra and gases that forms above a volcanic vent during explosive volcanic eruptions. The vertical pillar of tephra and gases that forms during most explosive activity is referred to as an eruption column, or strong plume, and includes a momentum dominated region and a buoyancy dominated region. Eruption clouds may rapidly spread laterally under gravity, especially in the most energetic eruptions, and may drift thousands of kilometres downwind. Large eruption clouds can encircle the Earth within days. essential services The supply of resources, including electricity, gas, water, compressed air, fuel and lubricants, necessary to maintain safety systems of a nuclear power plant operational at all times. evacuation The rapid, temporary removal of people from an area to avoid or reduce short term radiation exposure in an emergency. event Evacuation is an urgent protective action. If people are removed from the area for a longer period of time (more than a few months), the term relocation is used. Evacuation may be performed as a precautionary action based on plant conditions within the precautionary action zone. In the context of the reporting and analysis of events, an event is any occurrence unintended by the operator, including operating error, equipment failure or other mishap, and deliberate action on the part of others, the consequences or potential consequences of which are not negligible from the point of view of protection and safety.! As with INES, the terminology related to the reporting and analysis of events is not consistent with the terminology used in safety standards, and great care should be taken to avoid confusion.! In particular, the definition of event given above is identical in essence to the safety standards definition (1) of accident. This difference derives from the fact that event reporting and analysis is concerned directly with the question of whether an event that could develop into an accident with significant consequences actually does so; terms such as accident are used only to describe the end result and therefore other terms are needed to describe the earlier stages. See initiating event and initiating event: postulated initiating event. 60 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

77 E Event is also used in the phrase features, events and processes associated with the site and the facility in the context of site characterization for a disposal facility for radioactive waste. Relevant features, events and processes relating to the site are those that might influence the long term performance of the disposal facility and thus could affect safety. These are addressed in a safety case and in a supporting safety assessment. Types of events and circumstances are shown in the table below. Events (including anticipated operational occurrences) Circumstances Incidents (including initiating events, accident precursors and near misses) Scenarios: postulated incidents Situations (including operating conditions, accident conditions) Scenarios: hypothetical situations Accidents (unintentional causes) Intentional causes (unauthorized acts: malicious and nonmalicious) (e.g. sabotage, theft) E.g. acute potential exposure Operational states, design basis accident conditions Nuclear and radiological emergencies, beyond design basis accident conditions E.g. chronic potential exposure Notes: A scenario is a postulated or assumed set of conditions and/or events. A scenario may represent the conditions at a single point in time or a single event, or a time history of conditions and/or events. Anticipated operational occurrence; beyond design basis accident; design basis accident: see plant states (considered in design). Attributes: these terms use the following attributes: acute and chronic; actual and postulated; unintentional and intentional causes; malicious and non-malicious; nuclear and radiological. Dictionary (Concise Oxford English Dictionary) definitions: Circumstance(s): A fact, occurrence or condition, especially (in plural) the time, place, manner, cause, occasion, etc., or surroundings of an act or event; (in plural) the external conditions that affect or might affect an action. Occurrence: The act or an instance of occurring, i.e. coming into being as an event or process at or during some time; happening. The act or an instance of existing or being encountered in some place or conditions. Situation: A set of circumstances; a state of affairs. event tree analysis See analysis. excepted package See package. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

78 E exception The terms exception and excepted are sometimes used to describe cases in which some of the requirements or guidance in safety standards are deemed not to apply. In this regard, the effect of exception may be compared with those of exemption and exclusion. However, this is in fact a usual usage of the English term exception, not a specialized term. The terms exemption and exclusion are necessarily linked to specific reasons for nonapplication, whereas exception is not. The term excepted package in the Transport Regulations is an example of this usage; packages may be excepted from specified requirements of the Transport Regulations if they satisfy conditions specified in the Transport Regulations. excess relative risk See risk (3). excess risk See risk (3). excluded exposure See exclusion. exclusion The deliberate excluding of a particular type of exposure from the scope of an instrument of regulatory control on the grounds that it is not considered amenable to control through the regulatory instrument in question. excluded exposure. Exposure not considered amenable to control through a regulatory instrument. The term excluded exposure is most commonly applied to those exposures due to natural sources that are least amenable to control, such as exposures due to cosmic radiation at the Earth s surface, potassium-40 in the human body or naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in which the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides are below the relevant values given in IAEA safety standards. The concept is related to those of clearance (which is normally used in relation to materials) and exemption (which relates to facilities and activities or sources). exclusive use The sole use, by a single consignor, of a conveyance or of a large freight container, in respect of which all initial, intermediate and final loading and unloading and shipment are carried out in accordance with the directions of the consignor or consignee, where so required by these [Transport] Regulations. (From Ref. [2].) 62 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

79 E exempt waste See waste. exemption The determination by a regulatory body that a source or practice need not be subject to some or all aspects of regulatory control on the basis that the exposure and the potential exposure due to the source or practice are too small to warrant the application of those aspects or that this is the optimum option for protection irrespective of the actual level of the doses or risks. See also clearance (1) and exclusion. exemption level See level. exposure 1. The state or condition of being subject to irradiation.! Exposure should not be used as a synonym for dose. Dose is a measure of the effects of exposure. Exposure to ionizing radiation can be broadly divided into categories of exposure (see exposure, categories of) according to the status of the individual(s) exposed; into exposure situations according to the circumstances of the exposure; and according to the source of the exposure. external exposure. Exposure to radiation from a source outside the body. Contrasted with internal exposure. internal exposure. Exposure to radiation from a source within the body. Contrasted with external exposure. 2. The sum of the electrical charges of all of the ions of one sign produced in air by X rays or gamma radiation when all electrons liberated by photons in a suitably small element of volume of air are completely stopped in air, divided by the mass of the air in the volume element. Unit: C/kg (in the past, the röntgen (R) was used). 3. The time integral of the potential alpha energy concentration in air, or of the corresponding equilibrium equivalent concentration, to which an individual is exposed over a given period (e.g. a year). Used in connection with exposure due to decay products of 222 Rn or 220 Rn. The SI unit is J h/m 3 for potential alpha energy concentration or Bq h/m 3 for equilibrium equivalent concentration. 4. [ The product of the air concentration of a radionuclide to which a person is exposed and the time of exposure. More generally, when the air concentration varies with time, the time integral of the air concentration of a radionuclide to which a person is exposed, integrated over the time of exposure. ] IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

80 E This definition, quoted verbatim from Ref. [26], reflects a loose usage of exposure found in particular in the context of airborne radon. This usage is listed here for information, but it is discouraged. exposure due to radon. The time integral over the activity concentration of radon for a defined period of time. Exposure due to radon is a measurand related to the potential alpha energy exposure with the equilibrium factor taken into account and is, therefore, related to the effective dose. exposure, categories of medical exposure. Exposure incurred by patients for the purposes of their own medical or dental diagnosis (diagnostic exposure) or medical treatment (therapeutic exposure); by carers and comforters; and by volunteers subject to exposure as part of a programme of biomedical research. patient. An individual who is a recipient of services of health professionals and/or their agents that are directed at (a) promotion of health; (b) prevention of illness and injury; (c) monitoring of health; (d) maintaining health; and (e) medical treatment of diseases, disorders and injuries in order to achieve a cure or, failing that, optimum comfort and function. Some asymptomatic individuals are included. For the purpose of the requirements on medical exposure in the IAEA safety standards, the term patient refers only to those individuals undergoing radiological procedures. occupational exposure. Exposure of workers incurred in the course of their work. public exposure. Exposure incurred by members of the public due to sources in planned exposure situations, emergency exposure situations and existing exposure situations, excluding any occupational exposure or medical exposure. exposure assessment See assessment (1). exposure pathway A route by which radiation or radionuclides can reach people and cause exposure. An exposure pathway may be very simple, e.g. the external exposure pathway from airborne radionuclides, or a more complex chain, e.g. the internal exposure pathway from drinking milk from cows that ate grass contaminated with deposited radionuclides. exposure situations acute exposure. Exposure received within a short period of time. Normally used to refer to exposure of sufficiently short duration that the resulting doses can be treated as instantaneous (e.g. less than an hour). (emergency, existing, planned) exposure situation! The exposure situation is indicated by the circumstances of exposure of the individual(s) undergoing exposure; it cannot be used to characterize a jurisdiction or the geographical area, for example. 64 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

81 E These three broad exposure situations were used as the basis for organizing the safety requirements established in the Basic Safety Standards [1]. The characterizations in terms of situations (which derive from Ref. [24]) are not clearly delineated or conceptually distinct. emergency exposure situation This situation of exposure arises as a result of an accident, a malicious act or other unexpected event that requires prompt action in order to avoid or to reduce adverse consequences. Exposure in an emergency can include both occupational exposure and public exposure, and can include unplanned exposures resulting directly in the emergency exposure situation and planned exposures to persons undertaking actions to mitigate the consequences of the emergency. Exposure in an emergency can be reduced only by protective actions and other emergency response actions. existing exposure situation This situation of exposure already exists when a decision on the need for control needs to be taken. Existing exposure situations include exposure to natural background radiation that is amenable to control; exposure due to residual radioactive material that derives from past practices that were never subject to regulatory control; and exposure due to residual radioactive material deriving from a nuclear or radiological emergency after an emergency has been declared to be ended. planned exposure situation This situation of exposure arises from the planned operation of a source or from a planned activity that results in an exposure due to a source. Since provision for protection and safety can be made before embarking on the activity concerned, associated exposures and their probabilities of occurrence can be restricted from the outset. The primary means of controlling exposure in planned exposure situations is by good design of installations, equipment and operating procedures. In planned exposure situations, a certain level of exposure is expected to occur. potential exposure. Exposure, prospectively considered, that is not expected to be incurred with certainty but that may potentially result from an anticipated operational occurrence or accident at a source or owing to an event or sequence of events of a probabilistic nature, including equipment failures and operating errors.! Potential exposure is not an exposure and is not a type of exposure. Potential exposure includes prospectively considered (i.e. hypothetical or postulated) exposures due to a source in an event or sequence of events of a probabilistic nature, including exposures resulting from an accident, equipment failures, operating errors, natural events or phenomena (such as hurricanes, earthquakes and floods) and inadvertent human intrusion (such as a human IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

82 E intrusion into a near surface disposal facility after institutional control is removed). In the case of a geological disposal facility, assessment of the long term action of processes and events that are uncertain leads to projections of long term potential exposure. transboundary exposure. Exposure of members of the public in one State due to radioactive material released via accidents, discharges or waste disposal in another State. extended planning distance (EPD) See emergency planning distance. external event Events unconnected with the operation of a facility or the conduct of an activity that could have an effect on the safety of the facility or activity. Typical examples of external events for nuclear facilities include earthquakes, tornadoes, tsunamis and aircraft crashes. In the case of safety assessment for long term safety in waste management, a relevant external event is one that could have an effect on the functioning of multiple barriers. external exposure See exposure (1). external zone The area immediately surrounding a proposed site area in which population distribution and density, and land and water uses, are considered with respect to their effects on the possible implementation of emergency response actions. Used in the context of siting of facilities. This is the area that would be the emergency planning zones if the facility were in place. 66 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

83 F facilities and activities 7 F A general term encompassing nuclear facilities, uses of all sources of ionizing radiation, all radioactive waste management activities, transport of radioactive material and other practices or situations in which people may be subject to exposure to radiation from naturally occurring or artificial sources. facilities. These include: nuclear facilities; irradiation installations; some mining and raw material processing facilities such as uranium mines; radioactive waste management facilities; and any other places where radioactive material is produced, processed, used, handled, stored or disposed of or where radiation generators are installed on such a scale that consideration of protection and safety is required. activities. These include: the production, use, import and export of radiation sources for industrial, research and medical purposes; the transport of radioactive material; the decommissioning of facilities; radioactive waste management activities such as the discharge of effluents; and some aspects of the remediation of sites affected by residues from past activities. The intention is to include any human activity that introduces additional sources of radiation or additional exposure pathways, or that modifies the network of exposure pathways from existing sources, so as to increase the exposure or the likelihood of exposure of people or the number of people exposed. The term facilities and activities provides an alternative to the terminology of sources and practices (or intervention) to refer to general categories of situations. For example, a practice may involve many different facilities and/or activities, whereas the general definition (1) of source is too broad in some cases: a facility or activity might constitute a source, or might involve the use of many sources, depending upon the interpretation used. The term facilities and activities is very general, and includes those for which little or no regulatory control may be necessary or achievable: the more specific terms authorized facility and authorized activity should be used to distinguish those facilities and activities for which any form of authorization has been given. In the Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Fundamentals), the term facilities and activities existing and new utilized for peaceful purposes is abbreviated for convenience to facilities and activities as a general term encompassing any human activity that may cause people to be exposed to radiation risks arising from naturally occurring or artificial sources (see Ref. [15], para. 1.9). Facilities and activities are listed as follows in Refs [9, 10]: 7 A small number of catch-all terms namely: facilities and activities; protection and safety; radiation risks; and structures, systems and components are defined in the Safety Glossary. These terms may be used in exactly the form listed to describe a whole group of things without cumbersome repetition, or slight variations of the terms may be used to refer to particular subgroups. Although the definitions include an indication of the meanings of the separate elements of the terms, these are not intended to be applied rigidly: if precise reference is needed to particular items covered by the catch-all term, more precise terms should be used. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

84 F facility Facilities includes: (a) Nuclear power plants; (b) Other reactors (such as research reactors and critical assemblies); (c) Enrichment facilities and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities; (d) Conversion facilities used to generate uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ); (e) Storage facilities and reprocessing plants for irradiated fuel; (f) Facilities for radioactive waste management where radioactive waste is treated, conditioned, stored or disposed of; (g) Any other places where radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled or stored; (h) Irradiation installations for medical, industrial, research and other purposes, and any places where radiation generators are installed; (i) Facilities where the mining and processing of radioactive ores (such as ores of uranium and thorium) are carried out. Activities includes: (a) The production, use, import and export of radiation sources for medical, industrial, research and other purposes; (b) The transport of radioactive material; (c) The decommissioning and dismantling of facilities and the closure of repositories for radioactive waste; (d) The close-out of facilities where the mining and processing of radioactive ores was carried out; (e) Activities for radioactive waste management such as the discharge of effluents; (f) The remediation of sites affected by residues from past activities. See facilities and activities. facility emergency See emergency class. failure (technical) Loss of the ability of a structure, system or component to function within acceptance criteria.! Note that the structure, system or component is considered to fail when it becomes incapable of functioning, whether or not this is needed at that time.! A failure in, for example, a backup system may not be manifest until the system is called upon to function, either during testing or on failure of the system it is backing up. A failure may be the result of e.g. a hardware fault, a software fault, a system fault, an operator error or a maintenance error. common cause failure. Failures of two or more structures, systems and components due to a single specific event or cause. For example, the single specific event or cause of failures (which may be failures of different types) could be a design deficiency, a manufacturing deficiency, operation and maintenance errors, a natural phenomenon, a human induced event, 68 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

85 F saturation of signals, or an unintended cascading effect from any other operation or failure within the plant or from a change in ambient conditions. Common causes may be internal or external to a system. common mode failure. Failures of two or more structures, systems and components in the same manner or mode due to a single specific event or cause. failure mode Common mode failure is a type of common cause failure in which the structures, systems and components fail in the same way (although they may not be in close proximity). The manner or state in which a structure, system or component fails. far field The geosphere outside a disposal facility, comprising the surrounding geological strata, at a distance from the disposal facility such that, for modelling purposes, the disposal facility may be considered a single entity and the effects of individual waste packages are not distinguished. For practical purposes, this is often interpreted simply as the geosphere beyond the near field. fault, geological A planar or gently curved fracture surface or zone of the Earth across which there has been relative displacement. capable fault. A geological fault that has a significant potential for displacement at or near the ground surface. A geological fault is to be considered a capable fault if, on the basis of geological, geophysical, geodetic or seismological data (including paleoseismoloical and geomorphological data), one or more of the following conditions applies: (a) (b) (c) The geological fault shows evidence of past movement or movements (significant deformations and/or dislocations) of a recurring nature within such a period that it is reasonable to infer that further movements at or near the surface could occur. A structural relationship with a known capable fault has been demonstrated such that movement of the one may cause movement of the other at or near the surface. The maximum potential earthquake associated with a seismogenic structure is sufficiently large and at such a depth that it is reasonable to infer that, in the geodynamic setting of the site, movement at or near the surface could occur. [27] In highly active areas, where both earthquake data and geological data consistently reveal short earthquake recurrence intervals, periods of the order of tens of thousands of years may be appropriate for the assessment of capable faults. In less active areas, it is likely that much longer periods may be required. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

86 F fault tree analysis See analysis. feed Any single material or multiple materials, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, that is or are intended to be fed directly to food producing animals. first responders The first members of an emergency service to respond at the scene of an emergency. fissile material 1. Material containing any fissile nuclides. fissile nuclide. Nuclides, in particular uranium-233, uranium-235, plutonium-239 and plutonium-241, that are able to support a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction with neutrons of all energies, but predominantly with slow neutrons. 2. Uranium-233, uranium-235, plutonium-239 and plutonium-241. Excluded from this definition are the following: (a) Natural uranium or depleted uranium that is unirradiated; (b) Natural uranium or depleted uranium that has been irradiated in thermal reactors only; (c) Material with fissile nuclides less than a total of 0.25 g; (d) Any combination of (a), (b) and (c). (e) These exclusions are valid only if there is no other material with fissile nuclides in the package or in the consignment if shipped unpackaged. (From Ref. [2].) This definition is specific to the Transport Regulations [2]. As with radioactive material, this is not a scientific definition, but one designed to serve a specific regulatory purpose. See fissionable material. fission fragment A nucleus resulting from nuclear fission carrying kinetic energy from that fission. Used only in contexts where the particles themselves have kinetic energy and thus could represent a hazard, irrespective of whether the particles are radioactive. Otherwise, the more usual term fission product is used. fission product A radionuclide produced by nuclear fission. Used in contexts where the radiation emitted by the radionuclide is the potential hazard. 70 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

87 F fissionable material Material containing any fissionable nuclides. fissionable nuclide. Nuclides such as uranium-238 that are capable of supporting a selfsustaining nuclear chain reaction, including a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction with fast neutrons,. See fissile material. fixed contamination See contamination (2). fluence A measure of the strength of a radiation field. Commonly used without qualification to mean particle fluence. energy fluence,. A measure of the flow of radiant energy through a given surface area in a radiation field, defined as: dr Ψ da where dr is the radiation energy incident on a cross-sectional area da. The energy fluence rate dψ dt is denoted by a lower case. See Ref. [28]. particle fluence,. A measure of the flow of ionizing particles through a given surface area in a radiation field, defined as: dn Φ da where dn is the number of particles incident on a cross-sectional area da. The particle fluence rate dφ dt is denoted by a lower case. See Ref. [28]. food Any substance, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, that is intended for human consumption. This includes foodstuffs and drink (other than fresh water), chewing gum and substances used in the preparation or processing of food; it does not include cosmetics, tobacco or drugs. Consumption in this context refers to ingestion. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

88 F fractional absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, f 1, or in the alimentary tract, f A The fraction of an ingested element that is directly absorbed to body fluids. (From Refs [18 20, 29].) Often referred to colloquially as gut transfer factor or f 1 value. See also lung absorption type, a similar concept for activity in the respiratory tract. free field ground motion Motion that would occur at a given point on the ground owing to an earthquake if vibratory characteristics were not affected by structures and facilities. freight container An article of transport equipment that is of a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use; specially designed to facilitate the transport of goods, by one or other modes of transport without intermediate reloading, designed to be secured and/or readily handled, having fittings for these purposes. The freight container does not include the vehicle. small freight container. A freight container that has an internal volume of not more than 3 m 3. (From Ref. [2].) large freight container. A freight container that has an internal volume of more than 3 m 3. (From Ref. [2].) frequency of exceedance The frequency at which a specified level of seismic hazard will be exceeded at a site or in a region within a specified time interval. In probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, generally a one year time interval (i.e. annual frequency) is assumed. When the frequency is very small and it cannot exceed unity (in the prescribed interval), this number approaches the probability of the same event if the random process is assumed to be Poissonian. fresh fuel See nuclear fuel. fuel See nuclear fuel. fuel assembly A set of fuel elements and associated components which are loaded into and subsequently removed from a reactor core as a single unit. fuel cycle See nuclear fuel cycle. 72 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

89 F fuel element A rod of nuclear fuel, its cladding and any associated components necessary to form a structural entity. Commonly referred to as fuel rod in light water reactors. fuel rod See fuel element. functional diversity See diversity. functional indicator See indicator. functional isolation Prevention of adverse consequences from the mode of operation or failure of one circuit or system on another. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

90 G gap release G Release, especially in a reactor core, of fission products from the fuel pin gap, which occurs immediately after failure of the fuel cladding and is the first radiological indication of fuel damage or fuel failure. general emergency See emergency class. generic criteria (in emergency preparedness and response) In the context of emergency preparedness and response, generic criteria are levels for the projected dose or the dose that has been received at which protective actions and other emergency response actions are to be implemented. geological disposal See disposal (1). geological disposal facility See disposal facility. geological fault See fault, geological. geological record The sequence of rock layers in a vertical section of the Earth. Also termed the stratigraphic record. The oldest layers occur at the base of the section, with successively younger layers occurring higher in the sequence. Geologists use the stratigraphic record to assign relative ages to deposits. Volcanic stratigraphy is often complex, with deposits characterized by having relatively limited lateral extent, exhibiting rapid facies changes and having undergone multiple episodes of erosion and refilling of valleys. geosphere Those parts of the lithosphere not considered to be part of the biosphere. In safety assessment, usually used to distinguish the subsoil and rock (below the depth affected by usual human activities, in particular agriculture) from the soil that is part of the biosphere. grace period The period of time during which a safety function is ensured in an event with no necessity for action by personnel. 74 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

91 G Typical grace periods range from 20 min to 12 h. The grace period may be achieved by means of the automation of actuations, the adoption of passive systems or the inherent characteristics of a material (such as the heat capacity of the containment structure), or by any combination of these. graded approach 1. For a system of control, such as a regulatory system or a safety system, a process or method in which the stringency of the control measures and conditions to be applied is commensurate, to the extent practicable, with the likelihood and possible consequences of, and the level of risk associated with, a loss of control. An example of a graded approach in general would be a structured method by means of which the stringency of application of requirements is varied in accordance with the circumstances, the regulatory systems used, the management systems used, etc. For example, a method in which: (1) The significance and complexity of a product or service are determined; (2) The potential impacts of the product or service on health, safety, security, the environment, and the achieving of quality and the organization s objectives are determined; (3) The consequences if a product fails or if a service is carried out incorrectly are taken into account. The use of a graded approach is intended to ensure that the necessary levels of analysis, documentation and actions are commensurate with, for example, the magnitudes of any radiological hazards and non-radiological hazards, the nature and the particular characteristics of a facility, and the stage in the lifetime of a facility. 2. An application of safety requirements that is commensurate with the characteristics of the facilities and activities or the source and with the magnitude and likelihood of the exposures. gray (Gy) See also exclusion, exemption and clearance and optimization. The SI unit of kerma and absorbed dose, equal to 1 J/kg. ground shine Gamma radiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Ground shine is of concern as an exposure pathway for external exposure principally but not exclusively to gamma radiation. Ground shine may also be used to mean radiation that is incident on, and reflected back from, the ground. See cloud shine. guidance level See level. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

92 G guidance level for medical exposure See level. gut transfer factor See fractional absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, f 1, or in the alimentary tract, f A. 76 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

93 H H habit survey See survey. half-life, T ½ 1. For a radionuclide, the time required for the activity to decrease, by a radioactive decay process, by half. Where it is necessary to distinguish this from other half-lives (see (2)), the term radioactive half-life should be used. The half-life is related to the decay constant,, by the expression: ln2 T 1 2 λ 2. The time taken for the quantity of a specified material (e.g. a radionuclide) in a specified place to decrease by half as a result of any specified process or processes that follow similar exponential patterns to radioactive decay. hazard biological half-life. The time taken for the quantity of a material in a specified tissue, organ or region of the body (or any other specified biota) to halve as a result of biological processes. effective half-life, T eff. The time taken for the activity of a radionuclide in a specified place to halve as a result of all relevant processes. 1 1 Teff i Ti where T i is the half-life for process i. radioactive half-life. For a radionuclide, the time required for the activity to decrease, by a radioactive decay process, by half. The term physical half-life is also used for this concept. The potential for harm or other detriment, especially for radiation risks; a factor or condition that might operate against safety. hazard assessment See assessment (1). health authority A governmental authority (at the national, regional or local level) that is responsible for policies and interventions, including the development of standards and the provision of guidance, for maintaining or improving human health, and that has the legal power of enforcing such policies and interventions. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

94 H health effects (of radiation) deterministic effect. A radiation induced health effect for which generally a threshold level of dose exists above which the severity of the effect is greater for a higher dose. severe deterministic effect. A deterministic effect that is fatal or life threatening or results in a permanent injury that reduces quality of life. The level of the threshold dose is characteristic of the particular health effect but may also depend, to a limited extent, on the exposed individual. Examples of deterministic effects include erythema, damage to the haemopoietic system and acute radiation syndrome (radiation sickness). Deterministic effects are also referred to as (harmful) tissue reactions. The term non-stochastic effect is used in some older publications, but is now superseded. Contrasting term: stochastic effect. early effect. A radiation induced health effect that occurs within months of the exposure that caused it. All early effects are deterministic effects; most, but not all, deterministic effects are early effects. hereditary effect. A radiation induced health effect that occurs in a descendant of the exposed person. The less precise term genetic effect is also used, but hereditary effect is preferred. Hereditary effects are usually stochastic effects. Contrasting term: somatic effect. late effect. A radiation induced health effect that occurs years after the exposure that caused it. The most common late effects are stochastic effects, such as leukaemia and solid cancers, but some deterministic effects can also be late effects. [non-stochastic effect]. See health effects (of radiation): deterministic effect. severe deterministic effect. See health effects (of radiation): deterministic effect. somatic effect. A radiation induced health effect that occurs in the exposed person. This includes effects occurring after birth that are attributable to exposure in utero. Deterministic effects are normally also somatic effects; stochastic effects may be somatic effects or hereditary effects. Contrasting term: hereditary effect. stochastic effect. A radiation induced health effect, the probability of occurrence of which is greater for a higher radiation dose and the severity of which (if it occurs) is independent of dose. Stochastic effects may be somatic effects or hereditary effects, and generally occur without a threshold level of dose. Examples include solid cancers and leukaemia. Contrasting term: deterministic effect. 78 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

