# Separable & Secure Data Hiding & Image Encryption Using Hybrid Cryptography

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2 Algorithms In this proposed system we will use algorithms RSA & Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for encryption of data and image respectively. And BPCS algorithm will be used for hiding encrypted data into encrypted image. A) RSA Algorithm :- RSA stands for Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman, who first publicly described it in The RSA algorithm involves three steps: key generation, encryption and decryption. Key Generation: RSA involves a public key and a private key. The public key can be known to everyone and is used for encrypting messages. Messages encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted using the private key. The keys for the RSA algorithm are generated the following way: 1. Choose two distinct prime numbers p and q. For security purposes, the integers p and q should be chosen at random, and should be of similar bit-length. Prime integers can be efficiently found using a primality test. 2. Compute n = pq. (1) n is used as the modulus for both the public and private keys 3. Compute φ(n) = (p 1)(q 1), (1) where φ is Euler's totient function. 4. Choose an integer e such that 1 < e < φ(n) and greatest common divisor of (e, φ(n)) = 1; i.e., e and φ(n) are coprime. e is released as the public key exponent. 5. Determine d as :- i.e., d is multiplicative inverse of e mod φ(n). Encryption If X wants to send message M to Y, then he first turns M into integer m such that 1<= m <= n Then computes cipher text c (2) Y can recover m from c using private key exponent d (3) original message M by reversing the padding scheme. B) AES Algorithm The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of tandards and Technology (NIST) in AES is based on a design principle known as a substitution-permutation network. Steps :- 1. Key Expansion round keys are derived from the cipher key using Rijndael's key schedule 2. Initial Round i. Add RoundKey each byte of the state is combined with the round key using bitwise xor 3. Rounds i. SubBytes a non-linear substitution step where each byte is replaced with another according to a lookup table. ii. ShiftRows a transposition step where each row of the state is shifted cyclically a certain number of steps. iii. MixColumns - a mixing operation which operates on the columns of the state, combining the four bytes in each column. iv. AddRoundKey 4. Final Round (no Mix Columns) 1. SubBytes 2. ShiftRows 3.AddRoundKey C) BPCS Algorithm BPCS steganography was introduced by Eiji Kawaguchi and Richard O. Eason, to overcome the short comings of traditional steganographic techniques such as Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique, Transform embedding technique, Perceptual masking technique. This traditional technique has limited data hiding capacity and they can hide up to 10 15% of the vessel data amount. BPCS steganography makes use of important characteristic that of human vision. And send c. Decryption (2) In BPCS, the vessel image is divided into informative region and noise-like region and the secret data is hidden in noise blocks of vessel image without degrading image quality. In LSB technique, data is hidden in last four bits i.e. only in the 4 LSB bits. But in BPCS technique, data is hidden in MSB planes along with the

3 504 LSB planes provided secret data is hidden in complex region. 4. Mathematical Model Let us consider S be a Systems such that S= {U, E S, K, D E, D S }, where U= {U1, U2, U3.Un U is a Set of all Sender} R= {R1, R2, R3.Rn R is a Set of all Receiver} E S = {E RSA, E AES E S is a Set of Encryption Service } K= {K1, K2, K3.Kn K is a Set of Keys } D E = {UID, PUB_KEY, PRV_KEY D E is a Set of data table for storing of Keys on Encryption /Decryption Server } Ds={BPCS Ds is a set of image and data combining algorithms } EVENT 6 Send RSA private key to receiver, who only want to decrypt data. Let f(e RSA ) be a function of Encryption Service. Thus, f(e RSA ) {R1,R2,R3 Rn} R EVENT 7 Valid receiver can decrypt image using AES key. Let f(e AES ) be a function of Encryption Service. Thus, f(e AES ) {K1,K2,K3 Kn} K EVENT 8 Valid receiver can decrypt data using RSA private key. Let f(e RSA ) be a function of Encryption Service. Thus, f(e RSA ) {K1,K2,K3 Kn} K EVENT 9 Valid receiver can decrypt data using RSA private key. Let f(e AES U E RSA ) be a function of Encryption Service. Thus, f( E AES U E RSA ) {K1,K2,K3 Kn} K 4.2 Venn Diagram Activity 1: Image will get encrypted using AES algorithm. 4.1 Events EVENT 1 Encrypt image file initially using AES at user side Let f(es) be a function of Encryption Service. Thus, f(es) {F1,F2,F3 Fn} F EVENT 2 Encrypt data file initially using RSA at user side Let f(es) be a function of Encryption Service. Thus, f(es) {F1,F2,F3 Fn} F Activity 2 : Data will get encrypted using RSA algorithm. EVENT3 Combine Image and Data using BPCS algorithm. Let, f(ds) be a function of image and data Combination algorithms. thus, f(ds) {E RSA U E AES } E EVENT4 Send that encrypted image to receiver. Let f(us) be a function receiver. Thus, f(us) {R1,R2,R3 Rn} R EVENT 5 Send AES key to receiver, who want to decrypt image. Let f(e AES ) be a function of Encryption Service. Thus, f(e AES ) {R1,R2,R3 Rn} R

4 505 Activity 3: Combine Image and Data using BPCS algorithm. Activity 7: Valid receiver can decrypt image using AES key. Activity 4: Send that encrypted image to receiver. Activity 8: Valid receiver can decrypt Data using RSA key. Activity 5: Send AES key to receiver, who only want to decrypt image. Activity 9: Valid receiver can decrypt Image usingaes key and Data using RSA key. Activity 6: Send RSA key to receiver, who only want to decrypt Data. 5. Conclusion The encrypted data can hide in encrypted image by sender. There may be image encryption and data hiding two separate functions. There are two different encryption keys for data and image. At receiver side, he can decrypt data from image only if having data encryption key and can decrypt image if having image encryption key. It is on sender which key is

5 506 to be provided to which user. Key s are sent via SMS on mobile. By this sender has full control over image and data. 6. References [1] Kede Ma, Weiming Zhang, Xianfeng Zhao, Member, IEEE, Nenghai Yu, and Fenghua Li, Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images by Reserving Room Before Encryption IEEE Trans. Inform. Forensics Security, vol. 8, no. 3, pp , March [2] Xinpeng Zhang, Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image IEEE Trans. Inform. Forensics Security, vol. 7, no. 2, pp , April [3] Shrikant Khaire, DR. SANJAY L. ALBALWAR Review: Steganography Bit Plane Complexity Segmentation (BPCS) Technique International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2(9), 2010, Author Details Vinay Wadekar : Current research interest in security of data, hacking. Ajinkya Jadhavrao : Current research interest in data encryption. Sharad Ghule: Current research interest in data embedding in image. Akshay Kapse: Current research interest in image processing.

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