EDGELOOP CHARACTER MODELING FOR 3D PROFESSIONALS ONLY

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1 EDGELOOP CHARACTER MODELING FOR 3D PROFESSIONALS ONLY By: Kelly L. Murdock and Eric M. Allen WILEY John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2 contents about the authors iii credits v preface vii acknowledgments ix Part I Introducing Character Modeling and Edgeloops 1 chapter 1 Character Design 3 Design before Modeling 4 Studying the Human Form 5 Studying Sculpted Characters 7 Studying Anatomy 9 Defining Character Attributes 12 Understanding Proportions 12 Standard Body Proportions 12 Standard Head Proportions 15 Differing Proportions for Males and Female Characters 16 Facial Differences 16 Drawing Concept Design Art 16 Hiding Details Under Clothing 18 Deciding on Hair Methods 18 Developing a Style 18 Details, Details, Details 18 Modeling for Animation 18

3 Creating Modeling Templates 19 Starting from Photographs 19 The Starting Pose 20 Q&A 24 chapter 2 Modeling Approaches A Comparative Look 25 ( ^RSV* Modeling Components Broken Down 26 Polygon Modeling versus Patch Modeling 27 Segmented Body Parts versus a Skin Mesh 28 Polygon Modeling 28 Point Modeling 28 Box Modeling 31 Loft Modeling 34 Boolean Modeling 36 Strip Modeling 37 Triangulating Polygons 37 Spline and Patch Modeling 37 NURBS Modeling 37 Subdivision Surface Modeling 37 Metaball Modeling 39 Sculpting Method Modeling 40 Image-based Modeling 40 3D Scan Modeling 40 Q&A 41

4 chapter 3 Introducing Edgeloop Modeling 43 I ^ What Is an Edgeloop? 44 The Benefits of Edgeloop Modeling 45 Natural Modeling Construct 45 Easy-to-Add Details 45 Maximum Deformation 45 Madefor Animating 46 Minimai Polygons 46 Edgeloop Rules 47 Use Quads 47 Complete Edgeloops 50 Avoid Edgeloop Terminations 50 Edgeloops Run Along Crease Lines 51 Position Weak Deformation Areas 51 Enclose Areas of Maximum Deformations 51 Definethe Form Outline 51 Three Edges Define a Curve 52 Avoiding Long Thin Quads 52 Final Rule: Ignore These Rules 53 Practicing Drawing Edgeloops 53 Planning Edgeloops 55 Edgeloop Techniques 55 Duplicating Edgeloops 55 Removing Triangles 55 Extruding a Circular Edgeloop 57 Cutting in a Circular Edgeloop 58 Splitting a Single Edgeloop into Two 58 Spinning Edges 59

5 Edgeloop Modeling Workflow 61 Designing First 61 Loading and Texturing Model Templates 61 Starting with the Torso 61 Adding Arms and Legs 61 Adding Hands and Feet 62 Iterate, Iterate, Iterate 62 Adding a Head 63 Adding Face Details 63 Adding Clothes 63 Adding Hair 63 Rigging and Skinning 63 Testing the Skeleton 63 Q&A 64 Part II Creating a Body Form 67 chapter 4 Building the Body Torso 69 ^i Learning the Torso Anatomy 70 Breasts 70 Clavicle 71 Pectorals 71 Ribcage 72 Navel 72 Abdominals 72 Trapezius 72 Scapula 72 Spine 73 Latissimus Dorsi 73 Creating a Male Torso 73 Modeling the Torso's Basic Shape 74 Torso Modeling Workflow 75 The Whole Approach versus Segmented Body Parts 75 Placing Reference Images 75 Creating a Primitive Object 76 Using Symmetry 79

6 Defining the Feature Lines 80 Adding Edgeloops 81 Defining Shoulders 82 Adding Breasts 83 Defining the Back Curves 86 Q&A 87 chapter 5 Adding Arms and Legs 89 Learning Arm Anatomy 90 Deltoids 90 Biceps 90 Triceps 90 Forearms 90 Elbow 91 Wrist Joint 91 Flexor Tendons 92 Underarm 92 Learning Leg Anatomy 93 Pelvic Region 93 Quadriceps 94 Hip Flexor 94 Patella 94 Calf Muscle 95 Hamstrings 95 Achilles Tendon 96 Ankle Bones 96 Creating Male Arms and Legs 96 Using Correct Proportions 97 Modeling Arms and Legs 97 Armsand Legs Modeling Workflow 98 Adding an Arm with the Extrude Face Method 98 Dividing the Arm 99 Twisting the Forearm 101 Adding Shoulder and Forearm Definition 102

7 Adding Elbow and Bicep Definition 102 Defining the Elbow 103 Adding Edgeloops for the Glutes 104 Forming the Crotch Area 105 Rounding the Glutes 105 Creating a Leg from a Cylinder 106 Refining the Leg 108 Connecting the Leg 108 Running Edgeloops Between the Leg and the Body 109 Refining the Pelvis Area 111 Q&A 113 chapter 6 Modeling Hands and Feet Learning the Hand Anatomy 116 Four Fingers 116 Thumb 116 Tendons 117 Ulnar Styloid Process 117 Fingernails 117 Palm of the Hand 117 Learning the Foot Anatomy 118 Toes 118 Ankle Bones 118 Tendons 119 Arch of the Foot 120 Heel 120 Toenails 120 Modeling the Hand and Foot's Basic Shape 120 Hand and Foot Modeling Workflow 121 Molding the Hand Shape 122 Extruding the Thumb and Index Finger 123 Shaping the Thumb and Index Finger 123 Cloning and Sizing the Fingers 125

