The Advanced Encryption Standard: Four Years On


 Esmond Sullivan
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 The Advanced Encryption Standard: Four Years On Matt Robshaw Reader in Information Security Information Security Group Royal Holloway University of London September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 1
2 The Advanced Encryption Standard In October 2000 Rijndael was chosen as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Published as FIPS 197 Available via A block cipher is a versatile primitive to have Symmetric encryption algorithm Can be used to construct a stream cipher Can be used to construct a hash function Can be used to construct a MAC Replaces DES Provides vastly increased security But without the software costs of 3DES Likely to be used widely around the world However full deployment will be slow The view from NIST NIST expects to get the world to AES by 2020 AES and 3DES will coexist as FIPSapproved algorithms to 2030 [SP ] September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 2
3 The AES Process The search for the AES began in 1997 Full archives at There were two rounds of assessment 15 ciphers in Round 1 5 ciphers in Round 2 MARS (IBM) RC6 (RSA Laboratories + Rivest) Rijndael (Daemen + Rijmen) Serpent (Anderson, Biham + Knudsen) Twofish (Counterpane) Very different design philosophies Different architectural features Different approaches to security Different performance profiles Rijndael was an excellent bestfit candidate Rijndael appears to be a consistently good performer in both hardware and software across a wide range of computing environments NIST Final Report September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 3
4 The AES The AES is a very elegant cipher Novel construction Good performance The AES is a carefully constructed cipher Good levels of security against known attacks Differential cryptanalysis Linear cryptanalysis Rijndael is more versatile than the AES Rijndael allowed for different block sizes This might have been helpful for hash function construction The structure of the AES has led to some novel analytical approaches Might a wellstructured cipher offer new advantages to an attacker? What is the current state of AES cryptanalysis? September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 4
5 AES Design Basics Shannon introduced the ideas of confusion and diffusion These are not rigorous notions but guides to some form of ideal behaviour During the design of a block cipher we typically choose cipher components to deliver these properties Confusion The relationship between the plaintext, ciphertext, and key should be complex Typically provided by substitution operations Diffusion All of the ciphertext should depend on all of the plaintext and all of the key Typically provided by permutation operations September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 5
6 SPNetworks Single substitution and permutation operations on their own are unlikely to yield a strong cipher This leads us to SPnetworks September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 6
7 AES Description The AES has one block and three key lengths For the AES b=128 and k=128, 192, and 256 Referred to as AES128, AES192, AES256 Here we concentrate on b=k=128 Encryption can be described as a sequence of operations on an array of bytes Some operations are described over GF(2 8 ) The Rijndael polynomial is X 8 +X 4 +X 3 +X+1 Here we are less interested in the key schedule For k=128 The 128bit usersupplied key is expanded into a sequence of 11 round keys each of 128 bits The key schedule (like the rest of the cipher) is very simple and lightweight September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 7
8 AES Encryption There are four components to an AES round SubBytes ShiftRows MixColumns AddRoundKey The AES is best described using an array of bytes Pack the input m 0 m 15 into a (4 4) square array September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 8
9 SubBytes There are 16 parallel Sbox lookups The same Sbox is used in each case September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 9
10 ShiftRows Each row is rotated a different number of byte positions Row i (0 i 3) is moved by i byte positions to the left September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 10
11 MixColumns View each column as a GF(2 8 ) column vector Create a replacement column by computing M c September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 11
12 AES AddKey We add the round key for the given round September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 12
13 AES128 (k=b=128) There are nine full rounds There is a keyaddition prior to the first round There is a tenth round without MixColumns AES192 and AES256 have 12 and 14 rounds respectively AddRoundKey SubBytes ShiftRows MixColumns Repeat 9 times AddRoundKey SubBytes ShiftRows AddRoundKey September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 13