95 H health professional An individual who has been formally recognized through appropriate national procedures to practise a profession related to health (e.g. medicine, dentistry, chiropractic, podiatry, nursing, medical physics, medical radiation technology, radiopharmacy, occupational health). Used to distinguish from a referring medical practitioner or a radiological medical practitioner, who satisfies additional criteria. health screening programme A programme in which health tests or medical examinations are performed for the purpose of early detection of disease. health surveillance See workers health surveillance. [heat generating waste (HGW)] See waste classes. helper (in an emergency) Member of the public who willingly and voluntarily helps in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. Helpers in an emergency are to be made aware that they could be exposed to radiation while helping in response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. hereditary effect See health effects (of radiation). high energy radiation therapy equipment X ray equipment and other types of radiation generators capable of operating at generating potentials above 300 kv, and radionuclide teletherapy equipment. high enriched uranium (HEU) See uranium. high level waste (HLW) See waste classes. high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation See radiation. Holocene The most recent epoch of the geological Quaternary period, defined as the interval from 10,000 years before the present to the present. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

96 H Holocene volcano. See volcano. human factors engineering Engineering in which factors that could influence human performance and that could affect safety are understood and are taken into account, especially in the design and operation of facilities. human intrusion See intrusion (human). hydrodynamic dispersion See dispersion. hypocentre The point (focus) within the Earth at which an earthquake is initiated. hypothetical critical group See critical group. 80 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

97 I IAEA publication I An IAEA copyrighted hard copy or electronic product issued with unlimited distribution and bearing the IAEA emblem (logo) on the front and officially approved by the Publications Committee on behalf of the Director General. An IAEA document is an official non-copyrighted hard copy or electronic product issued with limited distribution and bearing the IAEA emblem (logo) on the front. A manuscript is an unissued copy of a draft publication or a draft document. A TECDOC is a publication, not a document. ICRU sphere A sphere of 30 cm diameter made of tissue equivalent material with a density of 1 g/cm 3 and a mass composition of 76.2% oxygen, 11.1% carbon, 10.1% hydrogen and 2.6% nitrogen. The ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements) sphere is used as a reference phantom in defining dose equivalent quantities. See Ref. [30]. igneous rock See rock, igneous. immobilization See waste management, radioactive (1). in-service inspection See inspection. in situ leaching See [mining and milling]. incident Any unintended event, including operating errors, equipment failures, initiating events, accident precursors, near misses or other mishaps, or unauthorized act, malicious or nonmalicious, the consequences or potential consequences of which are not negligible from the point of view of protection and safety. See event and INES.! The word incident is used, in INES and elsewhere, to describe events that are, in effect, minor accidents, i.e. that are distinguished from accidents only in terms of being less severe.! This is a distinction with little basis in general usage, in which an incident can be minor or major, just as an accident can; however, unlike an accident, an incident can be caused intentionally. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

98 I The definition of incident given was derived on the basis of the entries for accident and event and the explanation of the term incident given in Ref. [15]. [nuclear incident]. [Any occurrence or series of occurrences having the same origin which causes nuclear damage or, but only with respect to preventive measures, creates a grave and imminent threat of causing such damage.] (From Ref. [31].)! This usage is specific to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage [31], for the purposes of the Convention, and should otherwise be avoided. See nuclear damage. independent assessment See assessment (2). independent equipment Equipment that possesses both of the following characteristics: (a) (b) indicator The ability to perform its required function is unaffected by the operation or failure of other equipment; The ability to perform its required function is unaffected by the occurrence of the effects resulting from the initiating event for which it is required to function. condition indicator. Characteristic of a structure, system or component that can be observed, measured or trended to infer or directly indicate the current and future ability of the structure, system or component to function within acceptance criteria. functional indicator. Condition indicator that is a direct indication of the current ability of a structure, system or component to function within acceptance criteria. performance indicator. Characteristic of a process that can be observed, measured or trended to infer or directly indicate the current and future performance of the process, with particular emphasis on satisfactory performance for safety. individual dose See dose concepts. individual dose equivalent, penetrating See dose equivalent quantities: personal dose equivalent. individual dose equivalent, superficial See dose equivalent quantities: personal dose equivalent. individual monitoring See monitoring (1). 82 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

99 I industrial package See package. INES See International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). infant In dosimetry, unless otherwise stated, an infant is assumed to be three months old, and annual quantities (e.g. annual dose, annual intake) relating to an infant refer to the year starting at birth. The values for the three month old infant are intended to be valid for the first year of life. In common usage for internal dosimetry an infant is taken to be 100 days old. See also child and reference individual. informed customer capability The capability of an organization to have a clear knowledge and understanding of the product being supplied or the service being provided. ingestion and commodities planning distance (ICPD) See (emergency) planning distance. [inhalation class] See lung absorption type. initiating event An identified event that leads to anticipated operational occurrences or accident conditions. This term (often shortened to initiator is used in relation to event reporting and analysis, i.e. when such events have occurred. For the consideration of hypothetical events at the design stage, the term postulated initiating event is used. initiator postulated initiating event (PIE). A postulated event identified in design as capable of leading to anticipated operational occurrences or accident conditions. The primary causes of postulated initiating events may be credible equipment failures and operator errors (both within and external to the facility), human induced events or natural events. See initiating event. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

100 I inner cordoned off area (in an emergency) An area established by first responders in an emergency around a potential radiation hazard, within which protective actions and other emergency response actions are taken to protect first responders and the public from possible exposure and contamination. inspection 1. An examination, observation, surveillance, measurement or test undertaken to assess structures, systems and components and materials, as well as operational activities, technical processes, organizational processes, procedures and personnel competence. in-service inspection. Inspection of structures, systems and components undertaken over the operating lifetime by or on behalf of the operating organization for the purpose of identifying age related degradation or conditions that, if not addressed, might lead to the failure of structures, systems or components. Inspection of operational activities, processes, etc., by or on behalf of the operating organization would normally be described by terms such as selfassessment and audit. regulatory inspection. Inspection undertaken by or on behalf of the regulatory body. 2. An evaluation of the conformity to a requirement. inspection imaging device An imaging device designed specifically for imaging persons or cargo conveyances for the purpose of detecting concealed objects on or within the human body or within cargo or a vehicle. In some types of inspection imaging device ionizing radiation is used to produce images by backscatter, transmission or both. Other types of inspection imaging device utilize imaging by means of electrical and magnetic fields, ultrasound and sonar waves, nuclear magnetic resonance, microwaves, terahertz rays, millimetre waves, infrared radiation or visible light. institutional control See control (1). intake 1. The act or process of taking radionuclides into the body by inhalation or ingestion or through the skin. Other exposure pathways by intake are injection (e.g. in nuclear medicine) and intake via a wound, as distinguished from intake through (intact) skin. 2. The activity of a radionuclide taken into the body in a given time period or as a result of a given event. acute intake. An intake occurring within a time period short enough that it can be treated as instantaneous for the purposes of assessing the resulting committed dose. 84 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

101 I! The exposure that results from an acute intake is not necessarily acute exposure. For a long lived radionuclide that is retained in the body, an acute intake will result in chronic (i.e. long term) exposure. chronic intake. An intake over an extended period of time, such that it cannot be treated as a single instantaneous intake for the purposes of assessing the resulting committed dose. Chronic intake may, however, be treated as a series of acute intakes. interacting event An event or a sequence of associated events that, interacting with a facility, affect site personnel or items important to safety in a manner that could adversely influence safety. interested party A person, company, etc., with a concern or interest in the activities and performance of an organization, business, system, etc. The term interested party is used in a broad sense to mean a person or group having an interest in the performance of an organization. Those who can influence events may effectively become interested parties whether their interest is regarded as genuine or not in the sense that their views need to be considered. Interested parties would need to be specified as relevant. Interested parties have typically included the following: customers, owners, operators, employees, suppliers, partners, trade unions; the regulated industry or professionals; scientific bodies; governmental agencies or regulatory bodies (national, regional and local) whose responsibilities may cover nuclear energy; the media; the public (individuals, community groups and interest groups); and other States, especially neighbouring States that have entered into agreements providing for an exchange of information concerning possible transboundary impacts, or States involved in the export or import of certain technologies or materials. [32]! The term stakeholder is used in the same broad sense as interested party and the same provisos are necessary.! The term stakeholder has disputed usage, and it is misleading and too all-encompassing for clear use. In view of the potential for misunderstanding and misrepresentation, use of the term is discouraged in favour of interested party. The Handbook on Nuclear Law [32] states that: Owing to the differing views on who has a genuine interest in a particular nuclear related activity, no authoritative definition of stakeholder has yet been offered, and no definition is likely to be accepted by all parties. [interim storage] See storage. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

102 I intermediate bulk container (IBC) A portable packaging that: (a) Has a capacity of not more than 3 m 3 ; (b) (c) Is designed for mechanical handling; Is resistant to the stresses produced in handling and transport, as determined by tests. (From Ref. [2].) intermediate level waste (ILW) See waste classes. internal exposure See exposure (1). International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) The INES scale is intended for use by Member States in promptly informing the public about the relative severity of events at nuclear facilities and with other sources of radiation.! The INES event scale should not be confused with emergency classification systems, and should not be used as a basis for emergency response actions.! There is a fundamental mismatch between the terminology and usage in safety standards and the designations used in INES.! The INES terminology in particular the use of the terms incident and accident is different from that in safety standards and from the usual English meanings of the words, and great care should be taken to avoid confusion between the two areas.! In short, events that would be considered accidents according to the safety standards definition may be accidents or incidents (i.e. not accidents) in INES terminology (see incident and accident (1) and see under event). This is not a serious day to day problem because the two areas are quite separate and have quite different purposes. However, it is a potential cause of confusion in communication with the news media and the public. international nuclear transport See transport (1). interplate tectonic processes Tectonic processes occurring at the interfaces between the Earth s tectonic plates. intervention Any action intended to reduce or avert exposure or the likelihood of exposure due to sources that are not part of a controlled practice or that are out of control as a consequence of an accident. 86 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

103 I This definition is somewhat more explicit than (though not necessarily inconsistent with) that of Ref. [33]. intraplate Of tectonic processes, within the Earth s tectonic plates. intrusion (human) The term human intrusion is used for human activities that could affect the integrity of a disposal facility and which could potentially give rise to radiological consequences. Only those human activities (such as construction work, mining or drilling) that could result in direct disturbance of the disposal facility (i.e. disturbance of the waste itself, of the contaminated near field or of materials of the engineered barrier) are included. intrusion barrier See barrier. investigation level See level. iodine thyroid blocking The administration of a compound of stable iodine (usually potassium iodide) to prevent or reduce the uptake of radioactive isotopes of iodine by the thyroid in the event of an accident involving radioactive iodine. An urgent protective action. The term thyroid blocking is sometimes used. ionizing radiation See radiation. irradiation installation A structure or an installation that houses a particle accelerator, X ray apparatus or large radioactive source and that can produce high radiation fields. Irradiation installations include installations for external beam radiation therapy, installations for sterilization or preservation of commercial products and some installations for industrial radiography. isolation (of radioactive waste in a disposal facility) The physical separation and retention of radioactive waste away from people and from the environment. Isolation of radioactive waste with its associated hazards in a disposal facility involves the minimization of the influence of factors that could reduce the integrity of the disposal facility; provision for a very low mobility of most long lived radionuclides to IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

104 I impede their migration from the disposal facility; and making access to the waste by people difficult without special technical capabilities. Design features are intended to provide isolation (a confinement function) for several hundreds of years for short lived waste and for at least several thousand years for intermediate level waste and high level waste. Isolation is an inherent feature of geological disposal. item important to safety See plant equipment. 88 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

105 J justification J 1. The process of determining for a planned exposure situation whether a practice is, overall, beneficial; i.e., whether the expected benefits to individuals and to society from introducing or continuing the practice outweigh the harm (including radiation detriment) resulting from the practice. [1] 2. The process of determining for an emergency exposure situation or an existing exposure situation whether a proposed protective action or remedial action is likely, overall, to be beneficial; i.e., whether the expected benefits to individuals and to society (including the reduction in radiation detriment) from introducing or continuing the protective action or remedial action outweigh the cost of such action and any harm or damage caused by the action. [1] IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

106 K kerma, K The quantity K, defined as: K de K tr dm where de tr is the sum of the initial kinetic energies of all charged ionizing particles liberated by uncharged ionizing particles in a material of mass dm. The SI unit for kerma is joules per kilogram (J/kg), termed the gray (Gy). Kerma was originally an acronym for kinetic energy released in matter but is now accepted as a word. air kerma. The kerma value for air. Under charged particle equilibrium conditions, the air kerma (in gray) is numerically approximately equal to the absorbed dose in air (in gray). reference air kerma rate. The kerma rate to air, in air, at a reference distance of 1 m, corrected for air attenuation and scattering. kerma factor This quantity is expressed in µgy/h at 1 m. The kerma per unit particle fluence. knowledge management An integrated, systematic approach to identifying, managing and sharing an organization s knowledge and enabling groups of people to create new knowledge collectively to help in achieving the organization s objectives. In the context of management systems, knowledge management helps an organization to gain insight and understanding from its own experience. Specific activities in knowledge management help the organization to better acquire, record, store and utilize knowledge. The term knowledge is often used to refer to bodies of facts and principles accumulated by humankind over the course of time. Explicit knowledge is knowledge that is contained in, for example, documents, drawings, calculations, designs, databases, procedures and manuals. Tacit knowledge is knowledge that is held in a person s mind and has typically not been captured or transferred in any form (if it were, it would become explicit knowledge). Knowledge is distinct from information: data yield information and knowledge is gained by acquiring, understanding and interpreting information. Knowledge and information each consist of true statements, but knowledge serves a purpose: knowledge confers a capacity for effective action. Knowledge for an organization is the acquiring, understanding and interpreting of information. 90 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

107 K Knowledge may be applied for such purposes as: problem solving and learning; forming judgements and opinions; decision making, forecasting and strategic planning; generating feasible options for action and taking actions to achieve desired results. Knowledge also protects intellectual assets from decay, augments intelligence and provides increased flexibility. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

108 L L large freight container See freight container. late effect See health effects (of radiation). latent weakness See cause. lava Molten rock erupted at the Earth s surface by a volcano or by an eruptive fissure as an effusive dome or flow. When first emitted from a volcanic vent, lava is a liquid at very high temperature, typically C. Lava flows vary by many orders of magnitude in their viscosities and this strongly influences their flow properties. [legal person] Any organization, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, political or administrative entity or other person designated in accordance with national legislation who or which has responsibility and authority for any action having implications for protection and safety. level Contrasted in legal texts with natural person, meaning an individual. Superseded by the term person or organization, which should be used. See also applicant, licence and registration. clearance level. A value, established by a regulatory body and expressed in terms of activity concentration and/or total activity, at or below which regulatory control may be removed from a source of radiation. See also clearance (1). diagnostic reference level. A level used in medical imaging to indicate whether, in routine conditions, the dose to the patient or the amount of radiopharmaceuticals administered in a specified radiological procedure for medical imaging is unusually high or unusually low for that procedure [1]. For the use of radiopharmaceuticals, the diagnostic reference level is a level of activity for typical examinations for groups of standardized patients or for a standard phantom and for broadly defined types of equipment. 92 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

109 L The diagnostic reference levels are indicative of good practice, when not exceeded, for standard procedures in which good practices and normal practices are applied with regard to diagnostic performance and technical performance. emergency action level (EAL). A specific, predetermined, observable criterion used to detect, recognize and determine the emergency class. An emergency action level could represent an instrument reading, the status of a piece of equipment or any observable event, such as a fire. In this sense, it is not strictly an action level, but it has essentially the same function. exemption level. A value, established by a regulatory body and expressed in terms of activity concentration, total activity, dose rate or radiation energy, at or below which a source of radiation may be granted exemption from being subject to some or all aspects of regulatory control without further consideration. A regulatory body may also grant exemption on a case by case basis, following notification. Although the term exemption level does not strictly apply in such a situation, a criterion for exemption may nevertheless be established by the regulatory body, expressed in similar terms or, alternatively, expressed in terms of annual dose on the basis of an appropriate dose assessment. (See Ref. [1] and para of Ref. [12].) Values of exemption levels are specified in Table I-1 and Table I-2 of Schedule I of Ref. [1]. investigation level. The value of a quantity such as effective dose, intake or contamination per unit area or volume at or above which an investigation would be conducted. level of defence in depth. See defence in depth. operational intervention level (OIL). A set level of a measurable quantity that corresponds to a generic criterion. Operational intervention levels are typically expressed in terms of dose rates or of activity of radioactive material released, time integrated air activity concentrations, ground or surface concentrations, or activity concentrations of radionuclides in environmental, food or water samples. Operational intervention levels are used immediately and directly (without further assessment) to determine the appropriate protective actions on the basis of an environmental measurement. recording level. A level of dose, exposure or intake specified by the regulatory body at or above which values of dose to, exposure of or intake by workers are to be entered in their individual exposure records. reference level. In an emergency exposure situation or an existing exposure situation, the level of dose, risk or activity concentration above which it is not appropriate to plan to allow exposures to occur and below which optimization of protection and safety would continue to be implemented. The chosen value for a reference level will depend upon the prevailing circumstances for the exposure under consideration. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

110 L licence 1. A legal document issued by the regulatory body granting authorization to perform specified activities relating to a facility or activity. licensee. The holder of a current licence. Other derivative terms should not be needed; a licence is a product of the authorization process (although the term licensing process is sometimes used), and a practice with a current licence is an authorized practice. Authorization may take other forms, such as registration or certification. The licensee is the person or organization having overall responsibility for a facility or activity. 2. [Any authorization granted by the regulatory body to the applicant to have the responsibility for the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation or decommissioning of a nuclear installation.] (From Ref. [4].) 3. [Any authorization, permission or certification granted by a regulatory body to carry out any activity related to management of spent fuel or of radioactive waste.] (From Ref. [5].)! The definitions (2) and (3) from the Conventions [4, 5] are somewhat more general in scope than the usual IAEA usage in definition (1).! In IAEA usage, a licence is a particular type of authorization, normally representing the primary authorization for the operation of a whole facility or activity. The conditions attached to the licence may require that further, more specific, authorization or approval be obtained by the licensee before carrying out particular activities. licensee See licence (1). licensing basis A set of regulatory requirements applicable to a nuclear installation. The licensing basis, in addition to a set of regulatory requirements, may also include agreements and commitments made between the regulatory body and the licensee (e.g. in the form of letters exchanged or of statements made in technical meetings). licensing process See licence (1). life, lifetime design life. The period of time during which a facility or component is expected to perform according to the technical specifications to which it was produced. operating lifetime, operating life 1. The period during which an authorized facility is used for its intended purpose, until decommissioning or closure. 94 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

111 L The synonyms operating period and operational period are also used. 2. [The period during which a spent fuel or a radioactive waste management facility is used for its intended purpose. In the case of a disposal facility, the period begins when spent fuel or radioactive waste is first emplaced in the facility and ends upon closure of the facility.] (From Ref. [5].) qualified life. Period for which a structure, system or component has been demonstrated, through testing, analysis or experience, to be capable of functioning within acceptance criteria during specific operating conditions while retaining the ability to perform its safety functions in accident conditions for a design basis accident or a design basis earthquake. service life. The period from initial operation to final withdrawal from service of a structure, system or component. life cycle management Life management (or lifetime management) in which due recognition is given to the fact that at all stages in the lifetime there may be effects that need to be taken into consideration. An example is the approach to products, processes and services in which it is recognized that at all stages in the lifetime of a product (extraction and processing of raw materials, manufacturing, transport and distribution, use and reuse, and recycling and waste management) there are environmental impacts and economic consequences. The term life cycle (as opposed to lifetime) implies that the life is genuinely cyclical (as in the case of recycling or reprocessing). See cradle to grave approach, ageing management. life management, lifetime management See ageing management. lifetime See life, lifetime. lifetime dose See dose concepts. lifetime risk See risk (3). limit The value of a quantity used in certain specified activities or circumstances that must not be exceeded.! The term limit should only be used for a criterion that must not be exceeded, e.g. where exceeding the limit would cause some form of legal sanction to be invoked. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

112 L! Criteria used for other purposes e.g. to indicate a need for closer investigation or a review of procedures, or as a threshold for reporting to a regulatory body should be described using other terms, such as reference level. acceptable limit. A limit acceptable to the regulatory body. The term acceptable limit is usually used to refer to a limit on the predicted radiological consequences of an accident (or on potential exposures if they occur) that is acceptable to the relevant regulatory body when the probability of occurrence of the accident or potential exposures has been taken into account (i.e. on the basis that it is unlikely to occur). The term authorized limit should be used to refer to limits on doses or risks, or on releases of radionuclides, which are acceptable to the regulatory body on the assumption that they are likely to occur. annual limit on exposure (ALE). The potential alpha energy exposure in a year that would result in inhalation of the annual limit on intake (ALI). Used for exposure due to decay products of 222 Rn or 220 Rn. In units of J h/m 3. annual limit on intake (ALI). The intake by inhalation or ingestion or through the skin of a given radionuclide in a year by the reference individual which would result in a committed dose equal to the relevant dose limit. The annual limit on intake is expressed in units of activity. See Refs [19, 20]. authorized limit. A limit on a measurable quantity, established or formally accepted by a regulatory body.! Wherever possible, authorized limit should be used in preference to prescribed limit. Equivalent in meaning to prescribed limit, authorized limit has been more commonly used in radiation safety and the safety of radioactive waste management, in particular in the context of limits on discharges. derived limit. A limit on a measurable quantity set, on the basis of a model, such that compliance with the derived limit may be assumed to ensure compliance with a primary limit. dose limit. The value of the effective dose or the equivalent dose to individuals in planned exposure situations that is not to be exceeded. operational limits and conditions. A set of rules setting forth parameter limits, the functional capability and the performance levels of equipment and personnel approved by the regulatory body for safe operation of an authorized facility. [prescribed limit]. A limit established or accepted by the regulatory body. The term authorized limit is preferred. primary limit. A limit on the dose or risk to an individual. safety limits. Limits on operational parameters within which an authorized facility has been shown to be safe. 96 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

113 L Safety limits are operational limits and conditions beyond those for normal operation. [secondary limit]. A limit on a measurable quantity that corresponds to a primary limit.! Such a limit meets the definition of derived limit, and derived limit should be used. For example, the annual limit on intake, a derived limit, corresponds to the primary limit on annual effective dose for a worker. linear energy transfer (LET), L Defined generally as: L de d where de is the energy lost in traversing distance d and is an upper bound on the energy transferred in any single collision. A measure of how, as a function of distance, energy is transferred from radiation to the exposed matter. A high value of linear energy transfer indicates that energy is deposited within a small distance. L (i.e. with = ) is termed the unrestricted linear energy transfer in defining the quality factor. L is also known as the restricted linear collision stopping power. linear no threshold (LNT) hypothesis The hypothesis that the risk of stochastic effects is directly proportional to the dose for all levels of dose and dose rate below those levels for which deterministic effects occur. I.e. that any non-zero dose implies a non-zero risk of stochastic effects. This is the working hypothesis on which the IAEA s safety standards (and the International Commission on Radiological Protection s recommendations) are based. The hypothesis is not proven indeed it is probably not provable for low doses and dose rates, but it is considered the most defensible assumption in radiobiological terms on which to base safety standards. Other hypotheses conjecture that the risk of stochastic effects at low doses and/or dose rates is: (a) (b) (c) (d) Greater than that implied by the linear no threshold hypothesis (superlinear hypotheses); Less than that implied by the linear no threshold hypothesis (sublinear hypotheses); Zero below some threshold value of dose or dose rate (threshold hypotheses); or Negative below some threshold value of dose or dose rate, i.e. that low doses and dose rates protect individuals against stochastic effects and/or other types of harm (hormesis hypotheses). IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

114 L living probabilistic safety assessment See probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). logic The generation of a required binary output signal from a number of binary input signals according to predetermined rules. The term is also applied to the types of equipment used for generating this signal (e.g. logic gate, logic board). long lived waste See waste classes. low dispersible radioactive material Either solid radioactive material, or solid radioactive material in a sealed capsule, that has limited dispersibility and is not in powder form. (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations, and should otherwise be avoided. low enriched uranium (LEU) See uranium. low level waste (LLW) See waste classes. low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation See radiation. low specific activity (LSA) material Radioactive material that by its nature has a limited specific activity, or radioactive material for which limits of estimated average specific activity apply. (From Ref. [2].)! External shielding materials surrounding the low specific activity material is required not to be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity.! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations, and should otherwise be avoided. low toxicity alpha emitters Natural uranium; depleted uranium; natural thorium; uranium-235 or uranium-238; thorium- 232; thorium-228 and thorium-230 when contained in ores or physical and chemical concentrates; or alpha emitters with a half-life of less than 10 days. (From Ref. [2].) lower limit of detection See minimum detectable activity (MDA). 98 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

115 L lung absorption type A classification used to distinguish between the different rates at which inhaled radionuclides are transferred from the respiratory tract to the blood. Reference [34] classifies materials into four lung absorption types: (a) (b) (c) (d) Type V (very fast) are materials that, for dosimetric purposes, are assumed to be instantaneously absorbed into the blood; Type F (fast) are materials that are readily absorbed into the blood; Type M (moderate) are materials that have intermediate rates of absorption into the blood; Type S (slow) are materials that are relatively insoluble and are only slowly absorbed into the blood. The lung absorption types supersede the inhalation classes D (days), M (months) and Y (years) previously recommended in Refs [18 20] (often referred to informally as lung classes ). There is an approximate correspondence between lung absorption type F and inhalation class D, between lung absorption type M and inhalation class M and between lung absorption type S and inhalation class Y. See also gut transfer factor, a similar concept for ingested radionuclides in the gastrointestinal tract. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