8 Defining Knuckles and Tendons 126 Refining the Palm 126 Connecting the Hand to the Body 128 Creating a Foot 129 Extruding Toes 130 Cloning and Bridging the OtherToes 133 Defining thetoe Knuckles 134 Refining Feet 135 Connecting the Foot to the Body 136 Q&A 138 Part III Modeling the Head and Facial Features 139 chapter 7 Creating the Head Form 141 Learning the Head and Neck Anatomy 142 Forehead 142 Nasal Bridge 142 CheekBones 143 Chin and Jaw 143 NeckMuscIes 143 Creating a Male Head 145 Modeling the Head's Basic Shape 145 Head Modeling Workflow 146 Placing Reference Images 146 Starting with a Primitive 147 Mirroring the Head 147 Shaping the Head 148 Defining the Eye Sockets 149 Defining the Chin 150 Defining the Jaw 151 Extruding the Neck 152 Q&A 155

9 chapter 8 Creating the Nose and Eyes 157 Eyes A View to the Soul 158 Learning the Nose's Anatomy 158 Nose Bridge 158 Nose Slope and Tip 159 Nostrils 159 Sidesof the Nose 159 Philtrum 159 Learning the Eye's Anatomy 159 Eyeball 159 Eye Corners 160 Eyelid 160 Lashes and Brows 161 Modeling the Nose and Eye's Basic Shape 161 Nose and Eyes Modeling Workflow 162 Modeling the Nose Bridge 163 Modeling the Eye Sockets 165 Creating the Eyeball 166 Inserting the Eyeball 169 Forming the Eye Corners and Adding Eye Ducts 170 Refining the Eyes 170 Refining the Nose Shape 171 Adding Nostrils 173 Q&A 175

10 chapter 9 Adding the Mouth and Ears 177 I *- i f WM Learning the Mouth Anatomy 178 Lips 178 Teeth 179 Gums 180 Tongue 180 Learning the Ear's Anatomy 181 Ear Rim 181 EarCanal 181 Earlobe 182 Modeling the Mouth's Basic Shape 182 Modeling the Ear's Basic Shape 183 Mouth and Ear Modeling Workflow 184 Forming the Lips 184 Forming the Mouth Cavity 186 CreatingTeeth and Gums 187 Creating thetongue 190 Creating an Ear 192 Outlining the Ear 192 Modeling the Ear Folds 193 Connecting the Ear to the Head 196 Q&A 199

11 Part IV Further Refinement and Texturing 201 chapter 10 Final Modeling Refinements 203 /' L Creating a Render Preview 204 Smoothing the Model 205 Smoothing the Midline 205 Painting Deformations 206 Attaching the Head 206 Mesh Cleanup 207 Adding Details 207 Adding Eyelashes 207 Refining the Collarbone 209 Adding a Belly Button 210 Extruding Ankle Bones 210 Adding Eye Ducts 210 Adding Clothes 213 Adding Jewelry 221 Working with Hair 221 Creating Polygon Hair 222 Creating Dynamic Hair 226 Q&A 229 chapter 11 Texturing an Edgeloop Character 231 ml ' r ~?*' C^K

12 Leaving Some Things totextures A Variety of Map Types Diffuse Map Specular Map Bump Map Displacement Map Normal Map Dividing the Objects by Material. Unwrapping the Head Unwrapping the Body Unwrapping the Eyes and Hair.. Painting atexture Map Using Photograph Details.., Painting Eyes Painting the Body Painting the Hands Painting the Head Painting Hair and Lashes... Adding Displacement Details... Q&A Part V Rigging, Skinning, and Animating Approaches 255 chapter 12 Rigging and Skinning an Edgeloop Character 257 Jt) n o Creating and Positioning Bones Setting Bone Limits Enabling Inverse Kinematics.. Using Pre-Built Character Rigs. Preparing a Skin for Binding.. Binding Bones to Skin Setting Skin Weights Painting Skin Weights

13 Testing the Rig 263 Q&A 264 chapter 13 Animating an Edgeloop Character 265 ^ *^~" -. Testing Deformation Limits 266 Testing Arm Movement 267 Testing Leg Movement 270 Testing Head Rotation 271 Testing A Walk Cycle 273 Testing Extreme Poses 274 Posing with Props 276 Using Dynamic Animations 277 Creating Facial Morph Targets 278 Emotive Expressions 278 Phonemes 280 Q&A 282 Part VI Appendixes 283 appendix A Edgeloop Modeling Commands for 3ds Max, Maya, Softimage, and Modo 285

14 Creating Primitives 286 Converting to Polygons 287 Editing Modes 287 Selecting Edgeloops and Edgerings 288 Cutting and Slicing 290 Bevel, Chamfer, and Extrude 291 Removing Edges and Welding Vertices 292 Subdividing and Tessellation 294 Duplicating Edgeloops 294 Attaching Objects 296 Bridging Objects 296 Smoothing Meshes 296 Adding Hair 297 Texturing Objects 298 Rigging Characters 299 Skinning Characters 299 Additional Texturing Tools 300 Relaxing UV Maps 300 Painting UV Maps 300 appendix B What's on the CD-ROM 301 System Requirements 302 Using the CD with Windows 302 What's on the CD 302 Chapter Example Files 302 Reference Images 302 Troubleshooting 303

15 Glossary Pro Glossary 305 n o Index 311 End-User License Agreement 323

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