14 The AES S/P Network September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 14
15 Rijndael In Context While Rijndael may look quite different to other cipher designs it has eminent predecessors The success of Rijndael has also inspired other designers September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 15
16 AES Overview AES is a very simple S/P network Gives a good performance profile Some sample figures include Software; e.g. 2.1 GHz Pentium 4 [Wei Dai 04] AES128: 62 Mbyte/sec AES192: 56 Mbyte/sec AES256: 49 Mbyte/sec Hardware Space/performance/technology/implementation tradeoffs Highend performance» 1.3 Gbyte/sec (FPGA)» 3.1 Gbyte/sec (ASIC) Very careful construction September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 16
17 Some Details September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 17
18 The AES SBox The Sbox is crucial to security There are three components to its design 1. Invert the input x in GF(2 8 ) [ with 0 fi 0 ] 2. Multiply x (1) by an (8 8) GF(2) matrix L 3. XOR the constant c = September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 18
19 SBox Design Rationale The Sbox has been carefully constructed 1. Invert the input in GF(2 8 ) [with 0 fi 0] This operation has been shown to be very good against differential and linear cryptanalysis Maximum difference propagation probability 26 and maximum linear correlation Multiply by an (8 8) GF(2) matrix L The operation x fi x (1) is algebraically simple Multiplying by L should hinder attacks that exploit the GF(2 8 )based algebraic structure 3. XOR the constant We remove the fixed point 0 fi 0 by adding a nonzero constant The mix of incompatible operations over GF(2 8 ) and GF(2) should help resist cryptanalysis September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 19
20 MixColumns The MixColumns operation provides mixing across bytes Introduce the concept of a branch number β for matrix M Denote the number of nonzero coefficients in column vector a by w b (a), then for a b β = min{ w b (a b) + w b (Ma Mb) } The MixColumns matrix M has β = 5 A nonzero difference in a single byte is spread to a nonzero difference in four bytes September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 20
21 Approaches to AES Analysis Statistical attacks Structural attacks Alternative representations Algebraic attacks September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 21
22 Statistical Attacks The AES is very resistant to statistical attacks The attacker attempts to construct statistical patterns via many cipher interactions Differential Cryptanalysis (DC) The statistical pattern depends on bitwise difference Linear Cryptanalysis (LC) The statistical pattern depends on the correlation between bits To illustrate, DC is thwarted by Careful Sbox construction The probability p of a given bitwise nonzero difference propagation across an Sbox is < 26 In an attack, an Sbox supporting such a propagation is said to be an active Sbox Carefully designed diffusion layer The number of active Sboxes n increases quickly The total differential probability behaves as p n Attack requirements are proportional to 1/p n September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 22
23 The AES S/P Network D September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 23
24 Statistical Attacks For differential and linear cryptanalysis Attacks over four rounds of the AES require at least 25 active Sboxes More careful analysis takes account of additional complicated phenomena Differentials, linear hulls, etc. Exploiting differential and linear techniques requires far more data than there is available A different cryptanalytic approach is required! September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 24
25 Approaches to AES Analysis Statistical attacks Structural attacks Alternative representations Algebraic attacks September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 25
26 Structural Attacks The AES is heavily optimised against statistical attacks Careful choice of Sbox Carefully designed structure to quickly magnify the number of active Sboxes However this clean structure can be used to mount some innovative analysis Analysis is specific to AESlike ciphers Such attacks tend to have a similar form Identify a property over a few rounds that holds with a good probability Use special techniques to extend the attack a few rounds at the beginning and the end Best example is the socalled Square Attack But there are several others such as Impossible Differentials, Bottleneck Attacks, September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 26
27 Square Attack Suppose we have a set of 256 plaintexts The first byte in a textset takes all possible values All other byte positions are fixed across the textset Consider three rounds of encryption Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 27