116 M magma M A mixture of molten rock ( C) which can also contain suspended crystals, dissolved gases and sometimes gas bubbles. Magma forms by the melting of existing rock in the Earth s crust or in the Earth s mantle. Magma composition and gas content generally control the type of eruption at a volcano. In general terms, hotter, less viscous magma (e.g. basalt) allows gas to separate more efficiently, limiting the explosivity of the eruption, while cooler, more viscous magma (e.g. andesite, dacite and rhyolite) is more likely to fragment violently during eruption. magma chamber. An underground reservoir that is filled with magma and tapped during a volcanic eruption. Magma in these reservoirs can partially crystallize or mix with new magma, which can change the eruption composition or hazard over time. main safety function See safety function. maintenance The organized activity, both administrative and technical, of keeping structures, systems and components in good operating condition, including both preventive and corrective (or repair) aspects. corrective maintenance. Actions that restore, by repair, overhaul or replacement, the capability of a failed structure, system or component to function within acceptance criteria. Corrective maintenance does not necessarily result in a significant extension of the expected useful life of a functional structure, system or component. Contrasted with preventive maintenance. periodic maintenance. Form of preventive maintenance consisting of servicing, parts replacement, surveillance or testing at predetermined intervals of calendar time, operating time or number of cycles. Also termed time based maintenance. planned maintenance. Form of preventive maintenance consisting of refurbishment or replacement that is scheduled and performed prior to unacceptable degradation of a structure, system or component. predictive maintenance. Form of preventive maintenance performed continuously or at intervals governed by observed condition to monitor, diagnose or trend a structure, system or component s condition indicators; results indicate present and future functional ability or the nature of and schedule for planned maintenance. Also termed condition based maintenance. 100 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

117 M preventive maintenance. Actions that detect, preclude or mitigate degradation of a functional structure, system or component to sustain or extend its useful life by controlling degradation and failures to an acceptable level. Preventive maintenance may be periodic maintenance, planned maintenance or predictive maintenance. Contrasted with corrective maintenance. reliability centred maintenance (RCM). A process for specifying applicable preventive maintenance requirements for safety related systems and equipment in order to prevent potential failures or to control the failure modes optimally. RCM utilizes a decision logic tree to identify the maintenance requirements according to the safety consequences and operational consequences of each failure and the degradation mechanism responsible for the failures. magnitude (of an earthquake) Measure of the size of an earthquake relating to the energy released in the form of seismic waves. Seismic magnitude means the numerical value on a standardized scale such as, but not limited to, moment magnitude, surface wave magnitude, body wave magnitude, local magnitude or duration magnitude. maximum potential magnitude. Reference value used in seismic hazard analysis characterizing the potential of a seismic source to generate earthquakes. The way in which the maximum potential magnitude is calculated depends on the type of seismic source considered and the approach to be used in the seismic hazard analysis. maintenance bypass See bypass (1). management (of sealed radioactive sources) [The administrative and operational activities that are involved in the manufacture, supply, receipt, possession, storage, use, transfer, import, export, transport, maintenance, recycling or disposal of radioactive sources.] (From Ref. [13].)! This usage is specific to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources [13]. management self-assessment See assessment (2). management system A set of interrelated or interacting elements (a system) for establishing policies and objectives and enabling the objectives to be achieved in an efficient and effective manner. The component parts of the management system include the organizational structure, resources and organizational processes. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

118 M Management is defined (in ISO 9000) as coordinated activities to direct and control an organization. The management system integrates all elements of an organization into one coherent system to enable all of the organization s objectives to be achieved. These elements include the organizational structure, resources and processes. Personnel, equipment and organizational culture as well as the documented policies and processes form parts of the management system. The organization s processes have to address the totality of the requirements on the organization as established in, for example, IAEA safety standards and other international codes and standards. integrated management system. A single coherent management system for facilities and activities in which all the component parts of an organization are integrated to enable the organization s objectives to be achieved. These component parts of an organization that are integrated include the organizational structure, resources and organizational processes. management system review A regular and systematic evaluation by senior management of an organization of the suitability, adequacy, effectiveness and efficiency of its management system in executing the policies and achieving the goals and objectives of the organization. senior management. The person or persons who direct, control and assess an organization at the highest level. mantle, Earth s A solid layer of the Earth, approximately 2300 km thick, located between the Earth s crust and the Earth s core. Basaltic magma forms from the partial melting of mantle rocks. material ageing See ageing. mathematical model See model. maximum normal operating pressure The maximum pressure above atmospheric pressure at mean sea level that would develop in the containment system in a period of one year under the conditions of temperature and solar radiation corresponding to environmental conditions in the absence of venting, external cooling by an ancillary system or operational controls during transport. (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations. 102 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

119 M medical exposure See exposure, categories of. medical physicist A health professional with specialist education and training in the concepts and techniques of applying physics in medicine and competent to practise independently in one or more of the subfields (specialties) of medical physics. Competence of persons is normally assessed by the State by having a formal mechanism for registration, accreditation or certification of medical physicists in the various specialties (e.g. diagnostic radiology, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine). States that have yet to develop such a mechanism would need to assess the education, training and competence of any individual proposed by the licensee to act as a medical physicist and to decide, on the basis of either international accreditation standards or standards of a State where such an accreditation system exists, whether such an individual could undertake the functions of a medical physicist, within the required specialty. medical radiation facility A medical facility in which radiological procedures are performed. medical radiation technologist A health professional, with specialist education and training in medical radiation technology, competent to perform radiological procedures, on delegation from the radiological medical practitioner, in one or more of the specialties of medical radiation technology. Competence of persons is normally assessed by the State by having a formal mechanism for registration, accreditation or certification of medical radiation technologists in the various specialties (e.g. diagnostic radiology, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine). States that have yet to develop such a mechanism would need to assess the education, training and competence of any individual proposed by the licensee to act as a medical radiation technologist and to decide, on the basis of either international standards or standards of a State where such a system exists, whether such an individual could undertake the functions of a medical radiation technologist, within the required specialty. medical radiological equipment Radiological equipment used in medical radiation facilities to perform radiological procedures that either delivers an exposure to an individual or directly controls or influences the extent of such exposure. The term applies to radiation generators, such as X ray machines or medical linear accelerators; to devices containing sealed sources, such as 60 Co teletherapy units; to devices used in a medical imaging procedure involving ionizing radiation to capture images, such as gamma cameras, image intensifiers or flat panel detectors, and to hybrid systems such as positron emission tomography computed tomography scanners. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

120 M member of the public For purposes of protection and safety, in a general sense, any individual in the population except when subject to occupational exposure or medical exposure. For the purpose of verifying compliance with the annual dose limit for public exposure, this is the representative person. migration The movement of radionuclides in the environment as a result of natural processes. mill Most commonly, movement of radionuclides in association with groundwater flow. See [mine or mill processing radioactive ores]. milling See [mining and milling]. [mine or mill processing radioactive ores] [Installation for mining, milling or processing ores containing uranium series or thorium series radionuclides.] [A mine processing radioactive ores is any mine that yields ores containing uranium series or thorium series radionuclides, either in amounts or concentrations sufficient to warrant exploitation or, when present in conjunction with other substances being mined, in amounts or concentrations that require radiation protection measures to be taken as determined by the regulatory body.] [A mill processing radioactive ores is any facility for processing radioactive ores from a mine processing radioactive ores as here defined to produce a physical or chemical concentrate.] This entry was restricted to those mining and processing operations aimed at extracting uranium series or thorium series radionuclides and those aimed at the extraction of other substances from ore where this represents a significant radiological hazard. Strictly speaking, a mill in the context of the processing of minerals is a facility for the processing of ore to reduce its particle size, especially by crushing or grinding. However, the term mill was used in a broader sense to denote a facility in which additional processing (e.g. hydrometallurgical processing) may also be carried out.! Owing to the possibility of confusion, the use of the word mill in this broader sense, in this expression or elsewhere, is discouraged. This entry has been included for information only. Words are used with their usual dictionary meanings except for the term radioactive. See radioactive (2). minimization (of waste) The process of reducing the amount and activity of radioactive waste to a level as low as reasonably achievable, at all stages from the design of a facility or activity to decommissioning, by reducing the amount of waste generated and by means such as recycling 104 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

121 M and reuse, and treatment to reduce its activity, with due consideration for secondary waste as well as primary waste. Minimization of waste is not to be confused with volume reduction. See waste management, radioactive. recycling. The process of converting waste materials into new products. Recycling reduces the wastage of useful materials, the use of raw materials and energy use. Recycling contributes to reducing air pollution (caused by incineration) and reducing water pollution (caused by use of landfill sites) by reducing the need for disposal of conventional waste, and also contributes to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. reuse. The use of an item again after it has been used before. Reuse includes conventional reuse, in which an item is used again to perform the same functions, and reuse in which an item is used again to perform a different function. minimum detectable activity (MDA) The radioactivity which, if present in a sample, produces a counting rate that will be detected (i.e. considered to be above background) with a certain level of confidence. The certain level of confidence is normally set at 95%, i.e. a sample containing exactly the minimum detectable activity will, as a result of random fluctuations, be taken to be free of radioactivity 5% of the time. The minimum detectable activity is sometimes referred to as the detection limit or lower limit of detection. The counting rate from a sample containing the minimum detectable activity is termed the determination level. minimum significant activity (MSA) The radioactivity which, if present in a sample, produces a counting rate that can be reliably distinguished from background with a certain level of confidence. A sample containing exactly the minimum significant activity will, as a result of random fluctuations, be taken to be free of radioactivity 50% of the time, whereas a true background sample will be taken to be free of radioactivity 95% of the time. The minimum significant activity is sometimes referred to as the decision limit. The counting rate from a sample containing the minimum significant activity is termed the critical level. [mining and milling] [Mining in a mine that yields radioactive ores containing uranium series or thorium series radionuclides, either in amounts or concentrations sufficient to warrant exploitation or, when present in conjunction with other substances being mined, in amounts or concentrations that require radiation protection measures to be taken as determined by the regulatory body; and processing of radioactive ores from such mines to produce a chemical concentrate.] IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

122 M This entry was restricted to those mining and processing operations aimed at extracting uranium series or thorium series radionuclides and those aimed at the extraction of other substances from ore where this represents a significant radiological hazard. Strictly speaking, milling in the context of the processing of minerals is the processing of ore to reduce its particle size, especially by crushing or grinding. However, in the context of this entry, the term milling was used in a broader sense to include additional processing (e.g. hydrometallurgical processing).! Owing to the possibility of confusion, the use of the word milling in this broader sense, in this expression or elsewhere, is discouraged. Mining includes in situ leaching, also known as solution mining or in situ recovery, which involves recovering minerals from ores in the ground by dissolving them and pumping the resultant solution to the surface so that the minerals can be recovered. This entry has been included for information only. The terms mining and milling should be used with their usual dictionary meanings, qualified where necessary (e.g. by use of the term radioactive ores). See mine or mill processing radioactive ores. [mining and milling waste (MMW)] See waste. mitigatory action See protective action (1). mixed waste See waste. model An analytical or physical representation or quantification of a real system and the ways in which phenomena occur within that system, used to predict or assess the behaviour of the real system under specified (often hypothetical) conditions. computational model. A calculational tool that implements a mathematical model. conceptual model. A set of qualitative assumptions used to describe a system (or part thereof). These assumptions would normally cover, as a minimum, the geometry and dimensionality of the system, initial and boundary conditions, time dependence, and the nature of the relevant physical, chemical and biological processes and phenomena. mathematical model. A set of mathematical equations designed to represent a conceptual model. mechanistic model (biophysical model). Representation of an assumed or proven radiation induced biophysical process occurring on the molecular level, cellular level, organ level or level of the whole organism. 106 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

123 M physical model. A physical representation, at different scale and/or using different materials, of a structure or component, the performance of which may be related to that of the real structure or component. risk projection model. A conceptual model such as that for estimating the risk from radiation exposure at low doses and dose rates on the basis of epidemiological evidence concerning the risk from high doses and/or dose rates. additive risk projection model. A risk projection model in which exposure is assumed to lead to an attributable risk that is proportional to the dose but independent of the natural probability of the effect. multiplicative risk projection model. A risk projection model in which exposure is assumed to lead to an attributable risk that is proportional to the dose and to the natural probability of the effect. seismotectonic model. A model that characterizes seismic sources in the region around a site of interest, including the aleatory uncertainties and the epistemic uncertainties in the seismic source characteristics. model calibration See calibration. model validation See validation (1). model verification See verification (1). monitoring 1. The measurement of dose, dose rate or activity for reasons relating to the assessment or control of exposure to radiation or exposure due to radioactive substances, and the interpretation of the results. Measurement is used somewhat loosely. The measurement of dose often means the measurement of a dose equivalent quantity as a proxy (i.e. substitute) for a dose quantity that cannot be measured directly. Also, sampling may be involved as a preliminary step to measurement. Measurements may actually be of radiation levels, airborne activity concentrations, levels of contamination, quantities of radioactive material or individual doses. The results of these measurements may be used to assess radiological hazards or doses resulting or potentially resulting from exposure. Monitoring may be subdivided in two different ways: according to where the measurements are made, into individual monitoring, workplace monitoring, source monitoring and environmental monitoring; and, according to the purpose of the monitoring, into routine monitoring, task related monitoring and special monitoring. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

124 M area monitoring. A form of workplace monitoring in which an area is monitored by taking measurements at different points in that area. As opposed to measurements by a static monitor. environmental monitoring. The measurement of external dose rates due to sources in the environment or of radionuclide concentrations in environmental media. Contrasted with source monitoring. individual monitoring. Monitoring using measurements by equipment worn by individuals, or measurements of quantities of radioactive substances in or on or taken into the bodies of individuals, or measurements of quantities of radioactive substances excreted from the body by individuals. Also called personal monitoring. For workers, usually contrasted with workplace monitoring. It includes, for example, measurements of quantities of radioactive substances taken into the body made using breathing zone air samplers. [personal monitoring]. Synonymous with individual monitoring. This usage may be confusing and is discouraged in favour of individual monitoring. [personnel monitoring]. A combination of individual monitoring and workplace monitoring. This usage may be confusing and is discouraged in favour of individual monitoring and/or workplace monitoring, as appropriate. routine monitoring. Monitoring associated with continuing operations and intended: (1) to demonstrate that working conditions, including the levels of individual dose, remain satisfactory; and (2) to meet regulatory requirements. Routine monitoring can be individual monitoring or workplace monitoring. Contrasting terms: task related monitoring and special monitoring. source monitoring. The measurement of activity in radionuclides being released to the environment or of external dose rates due to sources within a facility or activity. Contrasted with environmental monitoring. special monitoring. Monitoring designed to investigate a specific situation in the workplace for which insufficient information is available to demonstrate adequate control, by providing detailed information to elucidate any problems and to define future procedures. Special monitoring would normally be undertaken at the commissioning stage of new facilities, following major modifications either to facilities or to procedures, or when operations are being carried out under abnormal circumstances, such as following an accident. Special monitoring can be individual monitoring or workplace monitoring. Contrasting terms: routine monitoring and task related monitoring. task related monitoring. Monitoring in relation to a specific operation, to provide data to support immediate decisions on the management of the operation. 108 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

125 M Task related monitoring can be individual monitoring or workplace monitoring. Contrasting terms: routine monitoring and special monitoring. workplace monitoring. Monitoring using measurements made in the working environment. Usually contrasted with individual monitoring. 2. Continuous or periodic measurement of radiological or other parameters or determination of the status of a structure, system or component. Sampling may be involved as a preliminary step to measurement. Although the concept is not fundamentally different from definition (1), this definition is more suited to the types of monitoring concerned primarily with safety (i.e. keeping sources under control) rather than with protection (i.e. controlling exposure). This definition is particularly relevant to monitoring the status of a nuclear installation by tracking plant variables, or monitoring the long term performance of a waste disposal facility by tracking variables such as water fluxes. These examples differ from definition (1) in that the routine measurements are themselves of no particular interest; the monitoring is only intended to detect unexpected deviations if they occur. condition monitoring. Continuous or periodic tests, inspections, measurement or trending of the performance or physical characteristics of structures, systems and components to indicate current or future performance and the potential for failure. Condition monitoring is usually conducted on a non-intrusive basis. multilateral approval See approval. multiple barriers See barrier. multiplexing Transmission and reception of two or more signals or messages over a single data channel, e.g. by the use of time division, frequency division or pulse code techniques. multiplicative risk projection model See model: risk projection model. multiple safety functions See barrier. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

126 N natural analogue A situation in nature used as a model for processes affecting human made systems. N The use of a natural analogue allows conclusions to be drawn that are relevant in making judgements about the safety of an existing or planned nuclear facility. particular, mineral deposits containing radionuclides whose migration history over very long time periods can be analysed and the results used in modelling the potential behaviour of these or similar radionuclides in the geosphere over a long period of time can be used as natural analogues. natural background See background. natural source See source (1). natural uranium See uranium. naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) Radioactive material containing no significant amounts of radionuclides other than naturally occurring radionuclides. The exact definition of significant amounts would be a regulatory decision. Material in which the activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been changed by a process is included in naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Naturally occurring radioactive material or NORM should be used in the singular unless reference is explicitly being made to various materials. naturally occurring radionuclides See radionuclides of natural origin. near field The excavated area of a disposal facility near or in contact with the waste packages, including filling or sealing materials, and those parts of the host medium/rock whose characteristics have been or could be altered by the disposal facility or its contents. See also far field. 110 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

127 N near miss A potential significant event that could have occurred as the consequence of a sequence of actual occurrences but did not occur owing to the conditions prevailing at the time. See event, incident, safety. near surface disposal See disposal (1). near surface disposal facility See disposal facility. new fuel See nuclear fuel. non-fixed contamination See contamination (2). non-physical ageing See ageing. non-radiological consequences (of an emergency) Adverse psychological, societal or economic consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency or of the response to an emergency affecting human life and health, property or the environment. The definition relates to emergency preparedness and response only [25]. [non-stochastic effect] See health effects (of radiation): deterministic effect. NORM See naturally occurring radioactive material. NORM residue Material that remains from a process and comprises or is contaminated by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). A NORM residue may or may not be waste. NORM waste See waste. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

128 N normal operation See plant states (considered in design). notification 1. A document submitted to the regulatory body by a person or organization to notify an intention to carry out a practice or other use of a source. This includes the notification of appropriate competent authorities by a consignor that a shipment will pass through or into their countries, as required in Section V of the Transport Regulations [2]. 2. A report submitted promptly to a national or international authority providing details of an emergency or a possible emergency; for example, as required by the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident [6]. 3. A set of actions taken upon detection of emergency conditions with the purpose of alerting all organizations with responsibility for emergency response in the event of such conditions. notification point A designated organization with which arrangements have been made to receive notification (3) and to initiate promptly the predetermined actions to activate a part of the emergency response. notifying State The State that is responsible for notifying (see notification (2)) potentially affected States and the IAEA of an event or situation of actual, potential or perceived radiological significance for other States. This includes: (a) (b) nuclear The State Party that has jurisdiction or control over the facility or activity (including space objects) in accordance with Article 1 of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident [6]; or The State that initially declares, or discovers evidence of, a transnational emergency, for example by: detecting significant increases in atmospheric radiation levels of unknown origin; detecting contamination in transboundary shipments; discovering a dangerous source that may have originated in another State; or diagnosing medical symptoms that may have resulted from exposure outside the State. Strictly: relating to a nucleus; relating to or using energy released in nuclear fission or fusion. (adjective)! The adjective nuclear is used in many phrases to modify a noun that it cannot logically modify. It must be borne in mind that the meaning of such phrases may be unclear (as opposed to nuclear).! The phrases may therefore need to be explained, and their usage may be open to misunderstanding, misrepresentation or mistranslation. 112 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

129 N! Such phrases include: nuclear accident; nuclear community; nuclear emergency; nuclear facility; nuclear fuel; nuclear incident; nuclear installation; nuclear material; nuclear medicine; [a] nuclear power; nuclear safety; and nuclear security. nuclear accident See accident (1). [nuclear damage] [(i) Loss of life or personal injury; [(ii) loss of or damage to property; and each of the following to the extent determined by the law of the competent court: (iii) economic loss arising from loss or damage referred to in sub-paragraph (i) or (ii), insofar as not included in those sub-paragraphs, if incurred by a person entitled to claim in respect of such loss or damage; (iv) the costs of measures of reinstatement of impaired environment, unless such impairment is insignificant, if such measures are actually taken or to be taken, and insofar as not included in sub-paragraph (ii); (v) loss of income deriving from an economic interest in any use or enjoyment of the environment, incurred as a result of a significant impairment of that environment, and insofar as not included in sub-paragraph (ii); (vi) the costs of preventive measures, and further loss or damage caused by such measures; (vii) any other economic loss, other than any caused by the impairment of the environment, if permitted by the general law on civil liability of the competent court, in the case of sub-paragraphs (i) to (v) and (vii) above, to the extent that the loss or damage arises out of or results from ionizing radiation emitted by any source of radiation inside a nuclear installation, or emitted from nuclear fuel or radioactive products or waste in, or of nuclear material coming from, originating in, or sent to, a nuclear installation, whether so arising from the radioactive properties of such matter, or from a combination of radioactive properties with toxic, explosive or other hazardous properties of such matter.] (From Ref. [31].) In this context, preventive measures are any reasonable measures taken by any person after a nuclear incident has occurred to prevent or minimize damage referred to in subparagraphs (i) to (v) or (vii), subject to any approval of the competent authorities required by the law of the State where the measures were taken. nuclear emergency See emergency. nuclear facility 1. A facility (including associated buildings and equipment) in which nuclear material is produced, processed, used, handled, stored or disposed of. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

130 N Also nuclear fuel cycle facility. See facilities and activities and nuclear installation. 2. [A facility (including associated buildings and equipment) in which nuclear material is produced, processed, used, handled, stored or disposed of, if damage to or interference with such facility could lead to the release of significant amounts of radiation or radioactive material.] (From Refs [35 38].)! This usage is specific to the revised Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities [35 38], for the purposes of the Convention, and should otherwise be avoided. The final act of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities was approved on 8 July [A civilian facility and its associated land, buildings and equipment in which radioactive materials are produced, processed, used, handled, stored or disposed of on such a scale that consideration of safety is required.] (From Ref. [5].)! This usage is specific to the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management [5], for the purposes of the Joint Convention, and should otherwise be avoided. Essentially synonymous with authorized facility, and hence more general than nuclear installation. Note that this differs from safeguards terminology, in which installation is more general than facility. nuclear fuel Fissionable nuclear material in the form of fabricated elements for loading into the reactor core of a civil nuclear power plant or research reactor. fresh fuel. New fuel or unirradiated fuel, including fuel fabricated from fissionable material recovered by reprocessing previously irradiated fuel. nuclear fuel cycle All operations associated with the production of nuclear energy. Operations in the nuclear fuel cycle associated with the production of nuclear energy include the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Mining and processing of uranium ores or thorium ores; Enrichment of uranium; Manufacture of nuclear fuel; Operation of nuclear reactors (including research reactors); Reprocessing of spent fuel; All waste management activities (including decommissioning) relating to operations associated with the production of nuclear energy; Any related research and development activities. closed nuclear fuel cycle. Mining, processing, conversion, enrichment of uranium, nuclear fuel fabrication, reactor operation, electrical generation or other energy products, reprocessing to recover fissile material, storage of reprocessed fissile 114 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

131 N material, disposal (for highly radioactive fission products) and final end states for all waste. open nuclear fuel cycle. Mining, processing, conversion, enrichment of uranium, nuclear fuel fabrication, reactor operation, electrical generation or other energy products, storage of spent fuel, disposal and final end states for all waste. [nuclear incident] See incident. nuclear installation 1. Any nuclear facility subject to authorization that is part of the nuclear fuel cycle, except facilities for the mining or processing of uranium ores or thorium ores and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. This definition thus includes: nuclear power plants; research reactors (including subcritical and critical assemblies) and any adjoining radioisotope production facilities; storage facilities for spent fuel; facilities for the enrichment of uranium; nuclear fuel fabrication facilities; conversion facilities; facilities for the reprocessing of spent fuel; facilities for the predisposal management of radioactive waste arising from nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and nuclear fuel cycle related research and development facilities. 2. [For each Contracting Party, any land based civil nuclear power plant under its jurisdiction, including such storage, handling and treatment facilities for radioactive materials as are on the same site and are directly related to the operation of the nuclear power plant. Such a plant ceases to be a nuclear installation when all nuclear fuel elements have been removed permanently from the reactor core and have been stored safely in accordance with approved procedures, and a decommissioning programme has been agreed to by the regulatory body.] (From Ref. [4].) nuclear material Plutonium except that with isotopic concentration exceeding 80% in plutonium-238; uranium- 233; uranium enriched in the isotope 235 or 233; uranium containing the mixture of isotopes as occurring in nature other than in the form of ore or ore residue; any material containing one or more of the foregoing. (From Refs [35 38].) Nuclear material is necessary for the production of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements, the IAEA verifies that all nuclear material subject to safeguards has been declared and placed under safeguards. Certain non-nuclear materials are essential for the use or production of nuclear material and may also be subject to IAEA safeguards under certain agreements. The final act of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities was approved on 8 July The Statute of the IAEA [39] uses the term special fissionable material, with the meaning essentially of nuclear material as defined here, but explicitly excluding source material. For the purposes of IAEA safeguards agreements, nuclear material is defined as any source material or special fissionable material as defined in Article XX of the Statute IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

132 N of the IAEA. The meaning is essentially the same as that of nuclear material as defined here. See Ref. [40]. The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy [41] uses the term nuclear substances, which means nuclear fuel (other than natural uranium and depleted uranium) and radioactive products or radioactive waste. See also source material. nuclear or radiological emergency See emergency. (nuclear) safety The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents and mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation risks. Often abbreviated to safety in IAEA publications on nuclear safety. Safety means nuclear safety unless otherwise stated, in particular when other types of safety (e.g. fire safety, conventional industrial safety) are also being discussed. See protection and safety for a discussion of the relationship between nuclear safety and radiation protection. (nuclear) security 1. The prevention and detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities or associated activities. See Ref. [42]. Often abbreviated to security in IAEA publications on nuclear security. Security of nuclear material for reasons relating to non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is outside the scope of the IAEA safety standards and of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series. 2. The prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material, other radioactive material or their associated facilities. See IAEA GOV/2005/50. This includes, but is not limited to, the prevention and detection of, and response to, the theft of nuclear material or other radioactive material (with or without knowledge of the nature of the material), sabotage, and other malicious acts, illicit trafficking and unauthorized transfer. The response element of the definition refers to those actions aimed at reversing the immediate consequences of unauthorized access or actions (e.g. recovering material). Response to radiological consequences that might ensue is considered part of safety. There is not an exact distinction between the general terms safety and security. In general, security is concerned with intentional actions by people that could cause or threaten harm to other people; safety is concerned with the broader issue of harmful 116 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

