A Realtime MPEG Video Encryption Algorithm using AES


 Stewart Greene
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1 A Realtime MPEG Video Encryption Algorithm using AES Jayshri Nehete*, K. Bhagyalakshmi, M. B. Manjunath, Shashikant Chaudhari, T. R. Ramamohan Central Research Laboratory Bharat Electronics Ltd., Bangalore , Phone : bhagya, manju, shashi, Abstract MPEG video stream is quite different from traditional textual data because interframe dependencies exists in MPEG video. Special MPEG video encryption algorithms are required because of their special characteristics, such as coding structure, large amount of data and realtime constraints. We present a realtime MPEG video encryption algorithm based on AES which is fast enough to meet the realtime requirements. 1 Introduction MPEG [1] is an industrial standard for video processing. Multimedia applications such as VideoonDemand, video broadcast, multimedia mail and videoconferencing must be provided with secure transmission. Secure video transmission is a method in which video can be sent to a receiver with the assurance that any unapproved eavesdroppers along the way will not be able to get any information from video i.e it is desirable that only those who have paid for the services can view their videos or movies. The high amount of redundancy in the video gives an attacker more clues to reconstruct the original video. Normal data, such as program code or text, has much less redundancy in its structure. These factors make providing secure MPEG video a challenge. Adding security to MPEG transmission usually involves encrypting parts or the entire MPEG bit stream. *Student of M. E. at Government College of Engineering, Pune, currently doing M. E. project at Central Research Laboratory, Bangalore. One way to secure distributed multimedia applications is to encrypt multimedia data using secret key cryptography algorithms such as Data Encryption Standard (DES), International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA), and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) [2]. These algorithms involves complex computations. Heavyweight encryption is performed on almost whole data while lightweight encryption is performed on partial or selective data. Heavyweight encryption/decryption algorithm aggravates the problem and increases the latency while lightweight encryption/decryption algorithm provides sufficient security level and has an acceptable computation cost to MPEG video applications. In this paper, we present an efficient MPEG video encryption algorithm based on AES for realtime video transmission. It is a lightweight selective encryption scheme for secure MPEG transmission. It is based on RVEA [3] which is lightweight selective encryption algorithm based on DES/IDEA. The security is significantly improved by adopting AES to encrypt data. This algorithm reduces and bounds its computation time by limiting the maximum number of bits selected. 2 Various Methods for MPEG video encryption There are several already existing encryption algorithms based on DES/IDEA for secure MPEG video transmission. Each of them has its strength and weakness in terms of security level, speed, and resulting stream size matrices. The existing algorithms are Naive algorithm, selective algo
2 rithm, ZigZagPermutation algorithm, Pure Permutation Algorithm and Video Encryption Algorithm (VEA) [4]. The straightforward method is to encrypt the entire MPEG stream using standard encryption method such as DES. This is called the Naive algorithm approach. Naive algorithm treats the MPEG bitstream as the traditional text data and does not make use of the special MPEG structures. This is the most secure algorithm but it is very slow. The size of the bit stream does not change because most standard encryption algorithms preserves the size. There are several proposals for selective algorithm which use the features of MPEG layered structures. The basic selective algorithm encrypts only I frames [5] because P and B frames are useless without knowing the corresponding I frames. But great portions of the video could be visible because some of the P and B frames may contain intracoded I blocks. Encrypting only I frames can save 3050% of encryption/decryption time. The size of the encrypted stream does not change. One selection scheme proposed is to encrypt only MPEG video headers. This is not effective because the headers contains mostly standard information and a video stream is indexed by frame in order to perform synchronization so that the beginning of each frame is known. ZigZagPermutation algorithm [6] presents a method where the encryption is an integral part of the MPEG compression process. Instead of mapping 8x8 block to a 1x64 vector in zigzag order, it uses a random permutation list to map the individual 8x8 block to a 1x64 vector. This algorithm cannot withstand the known plaintext attack and is also vulnerable to the ciphertext only attack. The speed is very fast and is almost the same as the MPEG encoding/decoding time and the size of encrypted MPEG stream will increase by a significant factor. Video Encryption Algorithm (VEA) uses secret key to randomly change the sign bits of all DCT coefficients of MPEG video. Extension to VEA is Realtime VEA (RVEA). To encrypt selected sign bits, RVEA uses DES/IDEA while VEA uses only XOR operation. The security of RVEA is significantly improved by adopting secret key cryptography algorithms to encrypt the data. RVEA reduces and bounds its computation time by limiting the maximum number of bits selected. Pure Permutation algorithm simply scrambles the byte stream by permutation. The cardinality of the permutation key can be varied and depends on the security level and the application requirement. The problem of Pure Permutation algorithm is that it is vulnerable to the known plaintext attack. Bytewise permutation is very fast. Pure Permutation algorithm does not increase the stream size unless we change keys for each frame. 3 Background This section describes the MPEG1 video standard and AES. 3.1 Introduction to MPEG1 video MPEG1 video is composed of a sequence of group of pictures (GOPs). Each GOP is composed of series of I, P, and B frames. I frames are intraframe coded without any reference to other frames; P frames are predictively coded using a previous I or P frames; and B frames are bidirectionally interpolated from both the previous and following I and/or P frame. MPEG1 video coding uses three techniques to compress the video data. The first technique is transform coding. Each frame is represented as a two dimensional array of RGB triplets. Each RGB triplet is transformed into YCrCb triplet. The Y value is luminance (black and white) level and Cr/Cb values are chrominance (color information) levels. Each frame is divided into macroblocks. Each macroblock corresponds to a 16x16 pixel area of original image. A macroblock is composed of a set of 8x8 pixel blocks, four from Y plane and one from each of the Cr and Cb planes. Macroblocks belonging to I frames are spatially encoded and macroblocks belonging to P and B frames are temporally interpolated from the corresponding reference frames and the difference be
3 tween the actual and reference value is encoded. The interpolation process also produces forward prediction vector for P frame and forward as well as backward prediction vector for B frame. Each block is transformed using Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and resulting coefficients are quantized. The quantization output is linearized in a zigzag order to vector <DC, AC1, AC2,..., AC63>. Run length encoding and then Huffman Entropy coding are applied on the vector. The motion vector is also coded using Huffman Entropy coding. Every Huffman codeword reserves a sign bit. These sign bits are the exact positions which we encrypt for secure video transmission. 3.2 Introduction to AES AES (Rijndael) is chosen by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as the cryptography algorithm for use by U.S. Government organizations to protect sensitive information. The cipher has a variable block length and key length of 128, 192, or 256 bits. AES is a keyiterated block cipher. The algorithm is same at encryption and decryption side except at the time of decryption, inverse operations are performed. The input to the cipher is one dimentional array of plaintext which is converted as state matrix. For each round, transformation round key is derived using cipher key and never specified directly. Each round transformation is composed of four different transformations such as ByteSub, ShiftRow, MixColumn, and AddRoundKey. The repeated application 10 rounds of transformation is performed on the state. The ByteSub Transformation is a nonlinear byte substitution, operating on each of the state bytes independently. The inverse of ByteSub is the byte substitution where the inverse table is applied. In ShiftRow, the rows of the state are cyclically shifted over different offsets. Row 0 is not shifted, Row 1, 2, and 3 are shifted over 1, 2, and 3 bytes respectively. The inverse ShiftRow is cyclic shift of the 3 bottom rows over 3, 2, 1 bytes respectively. In MixColumn, every column is transformed by multiplying it with specific multiplication polynomial. The inverse of MixColumn is same. In AddRoundKey, a round key is applied to the state by a simple bitwise EX OR. AddRoundKey is self inverse. 4 Our Algorithm MPEG video encryption aims to prevent unauthorized receivers from decoding the video programs by encrypting them. The general scheme is to apply an invertible transformation to video stream S called plaintext that produces a bitstream C called ciphertext, (1) An authorized receiver who has a secret key k2 can decrypt the video by the transformation, The decryption process is, (2) (3) where k1 is called as encryption key and k2 is called as decryption key. Our MPEG encryption algorithm is a selective encryption algorithm which only operates on the sign bits of DCT coefficients and motion vectors of a MPEG compressed video. A MPEG compressed video S is a bitstream which can be represented as S= where! (i=1,2,3...) are all of the sign bits of DCT and motion vector coefficients. For DC coefficients of I frames, these sign bits are differential values since they are differentially coded. The 128 sign bits are selected from macroblock and AES algorithm is applied on them. Secret key kused is a randomly generated bit stream of 128 bits. The input to the cipher is a one dimensional array of 128 sign bits arranged as a 4*4 state matrix. The cipher output is extracted after 10 rounds of repeated application of round transformation on the state. The expanded key for each round shall always be derived from the cipher key. Resulting 128 bits are kept in their respective position from where they were collected. The AES encryption