28 A Three Round Property September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 28
29 Structural Attacks Structural attacks are very effective over a moderate number of rounds However they do not extend well Since the number of rounds increases for different keysizes in some sense we re losing ground! Rounds AES % 70% 80% AES % 58% 75% AES % 50% 57% September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 29
30 Approaches to AES Analysis Statistical attacks Structural attacks Alternative representations Algebraic attacks September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 30
31 Alternative Representations The rich structure of the AES allows us to rewrite and reorder components of the cipher There are a variety of reasons to consider alternative representations Different implementations Insights into algorithm design New approaches to cryptanalysis There have been a variety of proposals Continued fraction expansion Dual ciphers Algebraic structure September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 31
32 Algebraic Structure September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 32
33 One Round of the AES One round has the following form M September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 33
34 One Round of the AES We can move parts of the Sbox into an augmented diffusion layer M* September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 34
35 Simplifying the AES The designers view of the AES: In one Sbox mix operations in GF(2 8 ) and GF(2) Use a simple diffusion operation over GF(2) The unified view of the AES: Use an algebraically simple Sbox in GF(2 8 ) Use a modified diffusion operation over GF(2) By grouping together similar operations The strategy of mixing operations in GF(2) and GF(2 8 ) within the Sbox is unclear The issue of eliminating fixed points in the Sbox is not relevant How complicated does this rewriting make the modified diffusion operation? September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 35
36 Simplifying the AES The modified diffusion layer can be represented as multiplication by a binary matrix M* Minimum polynomial for M* is (X + 1) 15 There are large fixed subspaces The modified GF(2) diffusion layer is very simple and preserves considerable structure However, have we really gained much? The Sboxes are defined over GF(2 8 ) and diffusion is defined over GF(2) This creates difficulties for the cryptanalyst September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 36
37 AES fi BES The unified AES consists of A layer of Sboxes over GF(2 8 ) A modified diffusion layer given by a GF(2) matrix M* Analysis techniques for the Sboxes don t work across diffusion and vice versa However it is possible to describe the actions of the the AES entirely with operations in GF(2 8 ) Embed the AES in a larger cipher, the BES AES: A A operates with a mix of GF(2) and GF(2 8 ) BES: B B operates exclusively in GF(2 8 ) B A = f(a) B September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 37
38 BES Each byte in the AES is represented by a set of conjugates in BES AES is a 16byte block cipher BES is a 128byte block cipher All AES operations can be replicated by simple operations on conjugates Even the GF(2) linear map L AES encryption can be described exclusively in terms of GF(2 8 ) operations The (slight) additional complexity allows us to avoid the tension between GF(2) and GF(2 8 ) September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 38
39 Comparing the AES and the BES Sbox The AES Sbox consists of 1 byte of input, inversion in GF(2 8 ), and mixing over GF(2) The BES Sbox consists of 8 bytes of input, componentwise inversion in GF(2 8 ), and mixing over GF(2 8 ) September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 39
40 Approaches to AES Analysis Statistical attacks Structural attacks Alternative representations Algebraic attacks September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 40
41 Algebraic Attacks Algebraic analysis offers new approaches to symmetric cryptanalysis Algebraic techniques previously the preserve of public key cryptography Courtois and Pieprzyk proposed algebraic cryptanalysis against block ciphers Also valuable techniques against certain stream cipher designs September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 41
42 Algebraic Attacks Algebraic attacks require us to: Describe encryption as a system of equations Using key, plaintext, ciphertext, and internal variables Solve the system of equations (somehow!) Recover the key For most block ciphers The system of equations would be huge The system of equations would be complex For the AES this is not the case An algebraically simple Sbox [x fi x 1 ] A simple and very structured diffusion layer September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 42