133 N consequences to people (and to the environment) arising from exposure to radiation, whatever the cause. The interaction between arrangements for security and arrangements for safety depends on the context. Areas in which arrangements for safety and arrangements for security interact include, for example: the regulatory infrastructure; engineering provisions in the design and construction of nuclear installations and other facilities; controls on access to nuclear installations and other facilities; the categorization of radioactive sources; source design; the security of the management of radioactive sources and radioactive material; the recovery of sources that are not under regulatory control; emergency response plans; and radioactive waste management. Security in a general sense encompasses related issues of global security the sustainability of human life in terms of energy security, environmental security, food security and water security, as well as nuclear security to all of which the use of nuclear energy is related. Joint sponsorship of safety standards, and in particular of IAEA Safety Standards Series Nos SF-1, GSR Part 3 and GSR Part 7, reinforces ae global view of protection of people and protection of the environment. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

134 O O observed cause See cause. occupancy factor A typical fraction of the time for which a location is occupied by an individual or group. occupational exposure See exposure, categories of. off-site Outside the site area. on-site off-site decision maker. A person off the site with the authority and responsibility immediately, without consultation, to implement actions to protect the public within the precautionary action zone, urgent protective action planning zone, extended planning distance and ingestion and commodities planning distance. Within the site area. operating conditions See plant states (considered in design): operational states. operating lifetime, operating life See life, lifetime. operating organization 1. Any person or organization applying for authorization or authorized to operate an authorized facility and responsible for its safety.! Note that such an organization may be the operating organization before operation starts. In practice, for an authorized facility, the operating organization is normally also the registrant or licensee. However, the separate terms are retained to refer to the two different capacities. See also operator. 2. The organization (and its contractors) which undertakes the siting, design, construction, commissioning and/or operation of a nuclear facility.! This usage is peculiar to documentation relating to the safety of radioactive waste management, with the corresponding understanding of siting as a multistage process. 118 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

135 O! This difference is partly a reflection of the particularly crucial role of siting in the safety of repositories. operating period See life, lifetime: operating lifetime, operating life (1). operating personnel Individual workers engaged in the operation of an authorized facility or the conduct of an authorized activity.! This may be shortened to operator(s), provided that there is no danger of confusion with operator in the sense of operating organization. operation 6 All activities performed to achieve the purpose for which an authorized facility was constructed. For a nuclear power plant, this includes maintenance, refuelling, in-service inspection and other associated activities. abnormal operation. See plant states (considered in design): anticipated operational occurrence. assisted operation. See assisted operation. normal operation. See plant states (considered in design). operational bypass See bypass (1). operational criteria (used in an emergency) Values of measurable quantities or observables to be used in the emergency response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in order to determine the need for appropriate protective actions and other emergency response actions. Operational criteria used in an emergency include operational intervention levels (OILs), emergency action levels (EALs), specific observables and other indicators of conditions on the site. operational intervention level (OIL) See level: operational intervention level. operational limits and conditions See limit. operational period See life, lifetime: operating lifetime, operating life (1). IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

136 O operational quantities Quantities used in practical applications for monitoring and investigations that involve external exposure. Operational quantities are defined for the purpose of measurement and assessment of doses in the human body. In internal dosimetry, no operational dose quantities have been defined that directly provide an assessment of equivalent dose or effective dose. Different methods are applied to assess the equivalent dose or effective dose from exposure due to radionuclides in the human body. These methods are mostly based on various activity measurements and the application of biokinetic models (computational models). It is possible to use the measurable properties of radiation fields and of radionuclides associated with external exposure or with intake of radionuclides to estimate protection quantities and to demonstrate compliance with requirements involving protection quantities. These measurable quantities are called operational quantities. operational states See plant states (considered in design). operations area See area. operations boundary See operations area. operator Any person or organization applying for authorization or authorized and/or responsible for safety when undertaking activities or in relation to any nuclear facilities or sources of ionizing radiation. Operator includes, inter alia, private individuals, governmental bodies, consignors or carriers, licensees, hospitals, self-employed persons, etc.! Operator is sometimes used to refer to operating personnel (e.g. control room operators). If used in this way, particular care should be taken to ensure that there is no possibility of confusion. Operator includes either those who are directly in control of a facility or an activity during use or transport of a source (such as radiographers or carriers) or, in the case of a source not under control (such as a lost or illicitly removed source or a re-entering satellite), those who were responsible for the source before control over it was lost. Synonymous with operating organization. 120 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

137 O optimization (of protection and safety) 1. The process of determining what level of protection and safety would result in the magnitude of individual doses, the number of individuals (workers and members of the public) subject to exposure and the likelihood of exposure being as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), economic and social factors being taken into account. 2. The management of the radiation dose to the patient commensurate with the medical purpose. For medical exposures of patients. Optimization of protection and safety has been implemented means that optimization of protection and safety has been applied and the results of that process have been implemented.! This is not the same as optimization of the process or practice concerned. An explicit term such as optimization of protection and safety should be used.! The acronym ALARA should not be used to mean optimization of protection and safety. organ dose See dose quantities. orphan source See source (2). overall emergency plan See emergency plan (1). overpack 1. See waste management, radioactive (1). 2. An enclosure used by a single consignor to contain one or more packages and to form one unit for convenience of handling and stowage during transport. (From Ref. [2].) IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

138 P package P The complete product of the packing operation, consisting of the packaging and its contents prepared for transport. The types of packages covered by the [Transport] Regulations [2] that are subject to the activity limits and material restrictions of Section IV [of the Transport Regulations [2]] and meet the corresponding requirements are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Excepted package; Industrial package Type 1 (Type IP-1); Industrial package Type 2 (Type IP-2); Industrial package Type 3 (Type IP-3); Type A package; Type B(U) package; Type B(M) package; Type C package. Packages containing fissile material or uranium hexafluoride are subject to additional requirements. (From Ref. [2].) The detailed specifications and requirements for these package types are specified in Ref. [2]. package, waste The product of conditioning that includes the waste form and any container(s) and internal barriers (e.g. absorbing materials and liner), as prepared in accordance with requirements for handling, transport, storage and/or disposal. packaging (of waste) 1. One or more receptacles and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacles to perform the containment and other safety functions. (From Ref. [2].) 2. See waste management, radioactive (1). palaeoseismicity The evidence of a prehistoric or historical earthquake manifested as displacement on a fault or secondary effects such as ground deformation (i.e. liquefaction, tsunami, landslides). particle fluence See fluence. passenger aircraft See aircraft. 122 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

139 P passive component A component whose functioning does not depend on an external input such as actuation, mechanical movement or supply of power. A passive component has no moving part, and, for example, only experiences a change in pressure, in temperature or in fluid flow in performing its functions. In addition, certain components that function with very high reliability based on irreversible action or change may be assigned to this category. Examples of passive components are heat exchangers, pipes, vessels, electrical cables and structures. It is emphasized that this definition is necessarily general in nature, as is the corresponding definition of active component. Certain components, such as rupture discs, check valves, safety valves, injectors and some solid state electronic devices, have characteristics which require special consideration before designation as an active or passive component. Any component that is not a passive component is an active component. pathway See also component, core components and structures, systems and components. See exposure pathway. patient See exposure, categories of: medical exposure. peak ground acceleration The maximum absolute value of ground acceleration displayed on an accelerogram; the greatest ground acceleration produced by an earthquake at a site. peer review An examination or review of commercial, professional or academic efficiency, competence, etc., by others in the same occupation. Peer review is also: the evaluation, by experts in the relevant field, of a scientific research project for which a grant is sought; the process by which a learned journal passes a paper received for publication to outside experts for their comments on its suitability and worth; refereeing. performance assessment See assessment (1). performance indicator See indicator. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

140 P performance standard Description of the performance required of a structure, system or component or other item of equipment, a person or a procedure with the aim of ensuring a high level of safety. periodic maintenance See maintenance. periodic safety review A systematic reassessment of the safety of an existing facility (or activity) carried out at regular intervals to deal with the cumulative effects of ageing, modifications, operating experience, technical developments and siting aspects, and aimed at ensuring a high level of safety throughout the service life of the facility (or activity). permanent relocation See relocation. person or organization Any organization, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, group, political or administrative entity, or other persons designated in accordance with national legislation who or which has responsibility and authority for any action having implications for protection and safety. Supersedes the term legal person, which is contrasted in legal texts with natural person, meaning an individual. personal dose equivalent, H p (d) See dose equivalent quantities. [personal monitoring] See monitoring (1). [personnel monitoring] See monitoring (1). physical ageing See ageing. physical diversity See diversity. physical half-life See half-life (2): radioactive half-life. 124 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

141 P physical protection See protection (3). physical separation Separation by geometry (distance, orientation, etc.), by appropriate barriers, or by a combination thereof. physisorption See sorption. planned maintenance See maintenance. planning target volume A geometrical concept used in radiation therapy for planning medical treatment with consideration of the net effect of movements of the patient and of the tissues to be irradiated, variations in size and shape of the tissues, and variations in beam geometry such as beam size and beam direction. plant equipment (for a nuclear power plant) Plant equipment Items important to safety a Items not important to safety a Safety related items a Safety systems Protection system Safety actuation system Safety system support features a In this context, an item is a structure, system or component. item important to safety. An item that is part of a safety group and/or whose malfunction or failure could lead to radiation exposure of the site personnel or members of the public. Items important to safety include: Those structures, systems and components whose malfunction or failure could lead to undue radiation exposure of site personnel or members of the public; Those structures, systems and components that prevent anticipated operational occurrences from leading to accident conditions; Those features that are provided to mitigate the consequences of malfunction or failure of structures, systems and components. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

142 P protection system. System that monitors the operation of a reactor and which, on sensing an abnormal condition, automatically initiates actions to prevent an unsafe or potentially unsafe condition.! This use of the term protection refers to protection of the plant (protection (2)). The system in this case encompasses all electrical and mechanical devices and circuitry, from sensors to actuation device input terminals. safety actuation system. The collection of equipment required to accomplish the necessary safety actions when initiated by the protection system. safety related item. An item important to safety that is not part of a safety system. safety related system. A system important to safety that is not part of a safety system. A safety related instrumentation and control system, for example, is an instrumentation and control system that is important to safety but which is not part of a safety system. safety system. A system important to safety, provided to ensure the safe shutdown of the reactor or the residual heat removal from the reactor core, or to limit the consequences of anticipated operational occurrences and design basis accidents. Safety systems consist of the protection system, the safety actuation systems and the safety system support features. Components of safety systems may be provided solely to perform safety functions, or may perform safety functions in some plant operational states and non-safety functions in other operational states. safety system settings. Settings for levels at which safety systems are automatically actuated in the event of anticipated operational occurrences or design basis accidents, to prevent safety limits from being exceeded. safety system support features. The collection of equipment that provides services such as cooling, lubrication and energy supply required by the protection system and the safety actuation systems.! After an initiating event, some required safety system support features may be initiated by the protection system and others may be initiated by the safety actuation systems they serve; other required safety system support features may not need to be initiated if they are in operation at the time of the initiating event. plant states (considered in design)! The entries that follow (terms and definitions) relate to consideration at the design stage (i.e. by means of hypothetical scenarios).! Care needs to be taken to select, use and relate defined terms and other words in such a way that clear distinctions are drawn and may be inferred between, for example: events and situations (see the entry for event); accidents and other incidents; what is actual (i.e. what is), possible (i.e. what might be) or potential (i.e. what could become), and what is hypothetical (i.e. what is postulated or assumed); and what is observed or determined objectively, and what is decided or declared subjectively. 126 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

143 P! Conditions, for example, is used in terms in the sense of rules set in design (as in operational limits and conditions) and also circumstances of operation (as in plant conditions); and in terms used in both design and operation (e.g. in accident conditions, service conditions).! Drafters and reviewers thus need to bear in mind whether text concerns design or operation, or both. The, potential, the postulated or the assumed in design needs to be distinguished from the observed or the determined in operation; and the decided on or declared (such as an emergency), in both design and operation, needs to be distinguished from these former. See event, model, probabilistic safety assessment, uncertainty. Operational states Accident conditions Normal operation Anticipated operational occurrences Design basis accidents Design extension conditions Without significant fuel degradation With core melting accident conditions. Deviations from normal operation that are less frequent and more severe than anticipated operational occurrences Accident conditions comprise design basis accidents and design extension conditions. Examples of such deviations include a major fuel failure or a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). See accident, event. accident management. The taking of a set of actions during the evolution of a beyond design basis accident: (a) (b) (c) To prevent the escalation of the event into a severe accident; To mitigate the consequences of a severe accident; To achieve a long term safe stable state. The second aspect of accident management (to mitigate the consequences of a severe accident) is also termed severe accident management. anticipated operational occurrence. A deviation of an operational process from normal operation that is expected to occur at least once during the operating lifetime of a facility but which, in view of appropriate design provisions, does not cause any significant damage to items important to safety or lead to accident conditions. Examples of anticipated operational occurrences are loss of normal electrical power and faults such as a turbine trip, malfunction of individual items of a normally running plant, failure to function of individual items of control equipment, and loss of power to the main coolant pump. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

144 P Pliocene Some States and organizations use the term abnormal operation (for contrast with normal operation) for this concept. controlled state. Plant state, following an anticipated operational occurrence or accident conditions, in which fulfilment of the main safety functions can be ensured and which can be maintained for a time sufficient to implement provisions to reach a safe state. design basis accident. A postulated accident leading to accident conditions for which a facility is designed in accordance with established design criteria and conservative methodology, and for which releases of radioactive material are kept within acceptable limits. beyond design basis accident. Postulated accident with accident conditions more severe than those of a design basis accident. design extension conditions. Postulated accident conditions that are not considered for design basis accidents, but that are considered in the design process of the facility in accordance with best estimate methodology, and for which releases of radioactive material are kept within acceptable limits. Design extension conditions comprise conditions in events without significant fuel degradation and conditions in events with melting of the reactor core. safety feature (for design extension conditions). Item that is designed to perform a safety function for or that has a safety function for design extension conditions. normal operation. Operation within specified operational limits and conditions. For a nuclear power plant, this includes startup, power operation, shutting down, shutdown, maintenance, testing and refuelling. operational states. States defined under normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences. Some States and organizations use the term operating conditions (in contrast to accident conditions) for this concept. safe state. Plant state, following an anticipated operational occurrence or accident conditions, in which the reactor is subcritical and the main safety functions can be ensured and maintained stable for a long time. severe accident. Accident more severe than a design basis accident and involving significant core degradation. severe accident management. (See severe accident and accident management.) By extension, accident management for a severe accident includes the taking of a set of actions during the evolution of the accident to mitigate degradation of the reactor core. An interval of geological time extending from 5.3 to 2.6 million years ago. poison A substance used to reduce reactivity (typically in a reactor core), by virtue of its high neutron absorption cross-section. 128 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

145 P [burnable poison]. A poison that becomes less effective as a result of absorbing neutrons.! The term burnable absorber is preferred. postulated initiating event (PIE) See initiating event. potential alpha energy The total alpha energy ultimately emitted during the decay of decay products of 222 Rn or 220 Rn through the decay chain.! Note that the definition of radon decay products includes the decay chain up to but not including lead-210. potential alpha energy exposure. The time integral of the potential alpha energy concentration in air over the time period for which an individual is exposed to radiation from decay products of 222 Rn or 220 Rn.! This is not a type of potential exposure. Used in measuring exposure due to decay products of 222 Rn or 220 Rn, in particular for occupational exposure. Unit: J h/m 3. potential exposure See exposure situations. practical elimination See elimination, practical. practice Any human activity that introduces additional sources of radiation or additional exposure pathways, or that modifies the network of exposure pathways from existing sources, so as to increase the exposure or the likelihood of exposure of people or the number of people exposed.! Radioactive waste is generated as a result of practices that involve some beneficial effect, such as the generation of electricity by nuclear means or the diagnostic application of radioisotopes. The management of this waste is therefore only one part of the overall practice. See also facilities and activities. Terms such as authorized practice, controlled practice and regulated practice are used to distinguish those practices that are subject to regulatory control from other activities that meet the definition of a practice but do not need or are not amenable to control. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

146 P precautionary action zone (PAZ) See emergency planning zones. predictive maintenance See maintenance. predisposal management (of waste) See waste management, radioactive (1). preparedness stage See emergency preparedness stage. [prescribed limit] See limit. pretreatment (of waste) See waste management, radioactive (1). preventive maintenance See maintenance. preventive measures See [nuclear damage]. primary limit See limit. prime mover A component that converts energy into action when commanded by an actuation device. Such as a motor, solenoid operator or pneumatic operator. probabilistic analysis Probabilistic analysis is often taken to be synonymous with stochastic analysis. Strictly, however, stochastic conveys directly the idea of randomness (or at least apparent randomness), whereas probabilistic is directly related to probabilities, and hence only indirectly concerned with randomness. A natural event or process might more correctly be described as stochastic (as in stochastic effect), whereas probabilistic would be more appropriate for describing a mathematical analysis of stochastic events or processes and their consequences (such an analysis would, strictly, only be stochastic if the analytical method itself included an element of randomness, e.g. Monte Carlo analysis). 130 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

147 P probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) A comprehensive, structured approach to identifying failure scenarios, constituting a conceptual and mathematical tool for deriving numerical estimates of risk. Three levels of probabilistic safety assessment are generally recognized. procedure Level 1 comprises the assessment of failures leading to determination of the frequency of core damage. Level 2 includes the assessment of containment response, leading, together with Level 1 results, to the determination of frequencies of failure of the containment and release to the environment of a given percentage of the reactor core s inventory of radionuclides. Level 3 includes the assessment of off-site consequences, leading, together with the results of Level 2 analysis, to estimates of public risks. (See, for example, Ref. [43].) living probabilistic safety assessment. A probabilistic safety assessment that is updated as necessary to reflect the current design and operational features, and is documented in such a way that each aspect of the PSA model can be directly related to existing plant information and plant documentation, or to the analysts assumptions in the absence of such information. A series of specified actions conducted in a certain order or manner. The set of actions to be taken to conduct an activity or to perform a process is typically specified in a set of instructions. process 1. A course of action or proceeding, especially a series of progressive stages in the manufacture of a product or some other operation. 2. A set of interrelated or interacting activities that transforms inputs into outputs. A product is the result or output of a process. processing (of waste) See waste management, radioactive (1). projected dose See dose concepts. protection 1. (against radiation): radiation protection (also radiological protection). The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this. See also protection and safety. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

148 P The International Commission on Radiological Protection and others use the term radiological protection, which is synonymous. The accepted understanding of the term radiation protection is restricted to protection of people. Suggestions to extend the definition to include the protection of non-human species or the protection of the environment are controversial. 2. (of a nuclear reactor). See plant equipment: protection system. 3. (of nuclear material): [physical protection. Measures for the protection of nuclear material or authorized facilities, designed to prevent unauthorized access or removal of fissile material or sabotage with regard to safeguards, as, for example, in the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.] (From Refs [35 38].) The final act of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities was approved on 8 July protection and safety The protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation or exposure due to radioactive material and the safety of sources, including the means for achieving this, and the means for preventing accidents and for mitigating the consequences of accidents if they do occur. Safety is primarily concerned with maintaining control over sources, whereas (radiation) protection is primarily concerned with controlling exposure to radiation and its effects. Clearly the two are closely connected: radiation protection (or radiological protection) is very much simpler if the source in question is under control, so safety necessarily contributes towards protection. Sources come in many different types, and hence safety may be termed the safety of nuclear installations, radiation safety, the safety of radioactive waste management or safety in the transport of radioactive material, but protection (in this sense) is primarily concerned with protecting people against exposure, whatever the source, and so is always radiation protection. For the purposes of the IAEA safety standards, protection and safety includes the protection of people against ionizing radiation and safety; it does not include nonradiation-related aspects of safety. Protection and safety is concerned with both radiation risks under normal circumstances and radiation risks as a consequence of incidents, as well as with other possible direct consequences of a loss of control over a nuclear reactor core, nuclear chain reaction, radioactive source or any other source of radiation. Safety measures include actions to prevent incidents and arrangements put in place to mitigate their consequences if they were to occur. protection of the environment See environment. 132 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

149 P protection quantities Dose quantities developed for purposes of radiological protection that allow quantification of the extent of exposure of the human body to ionizing radiation due to both whole body and partial body external irradiation and intakes of radionuclides. Dosimetric quantities that are designated as protection quantities are intended for specifying and calculating the numerical limits and levels that are used in safety standards for radiation protection. Protection quantities relate the magnitude of exposures to the risks of health effects of radiation in a way that is applicable to an individual and that is largely independent of the type of radiation and the nature of the exposure (internal or external). Protection quantities were developed to provide an index of the risks arising from the energy imparted by radiation to tissue. protection system See plant equipment. protective action 1. An emergency response action for the purposes of avoiding or reducing doses that might otherwise be received in an emergency exposure situation or an existing exposure situation. See also remedial action. This is related to radiation protection (see definition (1) of protection, and protection and safety). early protective action. A protective action in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency that can be implemented within days to weeks and can still be effective. The most commonly considered early protective actions are relocation and longer term restriction of the consumption of foodstuffs potentially affected by contamination. mitigatory action. Immediate action by the operator or other party: (1) To reduce the potential for conditions to develop that would result in exposure or a release of radioactive material requiring emergency response actions on the site or off the site; or (2) To mitigate source conditions that may result in exposure or a release of radioactive material requiring emergency response actions on the site or off the site. urgent protective action. A protective action in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency taken promptly (usually within hours) in order to be effective, and the effectiveness of which will be markedly reduced if it is delayed. The most commonly considered urgent protective actions in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency are evacuation, decontamination of individuals, sheltering, respiratory protection, iodine thyroid blocking and restriction of the consumption of foodstuffs potentially affected by contamination. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

150 P precautionary urgent protective action. An urgent protective action taken before or shortly after a release of radioactive material, or before an exposure, on the basis of the prevailing conditions as a precaution to avoid or to reduce the risk of severe deterministic effects. 2. A protection system action calling for the operation of a particular safety actuation device. This is related to definition (2) of protection. protective task The generation of at least those protective actions necessary to ensure that the safety task required by a given initiating event is accomplished. public exposure See exposure, categories of. publication, IAEA See IAEA publication. 134 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

151 Q qualification Process of determining whether a system or component is suitable for operational use. Q Qualification is generally performed in the context of a specific set of qualification requirements for the specific facility and class of system and for the specific application. Qualification may be accomplished in stages: e.g., first, by the qualification of preexisting equipment (usually early in the system realization process), then, in a second step, by the qualification of the integrated system (i.e. in the final realized design). Qualification may rely on activities performed outside the framework of a specific facility design (this is called generic qualification or prequalification ). Prequalification may significantly reduce the necessary effort in facility specific qualification; however, the application specific qualification requirements must still be met and be shown to be met. equipment qualification. Generation and maintenance of evidence to ensure that equipment will operate on demand, under specified service conditions, to meet system performance requirements. See Ref. [9]. More specific terms are used for particular equipment or particular conditions; for example, seismic qualification is a form of equipment qualification that relates to conditions that could be encountered in the event of earthquakes. The proof that an item of equipment can perform its function, which is an important part of equipment qualification, is sometimes termed substantiation. qualified equipment Equipment certified as having satisfied equipment qualification requirements for the conditions relevant to its safety function(s). qualified expert An individual who, by virtue of certification by appropriate boards or societies, professional licence or academic qualifications and experience, is duly recognized as having expertise in a relevant field of specialization, e.g. medical physics, radiation protection, occupational health, fire safety, quality management or any relevant engineering or safety speciality. qualified life See life, lifetime. quality control (QC) Part of quality management intended to verify that structures, systems and components correspond to predetermined requirements. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

152 Q This definition is taken from ISO 921:1997 (Nuclear Energy: Vocabulary) [7]. A more general definition of quality control and definitions of related terms can be found in ISO 8402:1994 [44]. quality factor, Q A number by which the absorbed dose in a tissue or organ is multiplied to reflect the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation, the result being the dose equivalent. Superseded by radiation weighting factor in the definition of equivalent dose in Ref. [33], but still defined, as a function of linear energy transfer, for use in calculating the dose equivalent quantities used in monitoring. The Basic Safety Standards [1] also state that the mean quality factor Q at 10 mm depth in the ICRU sphere can be used as a value of radiation weighting factor for radiation types for which the Basic Safety Standards do not specify a value (see radiation weighting factor). quality management 1. The function of a management system that provides confidence that specified requirements will be fulfilled.! The IAEA revised the requirements and guidance in the subject area of quality assurance for its safety standards on management systems for the safety of facilities and activities involving the use of ionizing radiation.! The terms quality management and management system were adopted in the revised standards in place of the terms quality assurance and quality assurance programme. Planned and systematic actions are necessary to provide adequate confidence that an item, process or service will satisfy given requirements for quality; for example, those specified in the licence. This statement was slightly modified from that in the International Organization for Standardization s publication ISO 921:1997 [7] to say an item, process or service instead of a product or service and to add the example. A more general definition of quality assurance (all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide confidence that a structure, system or component will perform satisfactorily in service) and definitions of related terms can be found in the International Organization for Standardization s publication ISO 8402:1994 [44]. 2. See management system. 136 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

153 R [rad] Unit of absorbed dose, equal to 0.01 Gy. Superseded by the gray (Gy). Abbreviation of röntgen absorbed dose or radiation absorbed dose. radiation R! When used in IAEA publications, the term radiation usually refers to ionizing radiation only. The IAEA has no statutory responsibilities in relation to non-ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation can be divided into low linear energy transfer radiation and high linear energy transfer radiation (as a guide to its relative biological effectiveness), or into strongly penetrating radiation and weakly penetrating radiation (as an indication of its ability to penetrate shielding or the human body). high linear energy transfer radiation. Radiation with high linear energy transfer, normally assumed to comprise protons, neutrons and alpha particles (or other particles of similar or greater mass). These are the types of radiation for which the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends a radiation weighting factor greater than 1. Contrasting term: low linear energy transfer radiation. ionizing radiation. For the purposes of radiation protection, radiation capable of producing ion pairs in biological material(s). low linear energy transfer radiation. Radiation with low linear energy transfer, normally assumed to comprise photons (including X rays and gamma radiation), electrons, positrons and muons. These are the types of radiation for which the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends a radiation weighting factor of 1. strongly penetrating radiation. Radiation for which limits on effective dose are generally more restrictive than limits on equivalent dose to any tissue or organ, i.e. the fraction of the relevant dose limit received will, for a given exposure, be higher for effective dose than for equivalent dose to any tissue or organ. For most practical purposes, it may be assumed that strongly penetrating radiation includes photons of energy above about 12 kev, electrons of energy more than about 2 MeV, and neutrons. Contrasting term: weakly penetrating radiation. weakly penetrating radiation. The reverse is generally true. Radiation for which limits on equivalent dose to any tissue or organ are generally more restrictive than limits on effective dose, i.e. the fraction of the relevant dose limit received will, for a given exposure, be higher for equivalent dose to any tissue or organ than for effective dose. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

