Challenges to the New Government

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1 Challenges to the New Government

2 challenge #1 Debt, debt, debt The new government was in debt, and something had to be done about it. Washington did something that many people would not like? He raised taxes!

3 what did washington tax? Washington taxed whiskey.

4 Why whiskey? Farmers had a hard time getting their grain to market, so they turned their grain into whiskey, which was easier to transport. They got more money for the whiskey anyway.

5 Farmers traded the whiskey for salt, sugar, and other goods, using it like money to get whatever they needed. Farmers did not have the money to pay for the tax, which meant they could not buy what they needed.

6 so, what happened? The farmers who grew the grain to make the whiskey were angry. In the summer of 1794, a group of farmers in Western Pennsylvania rebelled against the whiskey tax and staged the Whiskey Rebellion. One group beat up a tax collector and coated him with tar and feathers.

7

8 The Governments Response Alexander Hamilton wanted the government to look strong. He encouraged President Washington to stop the revolt.

9 13,000 Federal troops marched to Western Pennsylvania and put down the revolt.

10 They were led by President Washington. Washington had proved that the government would deal with people not obeying the law.

11 Washington s Farewell Address Before he retired, Washington gave a farewell address (speech). In it he... Warned against political parties - he thought they caused arguments.

12 Washington also urged the nation to remain neutral and not become involved in foreign alliances. Warned against a powerful military.

13 Political Parties Despite Washington s warnings, political parties developed. The first two political parties were the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans. The Federalists wanted a strong national government. The Democratic-Republicans thought a strong national government would lead to tyranny.

14 Hamilton versus Jefferson Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison led the Democratic-Republicans. Northern merchants and manufacturers became Federalists. Southern farmers and workers became Democratic- Republicans.

15 John Adams elected the 2nd president Washington s vice-president, John Adams, became the second president in Thomas Jefferson came in second, and became the vicepresident.

16 XYZ Affair The U.S. was having problems with France. They were seizing American ships so they couldn t trade with England. Adams sent men to France to work out the problems. However, the talks would occur only if the Americans agreed to loan France $10 million and to pay the minister a bribe of $250,000. The Americans refused. The incident became known as the XYZ Affair.

17 Alien and Sedition Acts These acts targeted aliens immigrants who were not yet citizens. The period for becoming a U.S. citizen went from 5 to 14 years. The president was given the power to arrest disloyal aliens or order them out of the country during wartime. A fourth act outlawed sedition, saying or writing anything false or harmful about the government.

18 Free Speech? The Alien and Sedition Acts violated the First Amendment rights to freedom of speech and press. As you just took notes on, you could be arrested for writing something bad about the government. 25 newspaper editors were arrested, and 10 were found guilty of sedition (speaking badly against the government). Adams served only one term as president. He was beaten by Thomas Jefferson in the election of 1800.

19 Jefferson Takes Office

20 Election of 1800: Adams vs. Jefferson

21 Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans Each party believed that the other was endangering the Constitution and the American republic. The Democratic-Republicans (led by Jefferson) thought they were saving the nation from having a king. They argued, again and again, that the Alien and Sedition Acts supported by the Federalists violated the Bill of Rights. The Federalists (led by President Adams) thought that the nation was about to be ruined by radicals people who take extreme political positions.

22 So, who won? People were overjoyed by Jefferson s election. A Philadelphia newspaper reported that bells rang, guns fired, dogs barked, cats meowed, and children cried over the news of Jefferson s victory.

23 What was Jefferson s Philosophy? Jefferson wanted the United States to remain a nation of small independent farmers. Such a nation, he believed, would uphold the strong morals and democratic values that he associated with country living.

24 Jefferson cuts Jefferson reduced the number of federal employees to cut costs. He also reduced the size of the military. He used revenues from tariffs and land sales to reduce the amount of money owed by the government. Jefferson thought debt was bad.

25 Judicial Review This ruling in Marbury vs. Madison established the principle of judicial review. This principle states that the Supreme Court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution. In other words, when the Supreme Court rules, their decision is final. By establishing judicial review, Marshall helped to create a lasting balance among the three branches of government.

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