43 Algebraic Analysis for AES and BES There are two approaches to writing systems of equations across the Sbox AES style: express inversion over GF(2) BES style: express the map L over GF(2 8 ) Courtois and Pieprzyk introduce a measure of S box complexity, G s inputs, r equations, and t variables s r t G AES (i) AES (ii) BES September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 43
44 The BES System of Equations Consider the BES equivalent of AES128 One single encryption provides 5,248 equations in 7,808 terms 3,840 sparse quadratic equations 1,408 linear equations 2,560 state variables 1,408 key variables The key schedule provides 2,560 equations in 3,308 terms 960 are sparse quadratic equations 1,600 linear equations 1,408 key variables and 640 auxiliary variables We can assume there is no zeroinversion (255/256) for encryption (255/256) for the key schedule September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 44
45 Solving Equations (I) Linearisation techniques Courtois and Pieprzyk proposed Extended Sparse Linearization (XSL) An extension of the XL algorithm XL is reasonably well understood Linearisation step Gaussian elimination step XSL adds an AESspecific enhancement to linearisation There are doubts over the full validity of XSL Experiments on some equation systems work But experiments on AESlike systems show that XSL might not be so successful All current claims for attacking the AES depend on the correctness of the XSL Beware of XL claims for XSL! September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 45
46 Solving Equations (II) Gröbner Basis algorithms Buchberger, F 4, (F 5 ) Smallscale experiments are successful The key can be recovered directly! However the algorithms quickly become inefficient The relation between these different techniques is becoming clearer F 4 should be better than XL Current implementations do not exploit the source of the equations Yet, the system of equations for the AES is very structured Ongoing research is considering how best to work with a very specific set of equations September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 46
47 Summary The AES is a very successful design Good performance Good security Traditional methods of attack are not successful However the AES is very structured AESspecific analysis techniques have been proposed These might provide new opportunities for the attacker in the future The current best approach (for the cryptanalyst) appears to be to use algebraic methods However they are exceptionally difficult to work with With what we know today there is no substantive reason to question the security of the AES September 21, 2004 The State of the AES 47
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) All of the cryptographic algorithms we have looked at so far have some problem. The earlier ciphers can be broken with ease on modern computation systems. The DES
More informationThe Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Conception  Why A New Cipher? Conception  Why A New Cipher? DES had outlived its usefulness Vulnerabilities were becoming known 56bit key was too small Too slow
More informationCryptography and Network Security. Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay. Department of Computer Science and Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Cryptography and Network Security Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Module No. # 01 Lecture No. # 12 Block Cipher Standards
More informationEnhancing Advanced Encryption Standard SBox Generation Based on Round Key
Enhancing Advanced Encryption Standard SBox Generation Based on Round Key Julia Juremi Ramlan Mahmod Salasiah Sulaiman Jazrin Ramli Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Universiti Putra
More informationNetwork Security. Chapter 3 Symmetric Cryptography. Symmetric Encryption. Modes of Encryption. Symmetric Block Ciphers  Modes of Encryption ECB (1)
Chair for Network Architectures and Services Department of Informatics TU München Prof. Carle Network Security Chapter 3 Symmetric Cryptography General Description Modes of ion Data ion Standard (DES)
More informationImplementation of Full Parallelism AES Encryption and Decryption
Implementation of Full Parallelism AES Encryption and Decryption M.Anto Merline M.ECommuication Systems, ECE Department K.Ramakrishnan College of EngineeringSamayapuram, Trichy. AbstractAdvanced Encryption
More informationCryptography and Network Security
Cryptography and Network Security Spring 2012 http://users.abo.fi/ipetre/crypto/ Lecture 3: Block ciphers and DES Ion Petre Department of IT, Åbo Akademi University January 17, 2012 1 Data Encryption Standard
More informationCSCE 465 Computer & Network Security
CSCE 465 Computer & Network Security Instructor: Dr. Guofei Gu http://courses.cse.tamu.edu/guofei/csce465/ Secret Key Cryptography (I) 1 Introductory Remarks Roadmap Feistel Cipher DES AES Introduction
More informationEfficient Software Implementation of AES on 32bit Platforms