154 R [radiation area] For most practical purposes, it may be assumed that weakly penetrating radiation includes photons of energy below about 12 kev, electrons of energy less than about 2 MeV, and massive charged particles such as protons and alpha particles. Contrasting term: strongly penetrating radiation. See area: controlled area. radiation detriment The total harm that would eventually be incurred by a group that is subject to exposure and by its descendants as a result of the group s exposure to radiation from a source. In its Publication 60 [33], the International Commission on Radiological Protection defines a measure of radiation detriment that has the dimensions of probability, and that could therefore also be considered a measure of risk. radiation emergency See emergency: nuclear or radiological emergency. radiation level [The corresponding dose rate expressed in millisieverts per hour or microsieverts per hour.] (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations, and should otherwise be avoided. radiation protection See protection (1). radiation protection officer A person technically competent in radiation protection matters relevant for a given type of practice who is designated by the registrant, licensee or employer to oversee the application of relevant requirements established in international safety standards. radiation protection programme Systematic arrangements that are aimed at providing adequate consideration of radiation protection measures. (From Ref. [2].) radiation risks Detrimental health effects of exposure to radiation (including the likelihood of such effects occurring), and any other safety related risks (including those to the environment) that might arise as a direct consequence of: Exposure to radiation; The presence of radioactive material (including radioactive waste) or its release to the environment; 138 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

155 R A loss of control over a nuclear reactor core, nuclear chain reaction, radioactive source or any other source of radiation. (From Ref. [15].) For the purposes of the IAEA safety standards, it is assumed that there is no threshold level of radiation dose below which there are no associated radiation risks. Safety Requirements and Safety Guides specify the radiation exposures and other radiation risks to which they refer. radiation safety See safety. radiation source See source (1). radiation weighting factor, w R A number by which the absorbed dose in a tissue or organ is multiplied to reflect the relative biological effectiveness of the radiation in inducing stochastic effects at low doses, the result being the equivalent dose. Values are selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection to be representative of the relevant relative biological effectiveness and are broadly compatible with the values previously recommended for quality factors in the definition of dose equivalent. The radiation weighting factor values recommended in Ref. [24] are set out below. Type of radiation Photons, all energies 1 Electrons and muons, all energies a 1 Protons and charged pions 2 Alpha particles, fission fragments, heavy ions 20 Neutrons, a continuous function of neutron energy: w R Note: All values relate to the radiation incident on the body or, for internal radiation sources, radiation emitted from the incorporated radionuclide(s). a Excluding Auger electrons emitted from radionuclides bound to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the human body, for which special microdosimetric considerations apply. For radiation types and energies not included in the table, w R can be taken to be equal to Q at 10 mm depth in the ICRU sphere and can be obtained as follows: Q 1 D 0 Q ( L ) D L d L IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

156 R where D is the absorbed dose, Q(L) is the quality factor in terms of the unrestricted linear energy transfer L in water, specified in Ref. [33], and D L is the distribution of D in L. 1 Q ( L) 0.32L / L for for for where L is expressed in kev/µm. radioactive L L 100 L Exhibiting radioactivity; emitting or relating to the emission of ionizing radiation or particles. (adjective)! This is the scientific definition, and should not be confused with the regulatory definition (2). 2. Designated in national law or by a regulatory body as being subject to regulatory control because of its radioactivity. (adjective)! This is the regulatory definition, and should not be confused with the scientific definition (1). radioactive contents The radioactive material together with any contaminated or activated solids, liquids and gases within the packaging. (From Ref. [2].) radioactive discharges See discharge (1). radioactive equilibrium See equilibrium, radioactive. radioactive half-life See half-life (2). radioactive material 1. Material designated in national law or by a regulatory body as being subject to regulatory control because of its radioactivity.! This is the regulatory meaning of radioactive (2), and should not be confused with the scientific meaning of radioactive (1): exhibiting radioactivity; emitting or relating to the emission of ionizing radiation or particles.! The scientific meaning of radioactive (1) as in radioactive substance refers only to the presence of radioactivity, and gives no indication of the magnitude of the hazard involved. 140 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

157 R! The term radioactive substance is also used to indicate that the scientific meaning of radioactive (see radioactive (1)) is intended, rather than the regulatory meaning of radioactive (see radioactive (2)) suggested by the term radioactive material.! However, in some States the term radioactive substance is used for the regulatory purpose. It is therefore essential that any such distinctions in meaning are clarified. In regulatory terminology in some States, radioactive material ceases to be radioactive material when it becomes radioactive waste; the term radioactive substance is used to cover both, i.e. radioactive substance includes radioactive material and radioactive waste. Radioactive material should be used in the singular unless reference is expressly being made to the presence of various types of radioactive material. 2. Any material containing radionuclides where both the activity concentration and the total activity in the consignment exceed the values specified in [Section IV of the Transport Regulations]. (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations, and should otherwise be avoided. radioactive source See source (2). radioactive sources, safety of See safety of radioactive sources. radioactive substance See radioactive (1), radioactive material (1). radioactive waste See waste, radioactive. radioactive waste management See waste management, radioactive. radioactive waste management facility See waste management facility, radioactive. radioactivity The phenomenon whereby atoms undergo spontaneous random disintegration, usually accompanied by the emission of radiation.! In IAEA publications, radioactivity should be used only to refer to the phenomenon.! To refer to the physical quantity or to an amount of a radioactive substance, use activity. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

158 R radiological assessor A person or team who in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency assists the operating organization or off-site response organizations by performing radiological surveys, performing dose assessments, controlling contamination, ensuring the radiation protection of emergency workers and formulating recommendations on protective actions and other emergency response actions.! The radiological assessor would generally be the radiation protection officer. radiological emergency See emergency. [radiological material] See nuclear material and radioactive material.! Avoid this term. radiological medical practitioner A health professional with specialist education and training in the medical uses of radiation, who is competent to perform independently or to oversee radiological procedures involving medical exposure in a given specialty. Competence of persons is normally assessed by the State by having a formal mechanism for registration, accreditation or certification of radiological medical practitioners in the given specialty (e.g. radiology, radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, dentistry, cardiology, etc.). States that have yet to develop such a mechanism need to assess the education, training and competence of any individual proposed by the licensee to act as a radiological medical practitioner and to decide, on the basis of either international standards or standards of a State where such a system exists, whether such an individual could undertake the functions of a radiological medical practitioner, within the required specialty. radiological procedure A medical imaging procedure or therapeutic procedure that involves ionizing radiation, such as a procedure in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine or radiation therapy, or any planning procedure, image guided interventional procedure or other interventional procedure involving radiation, delivered by a radiation generator, by a device containing a sealed source or by an unsealed source, or by means of a radiopharmaceutical administered to a patient. radiological protection See protection (1). radiological survey See survey. 142 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

159 R [radionuclear]! Radionuclear is not a legitimate word. See nuclear material and radioactive material.! Radionuclear has been used in nuclear medicine to mean involving the use of radionuclides ; thus radionuclear tests has been used in nuclear medicine to mean tests in which radiopharmaceuticals are administered. This usage is to be avoided.! Radionuclear has also been used as a journalese shorthand form for nuclear and/or radiological, as in the terms radionuclear weapon and radionuclear emergency ; or used for nuclear and/or radioactive, as in the term radionuclear material. These and other such usages are to be avoided. radionuclides of natural origin Radionuclides that occur naturally on Earth in significant quantities. The term is usually used to refer to the primordial radionuclides potassium-40, uranium- 235, uranium-238, thorium-232 and their radioactive decay products. Contrasted with radionuclides of artificial origin, anthropogenic radionuclides and human made radionuclides (which all mean the same), and also with artificial radionuclides (which exclude radionuclides of artificial origin that are also naturally occurring).! Radionuclides of artificial origin may include radionuclides that are also naturally occurring but may not include radionuclides of natural origin. radiopharmacist A health professional, with specialist education and training in radiopharmacy, who is competent to prepare and dispense radiopharmaceuticals used for the purposes of medical diagnosis and radionuclide therapy. Competence of persons is normally assessed by the State by having a formal mechanism for registration, accreditation or certification of radiopharmacists. States that have yet to develop such a mechanism need to assess the education, training and competence of any individual proposed by the licensee to act as a radiopharmacist and to decide, on the basis of either international standards or standards of a State where such a system exists, whether such an individual could undertake the functions of a radiopharmacist. radon 1. Any combination of isotopes of the element radon. For the purposes of the IAEA safety standards, radon refers to 220 Rn and 222 Rn. 2. [Radon-222.] [When contrasted with thoron (radon-220).] [radon progeny] The short lived radioactive decay products of radon-220 and radon-222. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

160 R For 222 Rn, this includes the decay chain up to but not including 210 Pb, namely 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po, plus traces of 218 At and 210 Tl. Lead-210, which has a half-life of 22.3 years, and its radioactive decay products 210 Bi and 210 Po, plus traces of 206 Hg and 206 Tl are, strictly, decay products of 222 Rn, but they are not included in this listing because they will not normally be present in significant amounts in airborne form. For 220 Rn, this includes 216 Po, 212 Pb, 212 Bi, 212 Po and 208 Tl. reactivity, For a nuclear chain reacting medium: 1 ρ 1 keff where k eff is the ratio between the number of fissions in two succeeding generations (later to earlier) of the chain reaction. A measure of the deviation from criticality of a nuclear chain reacting medium, such that positive values correspond to a supercritical state and negative values correspond to a subcritical state. shutdown reactivity. The reactivity when all control devices are introducing their maximum negative reactivity. A reactor is shut down quickly by moving control devices rapidly into position to introduce their negative reactivity into the reactor core. recording level See level. redundancy Provision of alternative (identical or diverse) structures, systems and components, so that any single structure, system or component can perform the required function regardless of the state of operation or failure of any other. reference air kerma rate See kerma. reference individual An idealized human with characteristics defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for radiation protection purposes. Reference values for eight reference individuals a newborn; a one year old; a five year old; a ten year old; male and female 15 year olds; and male and female adults are given in Ref. [45]. These reference values are based on data for western European and North American populations, but Ref. [45] also provides additional information on individual variation among grossly normal individuals resulting from differences in age, gender, ethnicity and other factors. This is a refinement of the Reference Man concept. 144 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

161 R reference level See level. [Reference Man] An idealized adult Caucasian human male defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the purpose of radiation protection assessment. See Ref. [46]. Although Reference Man is now being superseded by the more general concept of the reference individual (see Refs [45, 47]), some concepts and quantities are still defined in terms of Reference Man. reference scenario See scenario. referring medical practitioner A health professional who, in accordance with national requirements, may refer individuals to a radiological medical practitioner for medical exposure. registrant See registration. registration A form of authorization for facilities and activities of low or moderate risks whereby the person or organization responsible for the facility or activity has, as appropriate, prepared and submitted a safety assessment of the facilities and equipment to the regulatory body. Facilities and activities are authorized with conditions or limitations as appropriate. The requirements for safety assessment and the conditions or limitations applied to the facilities and activities would be less severe for registration than those for issuing a licence. Typical facilities and activities that are amenable to registration are those for which: (a) safety can largely be ensured by the design of the facilities and equipment; (b) the operating procedures are simple to follow; (c) the safety training requirements are minimal; and (d) there is a history of few problems with safety in operations. Registration is best suited to those facilities and activities for which operations do not vary significantly. The holder of a current registration is termed a registrant. Other derivative terms should not be needed; a registration is a product of the authorization process, and a facility or activity with a current registration is an authorized facility or activity. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

162 R [Regulatory Authority] An authority or authorities designated or otherwise recognized by a government for regulatory purposes in connection with protection and safety.! Superseded by the term regulatory body, which should be used. regulatory body 1. An authority or a system of authorities designated by the government of a State as having legal authority for conducting the regulatory process, including issuing authorizations, and thereby regulating the safety of nuclear installations, radiation safety, the safety of radioactive waste management and safety in the transport of radioactive material. The regulatory body is generally a national entity, established and empowered by law, whose organization, management, functions, processes, responsibilities and competences are subject to the requirements of IAEA safety standards. The national competent authority for the regulation of safety in the transport of radioactive material (see Ref. [2]) is included in this description, as is the regulatory body for protection and safety.! Superseded the term Regulatory Authority, which should not be used. 2. [For each Contracting Party any body or bodies given the legal authority by that Contracting Party to grant licences and to regulate the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation or decommissioning of nuclear installations.] (From Ref. [4].) 3. [Any body or bodies given the legal authority by the Contracting Party to regulate any aspect of the safety of spent fuel or radioactive waste management including the granting of licences.] (From Ref. [5].) 4. [An entity or organization or a system of entities or organizations designated by the government of a State as having legal authority for exercising regulatory control with respect to radioactive sources, including issuing authorizations, and thereby regulating one or more aspects of the safety or security of radioactive sources.] (From Ref. [13].) regulatory control See control (1). regulatory inspection See inspection. rehabilitation See remediation. relative biological effectiveness (RBE) A measure of the relative effectiveness of different radiation types at inducing a specified health effect, expressed as the inverse ratio of the absorbed doses of two different radiation types that would produce the same degree of a defined biological end point. 146 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

163 R Values of relative biological effectiveness in causing the development of deterministic effects are selected to be representative of the severe deterministic effects that are significant to emergency preparedness and response. The tissue or organ specific and radiation type specific values of RBE T,R for the development of selected severe deterministic effects are as shown in the following table. Pneumonitis Lung b Health effect Critical tissue or organ Exposure a RBE T,R External and internal 1 Haematopoietic syndrome Red marrow External and internal n 3 Internal 1 Internal 2 External and internal n 3 Internal 1 External and internal 1 Internal 7 External and internal 1 Gastrointestinal syndrome Colon External and internal n 3 Internal 1 Internal 0 c Necrosis d External, 1 Tissue External n 3 e External, 1 Moist desquamation Skin External n 3 Hypothyroidism Thyroid Intake of iodine isotopes f 0.2 Other thyroid seekers 1 a External, exposure includes exposure due to bremsstrahlung produced within the material of the source. b Tissue of the alveolar interstitial region of the respiratory tract. c For alpha emitters uniformly distributed in the contents of the colon, it is assumed that irradiation of the walls of the intestine is negligible. d Tissue at a depth of 5 mm below the skin surface over an area of more than 100 cm 2. e Tissue at a depth of 0.4 mm below the skin surface over an area of more than 100 cm 2. f Uniform irradiation of the tissue of the thyroid gland is considered to be five times more likely to produce deterministic effects than internal exposure due to low energy beta emitting isotopes of iodine such as 131 I, 129 I, 125 I, 124 I and 123 I. Thyroid seeking radionuclides have a heterogeneous distribution in thyroid tissue. The isotope 131 I emits low energy beta particles, which leads to a reduced effectiveness of irradiation of critical thyroid tissue owing to the dissipation of the energy of the particles within other tissues. relative biological effectiveness (RBE) weighted absorbed dose, AD T See dose quantities: absorbed dose relative risk See risk (3). release The action or process of setting free or being set free, or of allowing or being allowed to move or flow freely. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

164 R! Release is used in both a physical scientific sense (see discharge (1)) and a regulatory sense (see clearance), as well as in the usual sense of e.g. a release of energy. reliability The probability that a system or component or an item will meet its minimum performance requirements when called upon to do so, for a specified period of time and under stated operating conditions. The reliability of a computer based system, for example, includes the reliability of hardware, which is usually quantified, and the reliability of software, which is usually a qualitative measure as there are no generally recognized means of quantifying the reliability of software. See also availability. reliability centred maintenance (RCM) See maintenance. relocation The non-urgent removal or extended exclusion of people to avoid long term exposure (e.g. up to one year) from deposited radioactive material. Relocation is an early protective action. It may be a continuation of the urgent protective action of evacuation. [rem] Relocation is considered to be permanent relocation (sometimes termed [resettlement]) if return is not foreseeable (typically if relocation continues for more than a year or two); otherwise it is temporary relocation. Unit of dose equivalent and effective dose equivalent, equal to 0.01 Sv. Superseded by the sievert (Sv). Abbreviation of röntgen equivalent man. remedial action The removal of a source or the reduction of its magnitude (in terms of activity or amount) for the purposes of preventing or reducing exposures that might otherwise occur in an emergency or in an existing exposure situation. Remedial actions could also be termed early protective actions, but early protective actions are not necessarily remedial actions. See also protective action. 148 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

165 R remediation Any measures that may be carried out to reduce the radiation exposure due to existing contamination of land areas through actions applied to the contamination itself (the source) or to the exposure pathways to people. Complete removal of the contamination is not implied. The use of the terms cleanup, rehabilitation and restoration is discouraged. Such terms may be taken to imply that the conditions that prevailed before the contamination can be achieved again and unconditional use of the land areas can be restored, which is not usually the case (e.g. owing to the effects of the remedial action itself). Often remediation is used to restore land areas to conditions suitable for limited use under institutional control. remedy See decontamination. remediation plan. A document setting out the various activities and actions and the timescales necessary to apply the approach and to achieve the objectives of the remediation strategy in order to meet the legal and regulatory requirements for remediation. See cause: root cause. repair Action on a non-conforming product to make it acceptable for its intended use (ISO 9000). repository See also cause: direct cause. Synonymous with disposal facility. representative person An individual receiving a dose that is representative of the doses to the more highly exposed individuals in a population. The representative person will generally be a hypothetical construct and not an actual member of the population. The concept is used to determine compliance or in prospective assessments. In estimating the dose to the representative person, a number of factors are taken into account for the population exposed: (i) all relevant exposure pathways for the source and all locations under consideration; (ii) the spatial distribution of radionuclides in the environment, to ensure that individuals with higher exposures are included; (iii) age dependent physiological parameters and information on diet, habits, residence and use of local resources; (iv) dosimetric models and appropriate dose coefficients. Application of the concept of a representative person to potential exposures, such as those that may occur in the future as a result of radioactive waste disposal, is complicated by the facts that both the dose (if it occurs) and the probability of receiving IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

166 R the dose are relevant, and that these two parameters are essentially independent of one another. Hence, a population can be homogeneous with respect to dose but not risk, and, more importantly, vice versa. A possible approach is to define a representative person that is reasonably representative with respect to risk, and that is typical of those people who might be subject to the highest risk. ICRP Publication 101 [47] indicates that the dose to the representative person is the equivalent of, and replaces, the mean dose in the critical group, and provides guidance on assessing doses to the representative person. See member of the public. reprocessing A process or operation, the purpose of which is to extract radioactive isotopes from spent fuel for further use. requirement (safety) That which is established or required by the Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Fundamentals) [15] or IAEA Safety Requirements publications or by (national or international) laws or regulations.! In IAEA publications, requirement (and required and other words deriving from the verb to require ) should be used in this sense only. Care should be taken to avoid confusion: the use of requirement in the more general sense of something that is necessary should be avoided. Requirements, including numbered overarching requirements, are expressed as shall statements. Reported (quoted) requirements, e.g. in a Safety Guide, are reported using a formulation such as it is required to. research reactor [A nuclear reactor used mainly for the generation and utilization of neutron flux and ionizing radiation for research and other purposes, including experimental facilities associated with the reactor and storage, handling and treatment facilities for radioactive materials on the same site that are directly related to safe operation of the research reactor. Facilities commonly known as critical assemblies are included.]! This definition is particular to the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors [48]. [resettlement] See relocation. residual dose See dose concepts. 150 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

167 R residual heat The sum of the heat originating from radioactive decay and shutdown fission and the heat stored in reactor related structures and in heat transport media. response organization An organization designated or recognized by a State as being responsible for managing or implementing any aspect of an emergency response. This also includes those organizations or services necessary to support the management and/or conduct of an emergency response, such as meteorological services. response spectrum A curve calculated from an accelerogram that gives the value of peak response in terms of the acceleration, velocity or displacement of a damped single-degree-of-freedom linear oscillator (with a given damping ratio) as a function of its natural frequency or period of vibration. uniform hazard response spectrum. Response spectrum with an equal probability of exceedance for each of its spectral ordinates. response time (of a component) The period of time necessary for a component to achieve a specified output state from the time that it receives a signal requiring it to assume that output state.! Note that this is not related to emergency response. restoration See remediation. restricted linear collision stopping power See linear energy transfer (LET). restricted use See use. risk! Depending on the context, the term risk may be used to represent a quantitative measure (as, for example, in definitions (1) and (2)) or as a qualitative concept (as often for definitions (3) and (4)). 1. A multiattribute quantity expressing hazard, danger or chance of harmful or injurious consequences associated with exposures or potential exposures. It relates to quantities such as the probability that specific deleterious consequences may arise and the magnitude and character of such consequences. In mathematical terms, this can be expressed generally as a set of triplets, R S p X, where S i is an identification or description of a scenario i, p i is the i i i probability of that scenario and X i is a measure of the consequence of the scenario. The IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

168 R concept of risk is sometimes also considered to include uncertainty in the probabilities p i of the scenarios. 2. The mathematical mean (expectation value) of an appropriate measure of a specified (usually unwelcome) consequence: R p i C i i where p i is the probability of occurrence of scenario or event sequence i and C i is a measure of the consequence of that scenario or event sequence. Typical consequence measures C i include core damage frequency, the estimated number or probability of health effects, etc. If the number of scenarios or event sequences is large, the summation is replaced by an integral.! The summing of risks associated with scenarios or event sequences with widely differing values of C i is controversial. In such cases the use of the term expectation value, although mathematically correct, is misleading and should be avoided if possible. Methods for treating uncertainty in the values of p i and C i and in particular whether such uncertainty is represented as an element of risk itself or as uncertainty in estimates of risk vary. 3. The probability of a specified health effect occurring in a person or group as a result of exposure to radiation. The health effect(s) in question must be stated e.g. risk of fatal cancer, risk of serious hereditary effects or overall radiation detriment as there is no generally accepted default. Commonly expressed as the product of the probability that exposure will occur and the probability that the exposure, assuming that it occurs, will cause the specified health effect. The latter probability is sometimes termed the conditional risk. annual risk. The probability that a specified health effect will occur at some time in the future in an individual as a result of dose received or dose committed in a given year, taking account of the probability of exposure occurring in that year.! This is not the probability of the health effect occurring in the year in question; it is the lifetime risk resulting from the annual dose for that year. attributable risk. The risk of a specified health effect assumed to result from a specified exposure. excess risk. The difference between the incidence of a specified stochastic effect observed in an exposed group to that in an unexposed control group. lifetime risk. The probability that a specified health effect will occur at some time in the future in an individual as a result of radiation exposure. relative risk. The ratio between the incidence of a specified stochastic effect observed in an exposed group and that in an unexposed control group. (See control (2).) 4. radiation risks. See radiation risks. 152 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

169 R risk assessment See assessment (1). risk coefficient, The lifetime risk or radiation detriment assumed to result from exposure to unit equivalent dose or effective dose. risk constraint A prospective and source related value of individual risk that is used in planned exposure situations as a parameter for the optimization of protection and safety for the source, and that serves as a boundary in defining the range of options in optimization. The risk constraint is a source related value that provides a basic level of protection for the individuals most at risk from a source. This risk is a function of the probability of an unintended event causing a dose, and the probability of the detriment due to such a dose. Risk constraints correspond to dose constraints but apply to potential exposure. [risk factor]! Sometimes misused as a synonym for risk coefficient. This is different from the normal medical use of the term risk factor to indicate a factor that influences an individual s risk, and its use as a synonym for risk coefficient should be avoided.! Risk factor should be used only in the medical sense. risk monitor A plant specific real time analysis tool used to determine the instantaneous risk based on the actual status of the systems and components. At any given time, the risk monitor reflects the current plant configuration in terms of the known status of the various systems and/or components, e.g. whether there are any components out of service for maintenance or tests. The model used by the risk monitor is based on, and is consistent with, the living probabilistic safety assessment for the facility. rock, igneous Rock that has formed from magma. Extruded igneous rocks (volcanic rocks) are typically divided into four basic types according to their SiO 2 content: basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite. [röntgen (R)] Unit of exposure, equal to C/kg (exactly). Superseded by the SI unit C/kg. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

170 R root cause See cause. root uptake See uptake (1). routine monitoring See monitoring (1). runup A sudden surge of water up a beach or a structure. 154 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

171 S safeguards agreement S An agreement between the IAEA and one or more Member States which contains an undertaking by one or more of those States not to use certain items in such a way as to further any military purpose and which gives the IAEA the right to observe compliance with such undertaking. Such an agreement may concern: (a) (b) (c) safety An IAEA project; A bilateral or multilateral arrangement in the field of nuclear energy under which the IAEA may be asked to administer safeguards; or Any of a State s nuclear activities unilaterally submitted to IAEA safeguards. See (nuclear) safety and protection and safety. In the Fundamental Safety Principles (IAEA Safety Fundamentals), the generalized usage in this particular text of the term safety (i.e. to mean protection and safety) is explained as follows (Ref. [15], paras 3.1 and 3.2): 3.1. For the purposes of this publication, safety means the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks, and the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks. Safety as used here and in the IAEA safety standards includes the safety of nuclear installations, radiation safety, the safety of radioactive waste management and safety in the transport of radioactive material; it does not include non-radiation-related aspects of safety Safety is concerned with both radiation risks under normal circumstances and radiation risks as a consequence of incidents 4, as well as with other possible direct consequences of a loss of control over a nuclear reactor core, nuclear chain reaction, radioactive source or any other source of radiation. Safety measures include actions to prevent incidents and arrangements put in place to mitigate their consequences if they were to occur. 4 Incidents includes initiating events, accident precursors, near misses, accidents and unauthorized acts (including malicious acts and non-malicious acts). safety action A single action taken by a safety actuation system. For example, insertion of a control rod, closing of containment valves or operation of the safety injection pumps. safety actuation system See plant equipment. safety analysis See analysis. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