4 operation randomly changes the sign bits of coefficients. Based on the used secret key, the sign bit is either changed or unchanged. Even if only some of coefficients are changed, these changes will propagate to most of Inverse DCT (IDCT) coefficients while decoding. Our algorithm achieves the goal of reducing and bounding its computation time by limiting the maximum number of bits selected. For those who have the secret key, they can decrypt the video file and get the original video. The decryption function is the same as encryption function except that inverse operation is performed. Encryption and decryption keys are the same. For those who do not have the secret key, their decoders will play quite different images from the original video, because most of the image pixel values would have been changed. Algorithm for Video Encryption/Decryption 5 Experiments The following experiments were conducted on MPEG1 video. A secure video streaming system was implemented using clientserver model on Linux platform using C language. In realtime, encryption is done in at the server side while decryption is done at the client side. It is impossible to include all the image frames here. Instead we just show one frame from video sequence to demonstrate our algorithm. Our implementation uses AES since it is faster and more secure than DES/IDEA. The original frame is as shown in Figure 1. begin open MPEG video file create output file while (not end of MPEG file) read n bytes from input file in buffer for each byte in buffer if (collected sign bits == 128) /*apply AES encryption algorithm */ Rijndael(state,cipher_key) key_expansion(cipher_key,expanded_key) add_round_key(state,expaned_key) /* Nr: Number of rounds, Nc: No. of columns of state matrix */ for(i=1;i<nr;i++) Round(state,expaned_key + Nc*i) Final_round(state,expanded_key+Nc*Nr) put resulting sign bits in original place write n bytes from buffer to output file close input and output file end Figure 1: Original Frame 1. Encrypting I frame headers: The video image is blurred but still user can determine what is happening in the video. This is useful in systems like videoondemand where unauthorised users are prevented from watching the movie. This is the lowest level of encryption. This is as shown in Figure Encrypting sign bits of all AC and DC coefficients: The video image is incomprehensible. But one can notice the motion of the objects. This is the medium level of encryption. This is as shown in Figure Encrypting sign bits of all AC, DC and motion vector coefficients: This algorithm has been
5 6 Discussion and conclusion Figure 2: Encrypted all I frame headers Our algorithm selectively encrypts a fraction of the whole video. It is faster than encrypting the whole video with AES. We found that in typical MPEG1 videos signbits occupy less than 10% of the entire video bitstream. Therefore it can save up to 90% of encryption time compared to the algorithm which encrypts the entire video. It encrypts at most 128 bits, no matter what type of frame is used. This considerably reduces encryption computations achieving satisfactory encryption results. A software implementation is fast enough to meet the realtime requirements of MPEG1 decoding. We believe that this can be used for secure videoondemand applications and payperview programs. References Figure 3: Encrypted all ACs and DCs explained above. The video image is incomprehensible as well as you can t see the motion of the objects. But playing time is reduced as MPEG 1 decoder cannot predict exact forward and backward motion in P and B frames. This is the higher level of encryption than the previous one. This is as shown in Figure Le Gall, Didier, "MPEG: A Video Compression Standard for Multimedia Applications," Communications of the ACM, vol.34, no.4, pp , April NIST Home Page 3. C. Shi, ShengYih Wang, and Bharat Bhargava, "MPEG Video Encryption in Realtime using secret key cryptography", Proc. of PDPTA 99, Las Vegas, Nevada C. Shi and Bhargava, "A Fast MPEG Video Encryption Algorithm", Proceedings of ACM International Multimedia Conference, Bristol, UK, pp , September I. Agi and L. Gong, "An Empirical Study of MPEG Video Transmission", Proceedings of the Internet Society Symposium on Network and Distributed Systems Security, pp San Diego, CA, Feb Figure 4: Encrypted all ACs, DCs and motion vectors 6. Lei Tang, "Methods for Encrypting and Decrypting MPEG Video Data Efficiently", Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 96, pp , Boston, MA, November 1996.
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