Efficient Software Implementation of AES on 32bit Platforms Guido Bertoni, Luca Breveglieri Politecnico di Milano, Milano  Italy Pasqualina Lilli Lilli Fragneto ASTLAB of ST Microelectronics, Agrate
More informationModern Block Cipher Standards (AES) Debdeep Mukhopadhyay
Modern Block Cipher Standards (AES) Debdeep Mukhopadhyay Assistant Professor Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur INDIA 721302 Objectives Introduction
More informationSeChat: An AES Encrypted Chat
Name: Luis Miguel Cortés Peña GTID: 901 67 6476 GTG: gtg683t SeChat: An AES Encrypted Chat Abstract With the advancement in computer technology, it is now possible to break DES 56 bit key in a meaningful
More informationCryptography and Network Security Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Cryptography and Network Security Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 11 Block Cipher Standards (DES) (Refer Slide
More informationNetwork Security. Omer Rana
Network Security Omer Rana CM0255 Material from: Cryptography Components Sender Receiver Plaintext Encryption Ciphertext Decryption Plaintext Encryption algorithm: Plaintext Ciphertext Cipher: encryption
More informationSecret File Sharing Techniques using AES algorithm. C. Navya Latha 200201066 Garima Agarwal 200305032 Anila Kumar GVN 200305002
Secret File Sharing Techniques using AES algorithm C. Navya Latha 200201066 Garima Agarwal 200305032 Anila Kumar GVN 200305002 1. Feature Overview The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) feature adds support
More informationIJESRT. [Padama, 2(5): May, 2013] ISSN: 22779655
IJESRT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES & RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY Design and Verification of VLSI Based AES Crypto Core Processor Using Verilog HDL Dr.K.Padama Priya *1, N. Deepthi Priya 2 *1,2
More informationCryptography and Network Security Chapter 3
Cryptography and Network Security Chapter 3 Fifth Edition by William Stallings Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown (with edits by RHB) Chapter 3 Block Ciphers and the Data Encryption Standard All the afternoon
More informationRijndael Encryption implementation on different platforms, with emphasis on performance
Rijndael Encryption implementation on different platforms, with emphasis on performance KAFUUMA JOHN SSENYONJO Bsc (Hons) Computer Software Theory University of Bath May 2005 Rijndael Encryption implementation
More informationDesign and Verification of AreaOptimized AES Based on FPGA Using Verilog HDL
Design and Verification of AreaOptimized AES Based on FPGA Using Verilog HDL 1 N. Radhika, 2 Obili Ramesh, 3 Priyadarshini, 3 Asst.Profosser, 1,2 M.Tech ( Digital Systems & Computer Electronics), 1,2,3,
More informationSurvey on Enhancing Cloud Data Security using EAP with Rijndael Encryption Algorithm
Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology Software & Data Engineering Volume 13 Issue 5 Version 1.0 Year 2013 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals
More informationALGEBRAIC CRYPTANALYSIS OF AES: AN OVERVIEW
ALGEBRAIC CRYPTANALYSIS OF AES: AN OVERVIEW HARRIS NOVER Abstract. In this paper, we examine algebraic attacks on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES, also known as Rijndael). We begin with a brief review
More informationCS 758: Cryptography / Network Security
CS 758: Cryptography / Network Security offered in the Fall Semester, 2003, by Doug Stinson my office: DC 3122 my email address: dstinson@uwaterloo.ca my web page: http://cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/~dstinson/index.html
More informationParallel AES Encryption with Modified Mixcolumns For Many Core Processor Arrays M.S.Arun, V.Saminathan
Parallel AES Encryption with Modified Mixcolumns For Many Core Processor Arrays M.S.Arun, V.Saminathan Abstract AES is an encryption algorithm which can be easily implemented on fine grain many core systems.
More informationLecture 4 Data Encryption Standard (DES)
Lecture 4 Data Encryption Standard (DES) 1 Block Ciphers Map nbit plaintext blocks to nbit ciphertext blocks (n = block length). For nbit plaintext and ciphertext blocks and a fixed key, the encryption
More informationFPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF AN AES PROCESSOR
FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF AN AES PROCESSOR Kazi Shabbir Ahmed, Md. Liakot Ali, Mohammad Bozlul Karim and S.M. Tofayel Ahmad Institute of Information and Communication Technology Bangladesh University of Engineering
More informationThe Data Encryption Standard (DES)
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) As mentioned earlier there are two main types of cryptography in use today  symmetric or secret key cryptography and asymmetric or public key cryptography. Symmetric
More informationCryptographic Algorithms and Key Size Issues. Çetin Kaya Koç Oregon State University, Professor http://islab.oregonstate.edu/koc koc@ece.orst.