172 S safety assessment See assessment (1). safety case A collection of arguments and evidence in support of the safety of a facility or activity. This will normally include the findings of a safety assessment and a statement of confidence in these findings. For a disposal facility, the safety case may relate to a given stage of development. In such cases, the safety case should acknowledge the existence of any unresolved issues and should provide guidance for work to resolve these issues in future development stages. safety categorization For nuclear power plants, the categorization into a limited number of safety categories of the functions that are required for fulfilling the main safety functions in different plant states, including all modes of normal operation, on the basis of their safety significance. See Refs [16, 46]. safety category See safety categorization. safety class See safety classification. safety classification For nuclear power plants, the assignment to a limited number of safety classes of systems and components and other items of equipment on the basis of their functions and their safety significance. safety class. For nuclear power plants, the classes into which systems and components and other items of equipment are assigned on the basis of their functions and their safety significance. The design is required to ensure in particular that any failure of items important to safety in a system in a lower safety class will not propagate to a system in a higher safety class. Items of equipment that perform multiple functions are required to be classified in a safety class that is consistent with the most important function performed by the items of equipment. See Requirement 22 of Ref. [16] and para. 2.2 of Ref. [49]. safety committee A group of experts convened by the operating organization to advise on the safety of operation of an authorized facility. 156 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

173 S safety culture The assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establishes that, as an overriding priority, protection and safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance. For a more detailed discussion, see Ref. [50]. safety feature (for design extension conditions) See plant states. safety function A specific purpose that must be accomplished for safety for a facility or activity to prevent or to mitigate radiological consequences of normal operation, anticipated operational occurrences and accident conditions. [49] Reference [16] establishes requirements on safety functions to be fulfilled by the design of a nuclear power plant in order to meet three general safety requirements: (a) (b) (c) The capability to safely shut down the reactor and maintain it in a safe shutdown condition during and after appropriate operational states and accident conditions; The capability to remove residual heat from the reactor core, the reactor and nuclear fuel in storage) after shutdown, and during and after appropriate operational states and accident conditions; The capability to reduce the potential for the release of radioactive material and to ensure that any releases are within prescribed limits during and after operational states and within acceptable limits during and after design basis accidents. This guidance is commonly condensed into a succinct expression of three main safety functions for nuclear power plants: (a) (b) (c) Control of reactivity; Cooling of radioactive material; Confinement of radioactive material. In earlier IAEA publications, basic safety function and fundamental safety function were also used. safety group The assembly of equipment designated to perform all actions required for a particular initiating event to ensure that the limits specified in the design basis for anticipated operational occurrences and design basis accidents are not exceeded.! The term group is also used (with various qualifying adjectives, e.g. maintenance group, commissioning group) in the more obvious sense of a group of people involved in a particular area of work. Such terms may need to be defined if there is any chance of confusion with safety group. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

174 S safety indicator A quantity used in assessments as a measure of the radiological impact of a source or of a facility or activity, or of the performance of protection and safety provisions, other than a prediction of dose or risk. Such quantities are most commonly used in situations where predictions of dose or risk are unlikely to be reliable, e.g. long term assessments of repositories. They are normally either: (a) (b) safety issues Illustrative calculations of dose or risk quantities, used to give an indication of the possible magnitude of doses or risks for comparison with criteria; or Other quantities, such as radionuclide concentrations or fluxes, that are considered to give a more reliable indication of impact, and that can be compared with other relevant data. Deviations from current safety standards or practices, or weaknesses in facility design or practices as identified by plant events, with a potential impact on safety because of their impact on defence in depth, safety margins or safety culture. safety layers Passive systems, automatically or manually initiated safety systems, or administrative controls that are provided to ensure that the required safety functions are achieved. Often expressed as: (a) (b) (c) Hardware, i.e. passive and active safety systems; Software, including personnel and procedures as well as computer software; Management control, in particular preventing defence in depth degradation (through quality management, preventive maintenance, surveillance testing, etc.) and reacting appropriately to experience feedback from degradations that do occur (e.g. determining root causes and taking corrective actions). See also defence in depth. safety limits See limit. safety measure Any action that might be taken, condition that might be applied or procedure that might be followed to fulfil the requirements of Safety Requirements. safety of radioactive sources [Measures intended to minimize the likelihood of accidents involving radioactive sources and, should such an accident occur, to mitigate its consequences.] (From Ref. [13].) safety related item See plant equipment. 158 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

175 S safety related system See plant equipment. safety standards Standards of safety issued pursuant to Article III(A)(6) 8 of the Statute of the IAEA [39]. Requirements, regulations, standards, rules, codes of practice or recommendations established to protect people and the environment against ionizing radiation and to minimize danger to life and property. Safety standards issued since 1997 in the IAEA Safety Standards Series are designated as Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements or Safety Guides. Some safety standards issued prior to 1997 in the (defunct) IAEA Safety Series were designated Safety Standards, Codes, Regulations or Rules. Furthermore, some publications issued in the (defunct) IAEA Safety Series were not safety standards, notably those designated Safety Practices or Procedures and Data. Other IAEA publications, such as Safety Reports and IAEA-TECDOCs (most of which are issued pursuant to Article VIII of the Statute), are not safety standards. safety system See plant equipment. safety system settings See plant equipment. safety system support features See plant equipment. safety task The sensing of one or more variables indicative of a specific postulated initiating event, the signal processing, the initiation and completion of the safety actions required to prevent the limits specified in the design basis from being exceeded, and the initiation and completion of certain services of the safety system support features. scenario A postulated or assumed set of conditions and/or events. Most commonly used in analysis or assessment to represent possible future conditions and/or events to be modelled, such as possible accidents at a nuclear facility, or the possible future evolution of a disposal facility and its surroundings. A scenario may 8 [The Agency is authorized ] To establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property (including such standards for labour conditions) IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

176 S scram represent the conditions at a single point in time or a single event, or a time history of conditions and/or events (including processes). reference scenario. A hypothetical but possible evolution of a disposal facility and its surroundings on the basis of activities, such as construction work, mining or drilling, that have a high probability of being undertaken by people in the future and that could cause a human intrusion into the disposal facility, and which can be evaluated. See event. A rapid shutdown of a nuclear reactor in an emergency. screening See anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). A type of analysis aimed at eliminating from further consideration factors that are less significant for protection or safety in order to concentrate on the more significant factors. This is typically achieved by consideration of very pessimistic hypothetical scenarios. Screening is usually conducted at an early stage in order to narrow the range of factors needing detailed consideration in an analysis or assessment. screening distance value (SDV) The distance from a facility beyond which, for screening purposes, potential origins of a particular type of external event can be ignored. screening probability level (SPL) A value of the annual probability of occurrence of a particular type of event below which, for screening purposes, such an event can be ignored. seabed disposal See disposal (3). sealed source See source (2). [secondary limit] See limit. security See (nuclear) security. segregation 1. See waste management, radioactive (1). 160 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

177 S 2. The physical separation of structures, systems and components by distance or by means of some form of barrier to reduce the likelihood of common cause failures. 3. Separation of transport packages from persons, undeveloped photographic film and dangerous goods and separation of transport packages containing fissile material from each other. (See Ref. [2].) seismic qualification See equipment qualification. seismogenic structure A structure that displays earthquake activity or that manifests historical surface rupture or the effects of palaeoseismicity, and is likely to generate macro-earthquakes within a time period of concern. seismotectonic model See model. self-assessment See assessment (2). senior management See management system review. sensitivity analysis See analysis. service conditions Physical conditions prevailing or expected to prevail during the service life of a structure, system or component. Service conditions include environmental conditions (e.g. conditions of humidity and thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and radiological conditions), and operating conditions (conditions in normal operation and error induced conditions) and conditions during and after events. service life See life, lifetime. severe accident See plant states (considered in design). severe accident management See plant states (considered in design). IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

178 S severe deterministic effect See health effects (of radiation): severe deterministic effect. sheltering The short term use of a structure for protection from an airborne plume and/or deposited radioactive material. An urgent protective action, used to provide shielding against external exposure and to reduce the intake of airborne radionuclides by inhalation. shipment The specific movement of a consignment from origin to destination. (From Ref. [2].) short lived waste See waste classes. shutdown The cessation of operation of a facility. permanent shutdown. The cessation of operation of a facility with no intention to recommence operation in the future. Between the permanent shutdown the facility and approval of the decommissioning plan, there may be a period of transition. During such a transition period, the authorization for operation of the facility remains in place unless the regulatory body has approved modifications to the authorization on the basis of a reduction in the hazards associated with the facility. During this transition period, some preparatory actions for decommissioning can be performed in accordance with the authorization for operation of the facility or a modified authorization. shutdown reactivity See reactivity. sievert (Sv) The SI unit of equivalent dose and effective dose, equal to 1 J/kg. significant transboundary release A release of radioactive material to the environment that may result in doses or levels of contamination beyond national borders from the release which exceed generic criteria for protective actions and other emergency response actions, including food restrictions and restrictions on trade. 162 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

179 S single failure A failure which results in the loss of capability of a single system or component to perform its intended safety function(s), and any consequential failure(s) which result from it. single failure criterion A criterion (or requirement) applied to a system such that it must be capable of performing its task in the presence of any single failure. To ensure that the single failure criterion is met, usually two or more independent (redundant) systems or trains are provided by design to achieve the same safety function. site area See area. double contingency principle. A principle applied, for example, in the design of processes for nuclear fuel cycle facilities, such that the design for a process must include sufficient safety features that a criticality accident would not be possible unless at least two unlikely and independent changes in process conditions were to occur concurrently. site area emergency See emergency class. site boundary See area: site area. site characterization See characterization (2). site confirmation (in the siting process for a disposal facility) The final stage of the siting process for a disposal facility, based on detailed investigations on the preferred site which provide site specific information needed for safety assessment. This stage includes the finalization of the design for the disposal facility and the preparation and submission of a licence application to the regulatory body. Site confirmation follows site characterization for a disposal facility. site evaluation Analysis of those factors at a site that could affect the safety of a facility or activity on that site. This includes site characterization, consideration of factors that could affect safety features of the facility or activity so as to result in a release of radioactive material and/or could affect the dispersion of such material in the environment, as well as IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

180 S population and access issues relevant to safety (e.g. feasibility of evacuation, location of people and resources). The analysis for a site of the origins of external events that could give rise to hazards with potential consequences for the safety of a nuclear power plant constructed on that site. For a nuclear power plant, site evaluation typically involves the following stages: (a) (b) (c) (d) site personnel Site selection stage. One or more preferred candidate sites are selected after the investigation of a large region, the rejection of unsuitable sites, and screening and comparison of the remaining sites. Site characterization stage. This stage is further subdivided into: Site verification, in which the suitability of the site to host a nuclear power plant is verified mainly according to predefined site exclusion criteria; Site confirmation, in which the characteristics of the site necessary for the purposes of analysis and detailed design are determined. Pre-operational stage. Studies and investigations begun in the previous stages are continued after the start of construction and before the start of operation of the plant, to complete and refine the assessment of site characteristics. The site data obtained allow a final assessment of the simulation models used in the final design. Operational stage. Appropriate safety related site evaluation activities are carried out throughout the lifetime of the facility, mainly by means of monitoring and periodic safety review. All persons working in the site area of an authorized facility, either permanently or temporarily. site (seismic) response The behaviour of a rock column or soil column at a site under a prescribed ground motion load. site selection See siting. site survey See siting. siting 6 The process of selecting a suitable site for a facility, including appropriate assessment and definition of the related design bases. The siting process for a nuclear installation generally consists of site survey and site selection. site survey. The process of identifying candidate sites for a nuclear installation after the investigation of a large region and the rejection of unsuitable sites. 164 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

181 S site selection. The process of assessing the remaining sites by screening and comparing them on the basis of safety and other considerations to select one or more preferred candidate sites. See also site evaluation. The siting process for a disposal facility is particularly crucial to its long term safety; it may therefore be a particularly extensive process, and is divided into the following stages: SL-1, SL-2 Concept and planning; Area survey; Site characterization; Site confirmation. Levels of ground motion (representing the potential effects of earthquakes) considered in the design basis for a facility. SL-1 corresponds to a less severe, more likely earthquake than SL-2. In some States, SL-1 corresponds to a level with a probability of 10 2 per year of being exceeded, and SL-2 corresponds to a level with a probability of 10 4 per year of being exceeded. small freight container See freight container. somatic effect See health effects (of radiation). sorption The interaction of an atom, molecule or particle with the solid surface at a solid solution or a solid gas interface. Used in the context of radionuclide migration to describe the interaction of radionuclides in pore- or groundwater with soil or host rock, and of radionuclides in surface water bodies with suspended and bed sediments. A general term which includes absorption (interactions taking place largely within the pores of solids) and adsorption (interactions taking place on solid surfaces). The processes involved can also be divided into chemisorption (chemical bonding with the substrate) and physisorption (physical attraction, e.g. by weak electrostatic forces). In practice, sorption may sometimes be difficult to distinguish from other factors affecting migration, such as filtration or dispersion. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

182 S source 1. Anything that may cause radiation exposure such as by emitting ionizing radiation or by releasing radioactive substances or radioactive material and can be treated as a single entity for purposes of protection and safety. For example, materials emitting radon are sources in the environment; a sterilization gamma irradiation unit is a source for the practice of irradiation preservation of food and sterilization of other products; an X ray unit may be a source for the practice of radiodiagnosis; a nuclear power plant is part of the practice of generating electricity by nuclear fission, and may be regarded as a source (e.g. with respect to discharges to the environment) or as a collection of sources (e.g. for purposes of occupational radiation protection). A complex or multiple installation situated at one location or site may, as appropriate, be considered a single source for the purposes of application of safety standards. natural source. A naturally occurring source of radiation, such as the sun and stars (sources of cosmic radiation) and rocks and soil (terrestrial sources of radiation), or any other material whose radioactivity is for all intents and purposes due only to radionuclides of natural origin, such as products or residues from the processing of minerals; but excluding radioactive material for use in a nuclear installation and radioactive waste generated in a nuclear installation. Examples of natural sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) associated with the processing of raw materials (i.e. feedstocks, intermediate products, final products, co-products and waste). radiation generator. A device capable of generating ionizing radiation, such as X rays, neutrons, electrons or other charged particles, that may be used for scientific, industrial or medical purposes. radiation source. [A radiation generator, or a radioactive source or other radioactive material outside the nuclear fuel cycles of research and power reactors.]! Defined in the 2001 edition of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, but not included in the 2004 edition (see Ref. [13]). 2. Radioactive material used as a source of radiation. Such as those sources used for medical applications or in industrial instruments. These are, of course, sources as defined in (1), but this usage in (2) is less general. dangerous source. A source that could, if not under control, give rise to exposure sufficient to cause severe deterministic effects.! This categorization is used for determining the need for emergency arrangements and is not to be confused with categorizations of sources for other purposes. The term dangerous source relates to dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D values) as recommended in Ref. [51]. disused source. A radioactive source that is no longer used, and is not intended to be used, for the practice for which an authorization has been granted. (From Ref. [13].)! Note that a disused source may still represent a significant radiological hazard. It differs from a spent source in that it may still be capable of performing its function: it may be disused because it is no longer needed. 166 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

183 S The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management [5] refers to disused sealed sources, but does not define them. disused sealed source. A radioactive source, comprising radioactive material that is permanently sealed in a capsule or closely bonded and in a solid form (excluding reactor fuel elements), that is no longer used, and is not intended to be used, for the practice for which an authorization was granted. The definition is provided on the basis of the definition of disused source (see above) and the definition of sealed source (see below). orphan source. A radioactive source which is not under regulatory control, either because it has never been under regulatory control or because it has been abandoned, lost, misplaced, stolen or otherwise transferred without proper authorization. (From Ref. [13].) radioactive source 1. A source containing radioactive material that is used as a source of radiation. 2. [Radioactive material that is permanently sealed in a capsule or closely bonded and in a solid form and which is not exempt from regulatory control. This also includes any radioactive material released if the radioactive source is leaking or broken, but does not include material encapsulated for disposal, or nuclear material within the nuclear fuel cycles of research and power reactors.] (From Ref. [13].)! This definition is particular to the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources [13]. sealed source. A radioactive source in which the radioactive material is (a) permanently sealed in a capsule or (b) closely bonded and in a solid form. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management definition [5] is Radioactive material that is (a) permanently sealed in a capsule or (b) closely bonded and in a solid form, excluding reactor fuel elements. The term special form radioactive material, used in the context of transport of radioactive material, has essentially the same meaning. Disused sealed source: see Source: disused source. spent source. A source that is no longer suitable for its intended purpose as a result of radioactive decay.! Note that a spent source may still represent a radiological hazard. unsealed source. A radioactive source in which the radioactive material is neither (a) permanently sealed in a capsule nor (b) closely bonded and in a solid form. vulnerable source. A radioactive source for which the control is inadequate to provide assurance of long term safety and security, such that it could relatively easily be acquired by unauthorized persons. source material Uranium containing the mixture of isotopes occurring in nature; uranium depleted in the isotope 235; thorium; any of the foregoing in the form of metal, alloy, chemical compound, or IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

184 S concentrate; any other material containing one or more of the foregoing in such concentration as the [IAEA] Board of Governors shall from time to time determine; and such other material as the [IAEA] Board of Governors shall from time to time determine. (From Ref. [39].) See also nuclear material. source monitoring See monitoring (1). source region A region within the body containing one or more radionuclides. Used in internal dosimetry, e.g. for radionuclides irradiating a target tissue. source term The amount and isotopic composition of radioactive material released (or postulated to be released) from a facility. Used in modelling releases of radionuclides to the environment, in particular in the context of accidents at nuclear installations or releases from radioactive waste in repositories. special arrangement Those provisions, approved by the competent authority, under which consignments that do not satisfy all the applicable requirements of [the Transport] Regulations may be transported. (From Ref. [2].) special facility A facility for which predetermined facility specific actions need to be taken if urgent protective actions are ordered in its locality in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency. Examples include chemical plants that cannot be evacuated until certain actions have been taken to prevent fire or explosions and telecommunications centres that must be staffed in order to maintain telephone services. This is not necessarily a facility within the meaning of the term facilities and activities. special fissionable material See nuclear material and source material. special form radioactive material Either an indispersible solid radioactive material or a sealed capsule containing radioactive material. (From Ref. [2].) special monitoring See monitoring (1). 168 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

185 S special population group Members of the public for whom special arrangements are necessary in order for effective protective actions to be taken in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency. Examples include disabled persons, hospital patients and prisoners. specific activity See activity (1): specific activity. spent fuel 1. Nuclear fuel removed from a reactor following irradiation that is no longer usable in its present form because of depletion of fissile material, poison buildup or radiation damage. 2. [Nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in and permanently removed from a reactor core.] (From Ref. [5].) The participle spent suggests that spent fuel cannot be used as fuel in its present form (e.g. as in spent source). In practice, however (as in (2) above), spent fuel is commonly used to refer to fuel that has been used as fuel but will no longer be used, whether or not it could be used (and that might more accurately be termed disused fuel ). spent fuel management All activities that relate to the handling or storage of spent fuel, excluding off-site transport. It may also involve discharges. (From Ref. [5].) spent fuel management facility Any facility or installation the primary purpose of which is spent fuel management. (From Ref. [5].) spent source See source (2). [stakeholder] See interested party.! The term stakeholder is used in the same broad sense as interested party and the same provisos are necessary. The term stakeholder has disputed usages and is misleading and too all-encompassing for clear use. In view of the potential for misunderstanding and misrepresentation, use of the term is discouraged in favour of interested party. To have a stake in something, figuratively, means to have something to gain or lose by, or to have an interest in, the turn of events. The Handbook on Nuclear Law [32] states that: Owing to the differing views on who has a genuine interest in a particular nuclear related activity, no authoritative definition of stakeholder has yet been offered, and no definition is likely to be accepted by all parties. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

186 S standards dosimetry laboratory A laboratory, designated by the relevant national authority, that possesses certification or accreditation necessary for the purpose of developing, maintaining or improving primary or secondary standards for radiation dosimetry. State of destination A State to which a transboundary movement is planned or takes place. (From Ref. [5].) State of origin A State from which a transboundary movement is planned to be initiated or is initiated. (From Ref. [5].) State of transit Any State, other than a State of origin or a State of destination, through whose territory a transboundary movement is planned or takes place. (From Ref. [5].) stochastic analysis See probabilistic analysis. stochastic effect See health effects (of radiation). storage The holding of radioactive sources, radioactive material, spent fuel or radioactive waste in a facility that provides for their/its containment, with the intention of retrieval. Generalized from the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management [5], the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources [13] and Ref. [52].! Storage is by definition an interim measure, and the term interim storage would therefore be appropriate only to refer to short term temporary storage when contrasting this with the longer term fate of the waste.! Storage as defined above should not be described as interim storage.! In many cases, the only element of this definition that is important is the distinction between disposal (with no intent to retrieve) and storage (with intent to retrieve). In such cases, a definition is not necessary; the distinction can be made in the form of a footnote at the first use of the term disposal or storage (e.g. The use of the term disposal indicates that there is no intention to retrieve the waste. If retrieval of the waste at any time in the future is intended, the term storage is used. ). For storage in a combined storage and disposal facility, for which a decision may be made at the time of its closure whether to remove the waste stored during the operation of the storage facility or to dispose of it by encasing it in concrete, the question of intention of retrieval may be left open until the time of closure of the facility. 170 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

187 S Contrasted with disposal. dry storage. Storage in a gaseous medium, such as air or an inert gas. Dry storage facilities include facilities for the storage of spent fuel in casks, silos or vaults. wet storage. Storage in water or in another liquid. The universal mode of wet storage consists in storing spent fuel assemblies or spent fuel elements in pools of water or other liquids, usually supported on racks or in baskets and/or in canisters that also contain liquid. The liquid in the pool surrounding the fuel provides for heat dissipation and radiation shielding, and the racks or other devices ensure a geometrical configuration that maintains subcriticality. strongly penetrating radiation See radiation. structure See, structures, systems and components. structures, systems and components (SSCs) A general term encompassing all of the elements (items) of a facility or activity that contribute to protection and safety, except human factors. Human factors may be reflected in structures, systems and components in so far as ergonomics the study of people s efficiency in their work setting is an element in their design. See also component, core components and system. components. Discrete elements of a system. Examples of components are wires, transistors, integrated circuits, motors, relays, solenoids, pipes, fittings, pumps, tanks and valves. structures. Passive elements (e.g. buildings, vessels and shielding). systems. Several components assembled in such a way as to perform a specific (active) function. sub-seabed disposal See disposal (1). supervised area See area. supplier (of a source) Any person or organization to whom a registrant or licensee delegates duties, totally or partially, in relation to the design, manufacture, production or construction of a source. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

188 S An importer of a source is considered a supplier of the source. The term supplier (of a source) includes designers, manufacturers, producers, constructors, assemblers, installers, distributors, sellers, importers or exporters of a source. surface contaminated object (SCO) A solid object that is not itself radioactive but which has radioactive material distributed on its surfaces. (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations, and should otherwise be avoided. surface faulting Permanent offsetting or tearing of the ground surface by differential movement across a fault in an earthquake. surveillance A type of inspection to verify the integrity of a facility or structure. For example, surveillance is used in the context of a disposal facility for radioactive waste to mean physical inspection of the facility to verify its integrity and the capability to protect and preserve passive barriers. survey system surveillance testing. Periodic testing to verify that structures, systems and components continue to function or are capable of performing their functions when called upon to do so. area survey. An early stage of the siting process for a disposal facility, during which a broad region is examined to eliminate unsuitable areas and to identify other areas which may contain suitable sites. Area survey is followed by site characterization. Area survey may also refer to the siting process for any other authorized facility. See also site evaluation, which includes site characterization and is not specific to a disposal facility site. habit survey. An evaluation of those aspects of the behaviour of members of the public that might influence their exposure such as diet, food consumption rates or occupancy of different areas usually aimed at characterizing the representative person. A set of components which interact according to a design, in which an element of the system can be another system, called a subsystem. Examples are mechanical systems, electrical systems and instrumentation and control systems. See also component and structures, systems and components. 172 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

189 S system code A computational model that is capable of simulating the transient performance of a complex system such as a nuclear power plant. A system code typically includes equations for thermohydraulics, neutronics and heat transfer, and must include special models for simulating the performance of components such as pumps and separators. The system code typically also simulates the control logic employed in the plant and is able to predict the evolution of accidents. system code validation See validation (1). system code verification See verification (1). IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

190 T tailings T The residues resulting from the processing of ore to extract uranium series or thorium series radionuclides, or similar residues from processing ores for other purposes. tank [A portable tank (including a tank container), a road tank vehicle, a rail tank wagon or a receptacle that contains solids, liquids or gases, having a capacity of not less than 450 L when used for the transport of gases.] (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations [2], and should otherwise be avoided. target tissue or organ The tissue or organ to which radiation is directed or the radiosensitive tissue or organ for which dose is assessed. Used in internal dosimetry, normally in relation to a source region. task related monitoring See monitoring (1). technological obsolescence See ageing: non-physical ageing. temporary relocation See relocation. therapeutic exposure See exposure, categories of: medical exposure. thorium series The decay chain of thorium-232. Namely, thorium-232, radium-228, actinium-228, thorium-228, radium-224, radon-220, polonium-216, lead-212, bismuth-212, polonium-212 (64%), thallium-208 (36%) and (stable) lead-208. [thoron] Radon-220.! This usage is discontinued in the IAEA safety standards and should be avoided. 174 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

191 T [thoron progeny] The (short lived) radioactive decay products of radon-220.! This usage is discontinued in the IAEA safety standards and should be avoided. Namely, polonium-216 (sometimes called thorium A), lead-212 (thorium B), bismuth- 212 (thorium C), polonium-212 (thorium C, 64%) and thallium-208 (thorium C, 36%). The stable decay product lead-208 is sometimes known as thorium D. through or into Through the countries or into the countries in which a consignment is transported but specifically excluding countries over which a consignment is carried by air, provided that there are no scheduled stops in those countries.! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations [2], and should otherwise be avoided. time based maintenance See maintenance: periodic maintenance. tissue equivalent material Material designed to have, when irradiated, interaction properties similar to those of soft tissue. Used to make phantoms, such as the ICRU sphere. The tissue equivalent material used in the ICRU sphere has a density of 1 g/cm 3 and an elemental composition, by mass, of 76.2% oxygen, 11.1% carbon, 10.1% hydrogen and 2.6% nitrogen, but materials of various other compositions (e.g. water) are considered suitable for particular applications [21]. The term tissue substitute is also used with the same meaning. tissue substitute See tissue equivalent material. tissue weighting factor, w T Multiplier of the equivalent dose to a tissue or organ used for purposes of radiation protection to account for the different sensitivities of different tissues or organs to the induction of stochastic effects of radiation. [24] IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