Cryptographic Algorithms and Key Size Issues Çetin Kaya Koç Oregon State University, Professor http://islab.oregonstate.edu/koc koc@ece.orst.edu Overview Cryptanalysis Challenge Encryption: DES AES Message
More informationAES Power Attack Based on Induced Cache Miss and Countermeasure
AES Power Attack Based on Induced Cache Miss and Countermeasure Guido Bertoni, Vittorio Zaccaria STMicroelectronics, Advanced System Technology Agrate Brianza  Milano, Italy, {guido.bertoni, vittorio.zaccaria}@st.com
More informationLecture Note 8 ATTACKS ON CRYPTOSYSTEMS I. Sourav Mukhopadhyay
Lecture Note 8 ATTACKS ON CRYPTOSYSTEMS I Sourav Mukhopadhyay Cryptography and Network Security  MA61027 Attacks on Cryptosystems Up to this point, we have mainly seen how ciphers are implemented. We
More informationA NEW DNA BASED APPROACH OF GENERATING KEYDEPENDENT SHIFTROWS TRANSFORMATION
A NEW DNA BASED APPROACH OF GENERATING KEYDEPENDENT SHIFTROWS TRANSFORMATION Auday H. AlWattar 1, Ramlan Mahmod 2, Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain3, and Nur Izura Udzir4, 1 Faculty of Computer Science and Information
More informationThe 128bit Blockcipher CLEFIA Design Rationale
The 128bit Blockcipher CLEFIA Design Rationale Revision 1.0 June 1, 2007 Sony Corporation NOTICE THIS DOCUMENT IS PROVIDED AS IS, WITH NO WARRANTIES WHATSOVER, INCLUDING ANY WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABIL
More informationFast Implementations of AES on Various Platforms
Fast Implementations of AES on Various Platforms Joppe W. Bos 1 Dag Arne Osvik 1 Deian Stefan 2 1 EPFL IC IIF LACAL, Station 14, CH1015 Lausanne, Switzerland {joppe.bos, dagarne.osvik}@epfl.ch 2 Dept.
More informationImproving Performance of Secure Data Transmission in Communication Networks Using Physical Implementation of AES
Improving Performance of Secure Data Transmission in Communication Networks Using Physical Implementation of AES K Anjaneyulu M.Tech Student, Y.Chalapathi Rao, M.Tech, Ph.D Associate Professor, Mr.M Basha,
More informationA Secure Software Implementation of Nonlinear Advanced Encryption Standard
IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSRJVSP) ISSN: 2319 4200, ISBN No. : 2319 4197 Volume 1, Issue 5 (Jan.  Feb 2013), PP 4448 A Secure Software Implementation of Nonlinear Advanced Encryption
More informationBlock Ciphers that are Easier to Mask: How Far Can we Go?
Block Ciphers that are Easier to Mask: How Far Can we Go? Benoît Gérard 1,2, Vincent Grosso 1, María NayaPlasencia 3, FrançoisXavier Standaert 1 1 ICTEAM/ELEN/Crypto Group, Université catholique de Louvain,
More informationDesign and Implementation of Asymmetric Cryptography Using AES Algorithm
Design and Implementation of Asymmetric Cryptography Using AES Algorithm Madhuri B. Shinde Student, Electronics & Telecommunication Department, Matoshri College of Engineering and Research Centre, Nashik,
More informationF3 Symmetric Encryption
F3 Symmetric Encryption Cryptographic Algorithms: Overview During this course two main applications of cryptographic algorithms are of principal interest: Encryption of data: transforms plaintext data
More informationEfficient Software Implementation of AES on 32Bit Platforms
Efficient Software Implementation of AES on 32Bit Platforms Guido Bertoni 1, Luca Breveglieri 1, Pasqualina Fragneto 2, Marco Macchetti 3, and Stefano Marchesin 3 1 Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy
More informationBlock encryption. CS4920: Lecture 7 Secret key cryptography. Determining the plaintext ciphertext mapping. CS4920Lecture 7 4/1/2015
CS4920: Lecture 7 Secret key cryptography Reading Chapter 3 (pp. 5975, 9293) Today s Outcomes Discuss block and key length issues related to secret key cryptography Define several terms related to secret
More information1 Data Encryption Algorithm
Date: Monday, September 23, 2002 Prof.: Dr JeanYves Chouinard Design of Secure Computer Systems CSI4138/CEG4394 Notes on the Data Encryption Standard (DES) The Data Encryption Standard (DES) has been
More informationA NEW DNA BASED APPROACH OF GENERATING KEY DEPENDENTMIXCOLUMNS TRANSFORMATION
A NEW DNA BASED APPROACH OF GENERATING KEY DEPENDENTMIXCOLUMNS TRANSFORMATION Auday H. AlWattar 1, Ramlan Mahmod 2,Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain 3 and NurIzura Udzir 4 1 Faculty of Computer Science and Information
More information7! Cryptographic Techniques! A Brief Introduction
7! Cryptographic Techniques! A Brief Introduction 7.1! Introduction to Cryptography! 7.2! Symmetric Encryption! 7.3! Asymmetric (PublicKey) Encryption! 7.4! Digital Signatures! 7.5! Public Key Infrastructures
More informationNote on naming. Note on naming
Joan Daemen Vincent Rijmen Note on naming Rijndael 1. Introduction Note on naming After the selection of Rijndael as the AES, it was decided to change the names of some of its component functions in order
More informationCryptography and Network Security Block Cipher
Cryptography and Network Security Block Cipher XiangYang Li Modern Private Key Ciphers Stream ciphers The most famous: Vernam cipher Invented by Vernam, ( AT&T, in 1917) Process the message bit by bit
More informationCache based Timing Attacks on Embedded Systems
Cache based Timing Attacks on Embedded Systems Malte Wienecke Monday 20 th July, 2009 Master Thesis RuhrUniversität Bochum Chair for Embedded Security Prof. Dr.Ing. Christof Paar Advisor: Dipl.Ing.
More informationArea Optimized and Pipelined FPGA Implementation of AES Encryption and Decryption
Area Optimized and Pipelined FPGA Implementation of AES Encryption and Decryption 1, Mg Suresh, 2, Dr.Nataraj.K.R 1, Asst Professor Rgit, Bangalore, 2, Professor 1,2, Department Of Electronics And Communication
More informationNetwork Security. Chapter 2 Basics 2.1 Symmetric Cryptography. Cryptographic algorithms: outline. Basic Terms: Block cipher and Stream cipher
Chair for Network Architectures and Services Department of Informatics TU München Prof. Carle Cryptographic algorithms: outline Network Security Cryptographic Algorithms Chapter 2 Basics 2.1 Symmetric
More informationA PPENDIX H RITERIA FOR AES E VALUATION C RITERIA FOR
A PPENDIX H RITERIA FOR AES E VALUATION C RITERIA FOR William Stallings Copyright 20010 H.1 THE ORIGINS OF AES...2 H.2 AES EVALUATION...3 Supplement to Cryptography and Network Security, Fifth Edition
More informationAlgebraic Attacks on SOBERt32 and SOBERt16 without stuttering
Algebraic Attacks on SOBERt32 and SOBERt16 without stuttering Joo Yeon Cho and Josef Pieprzyk Center for Advanced Computing Algorithms and Cryptography, Department of Computing, Macquarie University,
More informationELECTENG702 Advanced Embedded Systems. Improving AES128 software for Altera Nios II processor using custom instructions
Assignment ELECTENG702 Advanced Embedded Systems Improving AES128 software for Altera Nios II processor using custom instructions October 1. 2005 Professor Zoran Salcic by Kilian Foerster 108 Claybrook
More informationSwitching between the AES128 and AES256 Using Ks * & Two Keys
36 IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.0 No.8, August 200 Switching between the AES28 and AES256 Using Ks * & Two Keys Moceheb Lazam Shuwandy, Ali Khalil Salih,
More informationEXAM questions for the course TTM4135  Information Security May 2013. Part 1
EXAM questions for the course TTM4135  Information Security May 2013 Part 1 This part consists of 5 questions all from one common topic. The number of maximal points for every correctly answered question
More informationA Comparative Study Of Two Symmetric Encryption Algorithms Across Different Platforms.