192 T Recommended tissue weighting factors for calculating effective dose are given in the following table: Tissue or organ w T w T Bone-marrow (red), colon, lung, stomach, breast, remainder tissues a Gonads Bladder, oesophagus, liver, thyroid Bone surface, brain, salivary glands, skin Total 1.00 a The w T for remainder tissues (0.12) applies to the arithmetic mean dose to these 13 organs and tissues for each sex: adrenals, extrathoracic (ET) region, gall bladder, heart, kidneys, lymphatic nodes, muscle, oral mucosa, pancreas, prostate (male), small intestine, spleen, thymus, uterus/cervix (female). transboundary exposure See exposure situation. transboundary movement 1. Any movement of radioactive material from one State through or into another. 2. [Any shipment of spent fuel or of radioactive waste from a State of origin to a State of destination.] (From Ref. [5].) transient population group Those members of the public who are residing for a short period of time (days to weeks) in a location (such as a camping site) that can be identified in advance. This does not include members of the public who may be travelling through an area. transnational emergency See emergency. transport 1. The deliberate physical movement of radioactive material (other than that forming part of the means of propulsion) from one place to another. The term transportation is also used, in particular in US English or where there is a need to distinguish this meaning of transport from meaning (2). international nuclear transport. [The carriage of a consignment of nuclear material by any means of transportation intended to go beyond the territory of the State where the shipment originates, beginning with the departure from a facility of the shipper in that State and ending with the arrival at a facility of the receiver within the State of ultimate destination.]. (From Refs [35 38].) The final act of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities was approved on 8 July More recent texts use the term transboundary movement for a similar concept. 176 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

193 T 2. The movement of something as a result of being carried by a medium. A general term used when a number of different processes are involved. The most common examples are heat transport a combination of advection, convection, etc., in a cooling medium and radionuclide transport in the environment which could include processes such as advection, diffusion, sorption and uptake. transport index (TI) A number assigned to a package, overpack or freight container, or to unpackaged LSA-I or SCO-I, that is used to provide control over radiation exposure. (From Ref. [2].) The value of the transport index for a package or overpack is used (together with the surface dose rate) in determining the category (I-WHITE, II-YELLOW or III- YELLOW) to which the package or overpack belongs, and hence which requirements are applicable to its transport. A package or overpack with a transport index higher than 10 can be transported only under exclusive use. The procedure for calculating a transport index is given in Section V of the Transport Regulations [2]. In essence, the transport index is the maximum dose rate at 1 m from the outer surface of the load, expressed in mrem/h (or the value in msv/h multiplied by 100), and in specified cases multiplied by a factor between 1 (for small sized loads) and 10 (for large sized loads). (See Ref. [2].) transportation See transport (1). treatment See waste management, radioactive (1). Type A/B(U)/B(M)/C package See package. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

194 U ultimate heat sink U A medium into which the transferred residual heat can always be accepted, even if all other means of removing the heat have been lost or are insufficient. This medium is normally a body of water or the atmosphere. ultimate heat transport system The systems and components needed to transfer residual heat to the ultimate heat sink after shutdown. unattached fraction The fraction of potential alpha energy of radon decay products that arises from atoms that are not attached to ambient aerosol particles. uncertainty uncertainty, aleatory. Uncertainty inherent in a phenomenon. Aleatory uncertainty (or stochastic uncertainty) is taken into account by representing a phenomenon in terms of a probability distribution model. Aleatory uncertainty is of relevance for events or phenomena that occur in a random manner, such as random failures of items of equipment. [9] uncertainty, epistemic. Uncertainty attributable to incomplete knowledge about a phenomenon, which affects the ability to model it. Epistemic uncertainty is reflected in a range of viable models, multiple expert interpretations and statistical confidence. Epistemic uncertainty is associated with the state of knowledge relating to a given problem under consideration. In any analysis or analytical model of a physical phenomenon, simplifications and assumptions are made. Even for relatively simple problems, a model may omit some aspects that are deemed unimportant to the solution. Additionally, the state of knowledge within the relevant scientific and engineering disciplines may be incomplete. Simplifications and incompleteness of knowledge give rise to uncertainties in the prediction of outcomes for a specified problem. uncertainty analysis See analysis. unilateral approval See approval. unirradiated fuel See nuclear fuel. 178 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

195 U unirradiated thorium Thorium containing not more than 10 7 g of uranium-233 per gram of thorium-232. (From Ref. [2].) Although the term unirradiated thorium is used, the issue is not really whether the thorium has been irradiated, but rather whether the content of uranium-233 (a fissile material) is significantly higher than the trace levels found in naturally occurring thorium.! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations [2]. unirradiated uranium Uranium containing no more than Bq of plutonium per gram of uranium-235, no more than Bq of fission products per gram of uranium-235 and not more than g of uranium-236 per gram of uranium-235. (From Ref. [2].) Although the term unirradiated uranium is used, the issue is not really whether the uranium has been irradiated, but rather whether the content of plutonium (a fissile material) is significantly higher than the trace levels found in naturally occurring uranium.! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations [2]. unrestricted linear energy transfer, L See linear energy transfer (LET). unrestricted use See use. unsealed source See source (2). uptake 1. A general term for the processes by which radionuclides enter one part of a biological system from another. Used for a range of situations, in particular for describing the overall effect when there are a number of contributing processes; e.g. root uptake, the transfer of radionuclides from soil to plants through the plant roots. 2. The processes by which radionuclides enter the body fluids from the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract or through the skin, or the fraction of an intake that enters the body fluids by these processes. Also, the amount of material transferred from the site of intake to body organs or tissues. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

196 U uranium depleted uranium. Uranium containing a lesser mass percentage of uranium-235 than is present in natural uranium. (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations [2]. enriched uranium. Uranium containing a higher mass percentage of uranium-235 than 0.72%. (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations [2]. high enriched uranium (HEU). Uranium containing 20% or more of the isotope 235 U. HEU is considered a special fissionable material and a direct use material. (From Ref. [39].) That is, 20% or more by mass of the isotope 235 U. low enriched uranium (LEU). Enriched uranium containing less than 20% of the isotope 235 U. LEU is considered a special fissionable material and an indirect use material. (From Ref. [40].) That is, less than 20% by mass of the isotope 235 U. natural uranium. Uranium (which may be chemically separated) containing the naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes (approximately 99.28% uranium- 238 and 0.72% uranium-235 by mass). (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations [2]. In all cases, a very small mass percentage of uranium-234 is present. The naturally occurring distribution of uranium isotopes including uranium-234 (approximately % uranium-238, 0.710% uranium-235, and 0.005% uranium-234 by mass) corresponds to approximately 48.9% uranium-234, 2.2% uranium-235 and 48.9% uranium-238 by activity. uranium enriched in the isotope uranium-235 or uranium-233 Uranium containing the isotope uranium-235 or uranium-233 or both in an amount such that the abundance ratio of the sum of these isotopes to the isotope 238 is higher than the ratio of the isotope uranium-235 to the isotope uranium-238 occurring in nature (From Refs [35 39]). The final act of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities was approved on 8 July uranium series The decay chain of uranium-238. Namely, uranium-238, thorium-234, protactinium-234, uranium-234, thorium-230, radium-226, radon-222, polonium-218, lead-214, bismuth-214 and polonium-214, lead-210, bismuth-210, polonium-210 and (stable) lead-206, plus traces of astatine-218, thallium-210, lead-209, mercury-206 and thallium-206. urgent protective action See protective action (1). 180 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

197 U urgent protective action planning zone (UPZ) See emergency planning zones. use authorized use. Use of radioactive material or radioactive objects from an authorized facility or activity in accordance with an authorization. Intended primarily for contrast with clearance, in that clearance implies no further regulatory control over the use, whereas the authorization for authorized use may prescribe or prohibit specific uses. A form of restricted use. restricted use. The use of an area or of materials subject to restrictions imposed for reasons of radiation protection and safety. Restrictions would typically be expressed in the form of prohibition of particular activities (e.g. house building, growing or harvesting particular foods) or prescription of particular procedures (e.g. materials may only be recycled or reused within a facility). unrestricted use. The use of an area or of material without any radiologically based restrictions.! There may be other restrictions on the use of the area or material, such as planning restrictions on the use of an area of land or restrictions related to the chemical properties of a material.! In some situations, these restrictions could, in addition to their primary intended effect, have an incidental effect on radiation exposure, but the use is classified as unrestricted use unless the primary reason for the restrictions is radiological. Unrestricted use is contrasted with restricted use. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

198 V validation V 1. The process of determining whether a product or service is adequate to perform its intended function satisfactorily. Validation (typically of a system) concerns checking against the specification of requirements, whereas verification (typically of a design specification, a test specification or a test report) relates to the outcome of a process. Validation may involve a greater element of judgement than verification. computer system validation. The process of testing and evaluating the integrated computer system (hardware and software) to ensure compliance with the functional, performance and interface requirements. model validation. The process of determining whether a model is an adequate representation of the real system being modelled, by comparing the predictions of the model with observations of the real system. Usually contrasted with model verification, although verification will often be a part of the broader process of validation. Modelling the behaviour of an engineered system in a geological disposal facility involves temporal scales and spatial scales for which no comparisons with system level tests are possible: models cannot be validated for that which cannot be observed. Model validation in these circumstance implies showing that there is a basis for confidence in the model(s) by means of detailed external reviews and comparisons with appropriate field and laboratory tests, and comparisons with observations of tests and of analogous materials, conditions and geologies at the process level. What is typically required by regulatory bodies is that such models of the behaviour of engineered systems in a geological disposal facility be shown to be fit for purpose ; this is typically called validation in national regulations. system code validation. Assessment of the accuracy of values predicted by the system code against relevant experimental data for the important phenomena expected to occur. accuracy. In this context, the known bias between the prediction of a system code and the actual performance in transients of a facility. 2. Confirmation by examination and by means of objective evidence that specified objectives have been met and specified requirements for a specific intended purpose and use or application have been fulfilled. See verification. The corresponding status is termed validated. Validation typically entails the assessment of a final product against its specified objectives and specified requirements. The conditions of use for validation purposes may be real or simulated. system validation. Confirmation by examination and provision of evidence that a system fulfils in its entirety the specification of requirements as intended (e.g. validation of an 182 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

199 V instrumentation and control system in terms of functionality, response time, fault tolerance and robustness). 3. A means of multilateral approval of a transport package design or shipment, whereby an endorsement on the original certificate or the issuance of a separate endorsement, annex, supplement, etc., is produced by the competent authority of the country through or into which the shipment is made. (See Ref. [2].) vehicle A road vehicle (including an articulated vehicle, i.e. a tractor and semi-trailer combination) or railroad car or railway wagon. Each trailer shall be considered a separate vehicle. (From Ref. [2].)! This usage is specific to the Transport Regulations [2], and should otherwise be avoided. vendor A design, contracting or manufacturing organization supplying a service, component or facility. vent, volcanic An opening in the Earth s crust where volcanic products (e.g. lava, solid rock, gas, liquid water) is erupted. Vents may be either circular structures (i.e. craters) or elongate fissures or fractures, or small cracks in the ground. verification 1. The process of determining whether the quality or performance of a product or service is as stated, as intended or as required. Verification is closely related to quality management and quality control. computer system verification. The process of ensuring that a phase in the computer system life cycle meets the requirements imposed on it by the previous phase. model verification. The process of determining whether a computational model correctly implements the intended conceptual model or mathematical model. system code verification. Review of source coding in relation to its description in the system code documentation. See also site verification. 2. Confirmation by examination and by means of objective evidence that specified objectives have been met and specified requirements for specific results have been fulfilled. See validation. The corresponding status is termed verified. Verification typically entails the assessment of the results of an individual activity against its inputs. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

200 V Verification may comprise activities such as: performing alternative calculations; comparing a new design specification with a similar proven design specification; undertaking tests and demonstrations; and reviewing documents prior to issue. very low level waste (VLLW) See waste classes. vessel (for carrying cargo) Any seagoing vessel or inland waterway craft used for carrying cargo. (From Ref. [2].)! This restrictive use of the term vessel in relation to the transport of radioactive material does not apply in other areas of safety; e.g. a reactor pressure vessel is a vessel as usually understood. volcanic activity A feature or process on a volcano or within a volcanic field that is linked to the presence of magma and heat gases emanating from the Earth and their interaction with nearby crustal rocks or groundwater. Volcanic activity includes seismicity, fumarolic activity, high rates of heat flow, emission of ground gases, thermal springs, deformation, ground cracks, pressurization of aquifers and ash venting. The term includes volcanic unrest and volcanic eruption. volcanic earthquake A seismic event caused by, and directly associated with, processes in a volcano. Volcanic earthquakes and seismic activity come in many forms and types (e.g. volcanotectonic earthquakes, long period events, hybrid events, tremors, swarms) before, during and after eruptions, and their characteristics and patterns are used to infer what is happening within the volcano at different times. Seismic monitoring is the most fundamental method used for forecasting the onset of an eruption and for assessing the potential for volcanic eruption. Increasing seismicity, continuous tremor, shift in hypocentres towards the surface with time and the occurrence of shallow long period (or low frequency) events imply a high possibility that the onset of eruption is very close. Tremors can also continue through eruptions. volcanic event Any occurrence, or sequence of phenomena, associated with volcanoes that may give rise to volcanic hazards. Volcanic events may be formally defined as part of a hazard assessment in order to provide meaningful definition of repose intervals and hazards. Volcanic events may include eruptions and will typically include the occurrence of noneruptive hazards, such as landslides. 184 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

201 V volcanic field Any spatial cluster of volcanoes. Also termed volcano group. Volcanic fields range in size from a few volcanoes to over 1000 volcanoes. Volcanic fields may consist of monogenetic volcanoes (e.g. the Cima volcanic field, United States of America), or both polygenetic and monogenetic volcanoes (e.g. the Kluchevskoy volcano group, Russian Federation). volcanic hazard A volcanic process or phenomenon that can have an adverse effect on people or infrastructure. In the more restricted context of risk assessment, it is the probability of occurrence, within a specific period of time in a given area, of a potentially damaging volcanic event of a given intensity value (e.g. thickness of tephra fallout). volcanic unrest Variation in the nature, intensity, spatio-temporal distribution and chronology of geophysical, geochemical and geological activity and phenomena as observed and recorded on a volcano, from a baseline level of activity known for this volcano or for other similar volcanoes outside periods of eruptive activity. Volcanic unrest can be precursory and can culminate in an eruption, although in most cases, rising magma or pressurized fluids that cause unrest do not breach the surface and erupt. volcano A naturally occurring vent at the Earth s surface through which lava, solid rock and associated gases and liquid water can erupt. The edifice that is built by the explosive or effusive accumulation of these products over time is also a volcano. volcano, capable. A volcano that has a credible likelihood of undergoing future activity and producing hazardous phenomena, including non-eruptive phenomena, during the lifetime of a nuclear installation concerned, and which may potentially affect the site. Hierarchical criteria for determining whether a volcano or volcanic field is a capable volcano or a capable volcanic field are: (i) evidence of contemporary volcanic activity or active near surface processes associated with magmatism for any volcano in the geographical region, (ii) Holocene volcanic activity for any volcano within the geographical region and (iii) some evidence of potential for activity, such as recurrence rates of volcanism greater than 10 7 per year, and the potential to produce hazardous phenomena that may affect the site vicinity [53]. volcano, Holocene. A volcano or volcanic field that has erupted within the past 10,000 years (the Holocene). Reported historical activity and radiometric dating of volcanic products provide the most direct evidence of volcanic eruptions within the Holocene. IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

202 V In some circumstances, especially in the early stages of site investigation, the exact age of the most recent volcanic products may be difficult to determine. In such circumstances, additional evidence may be used to judge a volcano as Holocene (e.g. by following the methods used by the Smithsonian Institution, United States of America). Such evidence includes: (i) volcanic products overlying latest Pleistocene glacial debris, (ii) youthful volcanic landforms in areas where erosion would be expected to be pronounced after many thousands of years, (iii) vegetation patterns that would have been far richer if the volcanic substrates were more than a few thousand (or hundred) years old and (iv) ongoing fumarolic degassing, or the presence of a hydrothermal system at the volcano. In addition, some volcanoes may be denoted as Holocene(?) volcanoes if authorities disagree over the existence of Holocene volcanism, or when the original investigator expresses uncertainty about the most reliable age estimate of the most recent eruption. Under these circumstances, it is reasonable to consider such volcanoes to be Holocene and to proceed with the hazard assessment. volcano explosivity index (VEI) A classification scheme for the explosive magnitude of an eruption, primarily defined in terms of the total volume of erupted tephra, but in some cases the height of the eruption column and the duration of continuous explosive eruption are used to determine the VEI value. The VEI varies from VEI 0 (non-explosive eruption, less than 10 4 m 3 tephra ejected) to VEI 8 (largest explosive eruption identified in the geological record, more than m 3 tephra ejected). A unit of increasing explosivity on the VEI scale generally corresponds to an increase in volume of erupted tephra by a factor of ten. The only exception is the transition from VEI 0 to VEI 1, which represents an increase in the volume of tephra erupted by a factor of one hundred. volcano generated missile A pyroclastic particle, often of large size, that is forcefully ejected, follows a high angle trajectory from the volcanic vent to the surface as a result of explosive activity at the vent and falls under gravity. Volcano generated missiles can be of any material, such as rock fragments, trees and structural debris, that is rapidly transported by flow phenomena with significant momentum and that may impact structures, causing considerable damage, even beyond the extent of the main flow itself. volcano monitoring Geophysical, geochemical and geological monitoring to evaluate the potential for a forthcoming eruption, forecast the onset of eruption, understand an ongoing eruption and evaluate the potential volcanic hazards arising from an eruption. 186 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

203 V Instruments such as seismometers, global positioning system receivers, tiltmeters, magnetometers, gas sensors, cameras and/or related instruments are installed on and around the volcano to evaluate volcanic activity, identify volcanic unrest and evaluate the potential for volcanic eruption. Remote sensing by satellite is sometimes very effective in monitoring temporal thermal, topographical and geological changes in volcanoes. volume reduction See waste management, radioactive (1). vulnerable source See source (2). IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

204 W warning point W A designated organization to act as a point of contact that is staffed or able to be alerted at all times for promptly responding to, or initiating a response to, an incoming notification (definition (2)), warning message, request for assistance or request for verification of a message, as appropriate, from the IAEA. waste Material for which no further use is foreseen. exempt waste. Waste from which regulatory control is removed in accordance with exemption principles. This is waste that meets the criteria for clearance, exemption or exclusion from regulatory control for radiation protection purposes as described in Refs [12, 51].! This is therefore not radioactive waste. [mining and milling waste (MMW). Waste from mining and milling.] This includes tailings from processing, residues from heap leaching, waste rock, sludges, filter cakes, scales and various effluents. See also [mining and milling]. mixed waste. Radioactive waste that also contains non-radioactive toxic or hazardous substances. NORM waste. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) for which no further use is foreseen. radioactive waste. See waste, radioactive. secondary waste. Radioactive waste resulting as a byproduct from the processing of primary radioactive waste. waste, radioactive 1. For legal and regulatory purposes, waste that contains, or is contaminated with, radionuclides at activity concentrations greater than clearance levels as established by the regulatory body. In effect, radioactive material in gaseous, liquid or solid form for which no further use is foreseen.! It should be recognized that this definition is purely for regulatory purposes, and that material with activity concentrations equal to or less than clearance levels is radioactive from a physical viewpoint, although the associated radiological hazards are considered negligible. See radioactive, radioactive material, radioactive substance. Waste should be used in the singular unless reference is expressly being made to the presence of various types of waste. 188 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

205 W 2. [Radioactive material in gaseous, liquid or solid form for which no further use is foreseen by the Contracting Party or by a natural or legal person whose decision is accepted by the Contracting Party, and which is controlled as radioactive waste by a regulatory body under the legislative and regulatory framework of the Contracting Party.] (From Ref. [5].) waste acceptance criteria Quantitative or qualitative criteria specified by the regulatory body, or specified by an operator and approved by the regulatory body, for the waste form and waste package to be accepted by the operator of a waste management facility. Waste acceptance criteria specify the radiological, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological characteristics of waste packages and unpackaged waste. Waste acceptance criteria might include, for example, restrictions on the activity concentration or total activity of particular radionuclides (or types of radionuclide) in the waste, on their heat output or on the properties of the waste form or of the waste package. Waste acceptance criteria are based on the safety case for the facility or are included in the safety case as part of the operational limits and conditions and controls. Waste acceptance criteria are sometimes referred to as waste acceptance requirements. waste canister See container, waste. waste characterization See characterization (2). IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June

206 W waste classes Activity content HLW high level waste (deep geological disposal) ILW intermediate level waste (intermediate depth disposal) LLW low level waste (near surface disposal) VSLW very short lived waste (decay storage) VLLW very low level waste (landfill disposal) EW exempt waste (exemption/clearance) Half-life Waste classes are those recommended in Ref. [54]. This classification system is organized to take into account matters considered of prime importance for the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. The term activity content is used because of the generally heterogeneous nature of radioactive waste; it is a generic term that covers activity concentration, specific activity and total activity. The other classes listed below (in square brackets) are sometimes used, e.g. in national classification systems, and are mentioned here to indicate how they typically relate to the classes in Ref. [54]. Other systems classify waste on other bases, such as according to its origin (e.g. reactor operations waste, reprocessing waste, decommissioning waste and defence waste). exempt waste. See waste. 190 IAEA Safety Glossary, 2016 Revision, June 2016

INTRODUCTION. Safety Series No. 76, IAEA, Vienna (1986). Publications (Version 2.2), IAEA, Vienna (1998). Introduction

INTRODUCTION. Safety Series No. 76, IAEA, Vienna (1986). Publications (Version 2.2), IAEA, Vienna (1998). Introduction INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Terminology in IAEA safety standards The IAEA s safety standards for nuclear installations, radiation protection, radioactive waste management and the transport of radioactive material

More information

IAEA SAFETY GLOSSARY VERSION 2.0 SEPTEMBER 2006 TERMINOLOGY USED IN NUCLEAR, RADIATION, RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND TRANSPORT SAFETY

IAEA SAFETY GLOSSARY VERSION 2.0 SEPTEMBER 2006 TERMINOLOGY USED IN NUCLEAR, RADIATION, RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND TRANSPORT SAFETY IAEA SAFETY GLOSSARY TERMINOLOGY USED IN NUCLEAR, RADIATION, RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND TRANSPORT SAFETY VERSION 2.0 SEPTEMBER 2006 Department of Nuclear Safety and Security INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY

More information

IAEA SAFETY RELATED PUBLICATIONS

IAEA SAFETY RELATED PUBLICATIONS IAEA SAFETY RELATED PUBLICATIONS IAEA SAFETY STANDARDS Under the terms of Article III of its Statute, the IAEA is authorized to establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health and minimization

More information

RC-17. Alejandro V. Nader National Regulatory Authority Montevideo - Uruguay

RC-17. Alejandro V. Nader National Regulatory Authority Montevideo - Uruguay RC-17 Radiation Protection in Waste Management and Disposal Implementing the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Alejandro V. Nader

More information

Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources FOREWORD In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the potential for accidents involving radiation sources, some such accidents having had serious, even fatal, consequences. More recently still,

More information

FUNDAMENTALS OF A STATE S NUCLEAR SECURITY REGIME: OBJECTIVE AND ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS

FUNDAMENTALS OF A STATE S NUCLEAR SECURITY REGIME: OBJECTIVE AND ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IAEA NUCLEAR SECURITY SERIES NO. FUNDAMENTALS OF A STATE S NUCLEAR SECURITY REGIME: OBJECTIVE AND ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS Revision 17.04 Page 1 of 20 FOREWORD [TO BE PROVIDED BY THE SECRETARIAT AT A LATER TIME]

More information

Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response

Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response Working to Protect People, Society and the Environment Training in Emergency Preparedness and Response Nuclear Safety and Security Programme Nuclear Safety and Security Programme Training in Emergency

More information

IMPLEMENTATION OF A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR OPERATING ORGANIZATIONS OF RESEARCH REACTORS

IMPLEMENTATION OF A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR OPERATING ORGANIZATIONS OF RESEARCH REACTORS IMPLEMENTATION OF A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR OPERATING ORGANIZATIONS OF RESEARCH REACTORS Eduardo Kibrit 1, Afonso Rodrigues de Aquino 2 and Désirée Moraes Zouain 3 1 Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São

More information

WPSGD No. WPS/360/02. Geological Disposal Waste Package Specification for 6 cubic metre concrete box waste packages

WPSGD No. WPS/360/02. Geological Disposal Waste Package Specification for 6 cubic metre concrete box waste packages WPSGD No. WPS/360/02 Geological Disposal Waste Package Specification for 6 cubic metre concrete box waste packages January 2014 WPSGD No. WPS/360/02 Geological Disposal Waste Package Specification for

More information

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X?

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X? 1. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least penetrating power? an alpha particle a beta particle a neutron a positron 2. Which equation represents alpha decay? 3. An unstable nucleus

More information

Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident

Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident Significance of the Convention: The Convention strengthens the international response to nuclear accidents by providing a mechanism for rapid information

More information

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12 Nuclear Chemistry Up to now, we have been concerned mainly with the electrons in the elements the nucleus has just been a positively charged thing that attracts electrons The nucleus may also undergo changes

More information

INES The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale

INES The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale INES The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale User s Manual 2008 Edition Co sponsored by the IAEA and OECD/NEA INES THE INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL EVENT SCALE USER S MANUAL 2008

More information

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.

More information

L A W ОN RADIATION PROTECTION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY I. BASIC PROVISIONS. Subject Matter

L A W ОN RADIATION PROTECTION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY I. BASIC PROVISIONS. Subject Matter L A W ОN RADIATION PROTECTION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY I. BASIC PROVISIONS Subject Matter Article 1 This Law stipulates measures for protection of human life, health and environment from harmful effects of ionising

More information

FACT SHEET. Safety Standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (as at 5 December 2011)

FACT SHEET. Safety Standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (as at 5 December 2011) FACT SHEET Safety Standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (as at 5 December 2011) 1. Background 1.1 This fact sheet provides Members of the Panel on Security with information on the Safety

More information

Nuclear Security Glossary

Nuclear Security Glossary IAEA NUCLEAR SECURITY SERIES NO. Nuclear Security Glossary Revision 3E Draft 17 March 2010 Page 1 of 16 FOREWORD [TO BE PROVIDED BY THE SECRETARIAT AT A LATER TIME] Page 2 of 16 Introduction The Nuclear

More information

Geological Disposal: Waste Package Specification for 3 cubic metre robust shielded box waste packages for transport as part of a Type IP-2 package

Geological Disposal: Waste Package Specification for 3 cubic metre robust shielded box waste packages for transport as part of a Type IP-2 package WPSGD no. WPS/381/01 Geological Disposal: Waste Package Specification for 3 cubic metre robust shielded box waste packages for transport as part of a Type IP-2 package February 2015 WPSGD no. WPS/381/01

More information

International Action Plan On The Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

International Action Plan On The Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities International Action Plan On The Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities A. Introduction Decommissioning is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (the Agency) as the administrative and technical

More information

Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants

Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants Regulatory Document Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants February 2008 CNSC REGULATORY DOCUMENTS The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) develops regulatory documents under the authority of paragraphs

More information

IAEA Support for the Establishment of Nuclear Security Education

IAEA Support for the Establishment of Nuclear Security Education IAEA Support for the Establishment of Nuclear Security Education Andrea Braunegger-Guelich, Vladimir Rukhlo Office of Nuclear Security Department of Nuclear Safety and Security International Atomic Energy

More information

South African Perspective for Radon in Dwellings and the Anticipated Regulatory Control Measures

South African Perspective for Radon in Dwellings and the Anticipated Regulatory Control Measures South African Perspective for Radon in Dwellings and the Anticipated Regulatory Control Measures John Pule and Wilcot Speelman NNR Regulatory Information Conference 05 07 October 2016 DISCLAIMER The information

More information

The referenced Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are from TEA Chemistry and TEA Integrated Physics and Chemistry.

The referenced Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) are from TEA Chemistry and TEA Integrated Physics and Chemistry. Texas University Interscholastic League Contest Event: Science (Chemistry) The contest challenges students to read widely in chemistry, to understand the significance of experiments rather than to recall

More information

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of:

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions

More information

Safety Requirements for New Nuclear Power Plant in Lithuania

Safety Requirements for New Nuclear Power Plant in Lithuania Conference on Energy Security, Vilnius, 15-16 November 2012 Safety Requirements for New Nuclear Power Plant in Lithuania Michail Demčenko, Evaldas Kimtys, Sigitas Šlepavičius State Nuclear Power Safety

More information

Government Degree on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants 717/2013

Government Degree on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants 717/2013 Translation from Finnish. Legally binding only in Finnish and Swedish. Ministry of Employment and the Economy, Finland Government Degree on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants 717/2013 Chapter 1 Scope and

More information

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON AUDITING 700 FORMING AN OPINION AND REPORTING ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS CONTENTS

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON AUDITING 700 FORMING AN OPINION AND REPORTING ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS CONTENTS INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON 700 FORMING AN OPINION AND REPORTING ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after December 15, 2009) CONTENTS Paragraph

More information

Environmental Protection: Environmental Protection Policies, Programs and Procedures REGDOC-2.9.1

Environmental Protection: Environmental Protection Policies, Programs and Procedures REGDOC-2.9.1 Environmental Protection: Environmental Protection Policies, Programs and Procedures REGDOC-2.9.1 September 2013 Environmental Protection: Policies, Programs and Procedures Regulatory Document REGDOC-2.9.1

More information

PROPOSED UPDATED TEXT FOR WHO GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS: MAIN PRINCIPLES (JANUARY 2013)

PROPOSED UPDATED TEXT FOR WHO GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS: MAIN PRINCIPLES (JANUARY 2013) January 2013 RESTRICTED PROPOSED UPDATED TEXT FOR WHO GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS: MAIN PRINCIPLES (JANUARY 2013) DRAFT FOR COMMENTS Please address any comments on this proposal

More information

Guidance Notes on Radiation Risk Assessment

Guidance Notes on Radiation Risk Assessment Guidance Notes on Radiation Risk Assessment 1 Guidance Notes On Radiation Risk Assessment Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland October 2004 3 Clonskeagh Square, Dublin 14 2 Contents Introduction...

More information

Published in the Official State Gazette (BOE) number 166 of July 10th 2009 [1]

Published in the Official State Gazette (BOE) number 166 of July 10th 2009 [1] Nuclear Safety Council Instruction number IS-22, of July 1st 2009, on safety requirements for the management of ageing and long-term operation of nuclear power plants Published in the Official State Gazette

More information

Today we re going to talk about Radioactive Processes

Today we re going to talk about Radioactive Processes Today we re going to talk about Radioactive Processes 1 In this lecture, we will talk about Radioactive Equilibrium. We re going to define what we mean by Radioactive Equilibrium and identify when it occurs.

More information

15 Annex - Energy 61. LAW ON IONIZING RADIATION PROTECTION AND RADIATION SAFETY

15 Annex - Energy 61. LAW ON IONIZING RADIATION PROTECTION AND RADIATION SAFETY 15 Annex - Energy 61. LAW ON IONIZING RADIATION PROTECTION AND RADIATION SAFETY Pursuant to Article 95 item 3 of the Constitution of Montenegro, I hereby issue the DECREE PROMULGATING THE LAW ON IONIZING

More information

International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation

International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation IAEA-J9-CN-109 2003-10-14 UNSCEAR International Conference on the Protection of the Environment from the Effects of Ionizing Radiation 6 10 October 2003 Stockholm, Sweden Introduction THE PRESIDENT S FINDINGS

More information

CONTAINMENT OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

CONTAINMENT OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT GUIDE YVL B.6 / 15 November 2013 CONTAINMENT OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT 1 Introduction 3 2 Scope of application 4 2.1 Associated guides 4 3 Containment design requirements 4 3.1 General requirements 4 3.2

More information

Structure and Properties of Atoms

Structure and Properties of Atoms PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity,

More information

Radiation Safety Manual

Radiation Safety Manual and Radiation Safety Program and Radiation Safety Program Page 1 of 10 1.0 Reason for The terms of Reference for the 1 are set out in accordance with the Procedures and the Policy entitled "Radiation Safety",

More information

Nuclear power plant systems, structures and components and their safety classification. 1 General 3. 2 Safety classes 3. 3 Classification criteria 3

Nuclear power plant systems, structures and components and their safety classification. 1 General 3. 2 Safety classes 3. 3 Classification criteria 3 GUIDE 26 June 2000 YVL 2.1 Nuclear power plant systems, structures and components and their safety classification 1 General 3 2 Safety classes 3 3 Classification criteria 3 4 Assigning systems to safety

More information

Operating Performance: Accident Management: Severe Accident Management Programs for Nuclear Reactors REGDOC-2.3.2

Operating Performance: Accident Management: Severe Accident Management Programs for Nuclear Reactors REGDOC-2.3.2 Operating Performance: Accident Management: Severe Accident Management Programs for Nuclear Reactors REGDOC-2.3.2 September 2013 Accident Management: Severe Accident Regulatory Document REGDOC-2.3.2 Canadian

More information

NUCLEAR CROSS SECTIONS AND NEUTRON FLUX

NUCLEAR CROSS SECTIONS AND NEUTRON FLUX To determine the frequency of neutron interactions, it is necessary to describe the availability of neutrons to cause interaction and the probability of a neutron interacting with material. The availability

More information

ESRS guidelines for software safety reviews

ESRS guidelines for software safety reviews IAEA Services Series No. 6 ESRS guidelines for software safety reviews Reference document for the organization and conduct of Engineering Safety Review Services (ESRS) on software important to safety in

More information

Safety Analysis Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants REGDOC-2.4.2

Safety Analysis Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants REGDOC-2.4.2 Safety Analysis Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants REGDOC-2.4.2 May 2014 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Nuclear Power Plants Regulatory Document REGDOC-2.4.2 Canadian

More information

5: The Neutron Cycle. B. Rouben McMaster University Course EP 4D03/6D03 Nuclear Reactor Analysis (Reactor Physics) 2015 Sept.-Dec.

5: The Neutron Cycle. B. Rouben McMaster University Course EP 4D03/6D03 Nuclear Reactor Analysis (Reactor Physics) 2015 Sept.-Dec. 5: The Neutron Cycle B. Rouben McMaster University Course EP 4D03/6D03 Nuclear Reactor Analysis (Reactor Physics) 2015 Sept.-Dec. 2015 September 1 Reaction rates Table of Contents Reactor multiplication

More information

3.4.4 Description of risk management plan Unofficial Translation Only the Thai version of the text is legally binding.

3.4.4 Description of risk management plan Unofficial Translation Only the Thai version of the text is legally binding. - 1 - Regulation of Department of Industrial Works Re: Criteria for hazard identification, risk assessment, and establishment of risk management plan B.E. 2543 (2000) ---------------------------- Pursuant

More information

Nuclear Decay. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay

Nuclear Decay. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy. 1 Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist

More information

Nuclear Safety Council Instruction number IS-19, of October 22 nd 2008, on the requirements of the nuclear facilities management system

Nuclear Safety Council Instruction number IS-19, of October 22 nd 2008, on the requirements of the nuclear facilities management system Nuclear Safety Council Instruction number IS-19, of October 22 nd 2008, on the requirements of the nuclear facilities management system Published in the Official State Gazette (BOE) number 270 of November

More information

Question to the class: What are the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using nuclear power?

Question to the class: What are the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using nuclear power? Energy and Society Week 11 Section Handout Section Outline: 1. Nuclear power basics (10 minutes) 2. Radioactive decay (15 minutes) 3. Nuclear practice problems (10 minutes) 4. Waste and Disposal (7.5 min)

More information

New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON AUDITING (NEW ZEALAND) 700 1

New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON AUDITING (NEW ZEALAND) 700 1 Issued 07/09 New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ON AUDITING (NEW ZEALAND) 700 1 FORMING AN OPINION AND REPORTING ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Issued by the Council of the

More information

7.1 General 5 7.2 Events resulting in pressure increase 5

7.1 General 5 7.2 Events resulting in pressure increase 5 GUIDE YVL 2.4 / 24 Ma r ch 2006 Primary and secondary circuit pressure control at a nuclear power plant 1 Ge n e r a l 3 2 General design requirements 3 3 Pressure regulation 4 4 Overpressure protection

More information

Thermal, Hydel and Nuclear Power Stations

Thermal, Hydel and Nuclear Power Stations Thermal, Hydel and Nuclear Power Stations In this section we briefly outline the basics of the three most widely found generating stations thermal, hydel and nuclear plants in our country and elsewhere.

More information

Main properties of atoms and nucleus

Main properties of atoms and nucleus Main properties of atoms and nucleus. Atom Structure.... Structure of Nuclei... 3. Definition of Isotopes... 4. Energy Characteristics of Nuclei... 5. Laws of Radioactive Nuclei Transformation... 3. Atom

More information

Report WENRA Safety Reference Levels for Existing Reactors - UPDATE IN RELATION TO LESSONS LEARNED FROM TEPCO FUKUSHIMA DAI-ICHI ACCIDENT

Report WENRA Safety Reference Levels for Existing Reactors - UPDATE IN RELATION TO LESSONS LEARNED FROM TEPCO FUKUSHIMA DAI-ICHI ACCIDENT Report WENRA Safety Reference Levels for Existing Reactors - UPDATE IN RELATION TO LESSONS LEARNED FROM TEPCO FUKUSHIMA DAI-ICHI ACCIDENT 24 th September 2014 Table of Content WENRA Safety Reference Levels

More information

Licence Application Guide Nuclear Substances and Radiation Devices RD/GD-371

Licence Application Guide Nuclear Substances and Radiation Devices RD/GD-371 Licence Application Guide Nuclear Substances and Radiation Devices RD/GD-371 November 2011 Licence Application Guide RD/GD-371 Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada 2011 Catalogue number

More information

UCCS Energy Science II ENSC 1510 Spring 2012 Test 3 name:

UCCS Energy Science II ENSC 1510 Spring 2012 Test 3 name: UCCS Energy Science II ENSC 1510 Spring 2012 Test 3 name: 1. The particles that make up neutrons and protons are called: a. electrons b. positrons c. quarks d. strings 2. The antiparticle for the electron

More information

FORMING AN OPINION AND REPORTING ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS SRI LANKA AUDITING STANDARD 700 FORMING AN OPINION AND REPORTING ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

FORMING AN OPINION AND REPORTING ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS SRI LANKA AUDITING STANDARD 700 FORMING AN OPINION AND REPORTING ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS SRI LANKA STANDARD 700 FORMING AN OPINION AND REPORTING ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Effective for audits of financial statements for periods beginning on or after 01 January 2014) CONTENTS Paragraph Introduction

More information

IBC 2100. Nuclear Energy Liability Exclusion. Explained

IBC 2100. Nuclear Energy Liability Exclusion. Explained IBC 2100 Nuclear Energy Liability Exclusion Explained By Colleen DeMerchant Assistant Manager Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada June 22, 2005 Nuclear Energy Liability Exclusion (IBC 2100 CGL form)

More information

Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions

Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions 2000-2010 2000 Q30. A drawing of the core of a nuclear reactor is shown below. The fuel rods contain uranium-235. (a) Describe what happens when a slow

More information

CRPA Professional Recognition/Registration/Certification Competencies

CRPA Professional Recognition/Registration/Certification Competencies Curriculum Guide This guide can be used when developing course material to meet the competency requirements. It is not the intent of the association to be prescriptive in the material that course developers

More information

IAEA Safety Standards for Regulatory Activities

IAEA Safety Standards for Regulatory Activities Safety Standards for Regulatory Activities April 2010 Gustavo Caruso Regulatory Activities Section Division of Nuclear Installation Safety International Atomic Energy Agency Content Safety Standards and

More information

Nuclear power plants

Nuclear power plants S t r o n a 1 Aneta Kucharczyk Nuclear power plants The article is intended for high school students having chemistry classes at both beginner and advanced level. The material described in this paper can

More information

Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852

Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852 Discovery Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852 Summit Environmental Technologies, Inc. Analytical Laboratories 3310 Win Street Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 44223 Fax: 1-330-253-4489 Call

More information

Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations

Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations 201 3 Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations JOINTLY SPONSORED BY THE CTBTO, EADRCC, EC, EUROPOL, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, INTERPOL, IMO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP, UN/OCHA, UN/OOSA,

More information

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 4: Kinetics of radioactive decay. Marc R. Roussel

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 4: Kinetics of radioactive decay. Marc R. Roussel Chemistry 1000 Lecture 4: Kinetics of radioactive decay Marc R. Roussel Measuring radioactivity We can detect the radiation produced by a sample and therefore count the number of decay events. Example:

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 8

CHM1 Review for Exam 8 The following are topics and sample questions for the first exam. Topics 1. Subatomic particles a. Alpha, α 42He 2+ b. Beta, β 0-1e c. Positron, β + 0 +1e 0 d. gamma, γ 0γ 1 e. neutron, n 0n 1 f. proton,

More information

Nuclear Material Accounting Handbook. Vienna, May 2008. Services Series 15

Nuclear Material Accounting Handbook. Vienna, May 2008. Services Series 15 Nuclear Material Accounting Handbook Vienna, May 2008 Services Series 15 IAEA Services Series No. 15 Nuclear Material Accounting Handbook May 2008 The originating Section of this publication in the IAEA

More information

NEI 06-13A [Revision 0] Template for an Industry Training Program Description

NEI 06-13A [Revision 0] Template for an Industry Training Program Description NEI 06-13A [Revision 0] Template for an Industry Training Program Description NEI 06-13A [Revision 0] Nuclear Energy Institute Template for an Industry Training Program Description ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This

More information

SCOTTISH ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY ENVIRONMENT AGENCY NATURAL RESOURCES WALES

SCOTTISH ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY ENVIRONMENT AGENCY NATURAL RESOURCES WALES SCOTTISH ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY ENVIRONMENT AGENCY NATURAL RESOURCES WALES Consultation Document 1 th February 2016 Table of Contents Preface and Summary...1 1. Preface to the guidance...2 1.1

More information

IAEA Safety Standards

IAEA Safety Standards IAEA Safety Standards for protecting people and the environment Protection of the Public against Exposure Indoors due to Radon and Other Natural Sources of Radiation Jointly sponsored by the IAEA, WHO

More information

YVL B.1 SAFETY DESIGN OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

YVL B.1 SAFETY DESIGN OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority YVL B.1 draft 2 1 (53) YVL B.1 SAFETY DESIGN OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT Contents 0 Definitions... 3 1 Introduction... 6 2 Scope... 6 3 Design process and organisation...

More information

IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety 1

IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety 1 IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety 1 In June 2011 a Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety was convened to direct, under the leading role of the IAEA, the process of learning and acting upon lessons

More information

40-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER COURSE OUTLINE DAY 1: 8-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION COURSE OUTLINE

40-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION SAFETY OFFICER COURSE OUTLINE DAY 1: 8-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION COURSE OUTLINE DAY 1: 8-HOUR NORM/TENORM RADIATION Section 1.0 ATOMIC THEORY 1.1 Radiation 1.2 Non-ionizing Radiation 1.3 Ionizing Radiation 1.4 The Nucleus 1.5 Electrons 1.6 The Periodic Table 1.7 Isotopes and Nuclides

More information

REGULATION (EEC) No 2309/93

REGULATION (EEC) No 2309/93 REGULATION (EEC) No 2309/93 Council Regulation (EEC) No 2309/93 of 22 July 1993 laying down Community procedures for the authorization and supervision of medicinal products for human and veterinary use

More information

Draft IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety

Draft IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety Atoms for Peace Board of Governors General Conference GOV/2011/59-GC(55)/14 Date: 5 September 2011 For official use only Item 3(b) of the Board's provisional agenda (GOV/2011/46) Item 14(b) of the Conference's

More information

Policies Governing Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Safety

Policies Governing Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Safety GOVERNMENT OF INDIA Policies Governing Regulation of Nuclear and Radiation Safety ATOMIC ENERGY REGULATORY BOARD July 2014 This page is intentionally left blank i Policies Governing Regulation of Nuclear

More information

6 EQUATIONS OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY AND GROWTH

6 EQUATIONS OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY AND GROWTH 6 EQUTIONS OF RDIOCTIVE DECY ND GROWTH The mathematical expressions presented in this chapter are generally applicable to all those processes in which the transition of the parent nucleus to a daughter

More information

ANTEP 2015 Needs from China (NNSA)

ANTEP 2015 Needs from China (NNSA) ANTEP 2015 Needs from China (NNSA) 1 Content of training/education that Decommissioning plan and technologies 2 Background of above need 1. Design life of Qinshan NPP is 30 years, and it has been put into

More information

IAEA-TECDOC-1328 Solutions for cost effective assessment of software based instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants

IAEA-TECDOC-1328 Solutions for cost effective assessment of software based instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants IAEA-TECDOC-1328 Solutions for cost effective assessment of software based instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants Report prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Group

More information

Radioactivity III: Measurement of Half Life.

Radioactivity III: Measurement of Half Life. PHY 192 Half Life 1 Radioactivity III: Measurement of Half Life. Introduction This experiment will once again use the apparatus of the first experiment, this time to measure radiation intensity as a function

More information

1. Ordinary matter is composed of particles called atoms. 2. Atoms are far too small to be observed with the naked eye.

1. Ordinary matter is composed of particles called atoms. 2. Atoms are far too small to be observed with the naked eye. 2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE Nearly 2500 years ago Greek scholars speculated that the substances around us are made of tiny particles called atoms. A limited number of different kinds of atoms in various combinations

More information

Nuclear Safety Council Instruction number IS- 23 on in-service inspection at nuclear power plants

Nuclear Safety Council Instruction number IS- 23 on in-service inspection at nuclear power plants Nuclear Safety Council Instruction number IS- 23 on in-service inspection at nuclear power plants Published in the Official State Gazette (BOE) No 283 of November 24 th 2009 Nuclear Safety Council Instruction

More information

ONR GUIDE. GUIDANCE: LC15 Periodic Review. Nuclear Safety Technical Inspection Guide. NS-INSP-GD-015 Revision 3

ONR GUIDE. GUIDANCE: LC15 Periodic Review. Nuclear Safety Technical Inspection Guide. NS-INSP-GD-015 Revision 3 Title of document ONR GUIDE GUIDANCE: LC15 Periodic Review Document Type: Unique Document ID and Revision No: Nuclear Safety Technical Inspection Guide Revision 3 Date Issued: May 2016 Review Date: May

More information

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 1. Given the equation representing a nuclear reaction in which X represents a nuclide: Which nuclide is represented by X? 2. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least

More information

RADIATION PROTECTION NOTE 1: RADIOACTIVITY BASICS

RADIATION PROTECTION NOTE 1: RADIOACTIVITY BASICS RDITIO PROTECTIO OTE 1: RDIOCTIVITY BSICS ITRODUCTIO n understanding of the underlying principles involved in the radioactive decay process is essential for the safe working and handling of radioactive

More information

Fuel INtegrity Evaluation and Surveillance System (FINESS)

Fuel INtegrity Evaluation and Surveillance System (FINESS) Fuel INtegrity Evaluation and Surveillance System () Lembit Sihver 1, Daniel L. Upp 2 and Björn Bjurman 3 1 ABB Atom AB, SE-721 63 Västerås, Sweden 2 PerkinElmer (formerly EG&G) Instruments, 100 Midland

More information

2. Design Basis Accidents

2. Design Basis Accidents 2. Design Basis Accidents Design basis accidents are postulated accidents to which a nuclear plant, its systems, structures and components must be designed and built to withstand loads during accident

More information

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION Objectives Explain the difference between isotopes of the same element. Describe the force that holds nucleons together. Explain the relationship between mass and energy according to Einstein s theory

More information

Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy: Nuclear Energy Introduction Nuclear : Nuclear As we discussed in the last activity, energy is released when isotopes decay. This energy can either be in the form of electromagnetic radiation or the kinetic energy of

More information

Published in "Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia" No. 67/2004 LAW ON AMBIENT AIR QUALITY I. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Published in Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 67/2004 LAW ON AMBIENT AIR QUALITY I. GENERAL PROVISIONS Published in "Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia" No. 67/2004 LAW ON AMBIENT AIR QUALITY I. GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 1 Subject of regulation (1) This Law shall regulate the measures for avoidance,

More information

Basic Safety Standards for Facilities and Activities involving Ionizing Radiation other than in Nuclear Facilities (FANR-REG-24) Version 1

Basic Safety Standards for Facilities and Activities involving Ionizing Radiation other than in Nuclear Facilities (FANR-REG-24) Version 1 Basic Safety Standards for Facilities and Activities involving Ionizing Radiation other than in Nuclear Facilities (FANR-REG-24) Version 1 Definitions Article (1) For purposes of this regulation, the following

More information

MIDLAND ISD ADVANCED PLACEMENT CURRICULUM STANDARDS AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

MIDLAND ISD ADVANCED PLACEMENT CURRICULUM STANDARDS AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Science Practices Standard SP.1: Scientific Questions and Predictions Asking scientific questions that can be tested empirically and structuring these questions in the form of testable predictions SP.1.1

More information

The Parties agree as follows: ARTICLE I. For the purposes of this Agreement:

The Parties agree as follows: ARTICLE I. For the purposes of this Agreement: AGREEMENT FOR COOPERATION BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA CONCERNING CIVIL USES OF ATOMIC ENERGY Whereas the Government of the United

More information

CHEM J-4 June 2014

CHEM J-4 June 2014 CHEM1101 014-J-4 June 014 Technetium-99m is an important radionuclide for medical imaging. It is produced from molybdenum-99. Fill in the box below to give a balanced nuclear equation for the production

More information

COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2011/70/EURATOM FOR THE RESPONSIBLE AND SAFE MANAGEMENT OF SPENT FUEL AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE

COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2011/70/EURATOM FOR THE RESPONSIBLE AND SAFE MANAGEMENT OF SPENT FUEL AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE AUGUST 2015 COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2011/70/EURATOM FOR THE RESPONSIBLE AND SAFE MANAGEMENT OF SPENT FUEL AND RADIOACTIVE WASTE First report from Denmark COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2011/70/EURATOM FOR THE RESPONSIBLE

More information

2374-19. Joint ICTP-IAEA School of Nuclear Energy Management. 5-23 November 2012. Nuclear Security Fundamentals Module 9 topic 2

2374-19. Joint ICTP-IAEA School of Nuclear Energy Management. 5-23 November 2012. Nuclear Security Fundamentals Module 9 topic 2 2374-19 Joint ICTP-IAEA School of Nuclear Energy Management 5-23 November 2012 Nuclear Security Fundamentals Module 9 topic 2 EVANS Rhonda, IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security Office of Nuclear

More information

A given Nucleus has the following particles Total number of nucleons : atomic mass number, A Proton number: atomic number, Z Neutron number: N = A Z

A given Nucleus has the following particles Total number of nucleons : atomic mass number, A Proton number: atomic number, Z Neutron number: N = A Z Chapter 30 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity Units of Chapter 30 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces Radioactivity Alpha Decay Beta Decay Gamma Decay Conservation

More information

............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq.

............... [2] At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is 3.7 10 6 Bq. 1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation 90 38 The decay constant is 0.025 year 1. 90 39 0 1 Sr Y + e + 0.55 MeV. (a) Suggest,

More information

Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View

Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy.

More information

IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. 55 th Edition (English) Effective 1 January ADDENDUM II Posted 06 June 2014

IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. 55 th Edition (English) Effective 1 January ADDENDUM II Posted 06 June 2014 55 th Edition (English) Effective 1 January 2014 II Posted 06 June 2014 Users of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations are asked to note the following amendments and corrections to the 55 th Edition, effective

More information

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Level 2

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Level 2 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard 91172 Level 2 This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard 91172 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics An annotated exemplar

More information

Radioactive Waste Management in Sri Lanka 2014 Dr. W.Abeyewickreme (Abey) Atomic Energy Authority (AEA)

Radioactive Waste Management in Sri Lanka 2014 Dr. W.Abeyewickreme (Abey) Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Radioactive Waste Management in Sri Lanka 2014 Dr. W.Abeyewickreme (Abey) Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Brief Description about Sri Lanka Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka Capital : Sri Jayawardenapura

More information