A Comparative Study Of Two Symmetric Algorithms Across Different Platforms. Dr. S.A.M Rizvi 1,Dr. Syed Zeeshan Hussain 2 and Neeta Wadhwa 3 Deptt. of Computer Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi,
More informationAESvisual: A Visualization Tool for the AES Cipher
AESvisual: A Visualization Tool for the AES Cipher Jun Ma, Jun Tao Department of Computer Science Michigan Technological University Houghton, MI {junm,junt}@mtu.edu Melissa Keranen Department of Mathematical
More informationHigh Speed Software Driven AES Algorithm on IC Smartcards
SCIS 2004 The 2004 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security Sendai, Japan, Jan.2730, 2004 The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers High Speed Software Driven AES
More informationLecture 8: AES: The Advanced Encryption Standard. Lecture Notes on Computer and Network Security. by Avi Kak (kak@purdue.edu)
Lecture 8: AES: The Advanced Encryption Standard Lecture Notes on Computer and Network Security by Avi Kak (kak@purdue.edu) May 1, 2015 12:14 Noon c 2015 Avinash Kak, Purdue University Goals: To review
More informationSeparable & Secure Data Hiding & Image Encryption Using Hybrid Cryptography
502 Separable & Secure Data Hiding & Image Encryption Using Hybrid Cryptography 1 Vinay Wadekar, 2 Ajinkya Jadhavrao, 3 Sharad Ghule, 4 Akshay Kapse 1,2,3,4 Computer Engineering, University Of Pune, Pune,
More informationError oracle attacks and CBC encryption. Chris Mitchell ISG, RHUL http://www.isg.rhul.ac.uk/~cjm
Error oracle attacks and CBC encryption Chris Mitchell ISG, RHUL http://www.isg.rhul.ac.uk/~cjm Agenda 1. Introduction 2. CBC mode 3. Error oracles 4. Example 1 5. Example 2 6. Example 3 7. Stream ciphers
More informationSplit Based Encryption in Secure File Transfer
Split Based Encryption in Secure File Transfer Parul Rathor, Rohit Sehgal Assistant Professor, Dept. of CSE, IET, Nagpur University, India Assistant Professor, Dept. of CSE, IET, Alwar, Rajasthan Technical
More informationA PPENDIX G S IMPLIFIED DES
A PPENDIX G S IMPLIFIED DES William Stallings opyright 2010 G.1 OVERVIEW...2! G.2 SDES KEY GENERATION...3! G.3 SDES ENRYPTION...4! Initial and Final Permutations...4! The Function f K...5! The Switch
More informationA Realtime MPEG Video Encryption Algorithm using AES
A Realtime MPEG Video Encryption Algorithm using AES Jayshri Nehete*, K. Bhagyalakshmi, M. B. Manjunath, Shashikant Chaudhari, T. R. Ramamohan Central Research Laboratory Bharat Electronics Ltd., Bangalore560013,
More informationMAC. SKE in Practice. Lecture 5
MAC. SKE in Practice. Lecture 5 Active Adversary Active Adversary An active adversary can inject messages into the channel Active Adversary An active adversary can inject messages into the channel Eve
More informationSecure and Efficient Crypto System Based On 128Bit AES
Secure and Efficient Crypto System Based On 128Bit AES Pramod Raj B 1, Manju Devi 2 1 M.Tech. Scholar, Department of E&C, BTL Institute of Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, pramodraj031@gmail.com
More information6.857 Computer and Network Security Fall Term, 1997 Lecture 4 : 16 September 1997 Lecturer: Ron Rivest Scribe: Michelle Goldberg 1 Conditionally Secure Cryptography Conditionally (or computationally) secure
More informationOverview of Symmetric Encryption
CS 361S Overview of Symmetric Encryption Vitaly Shmatikov Reading Assignment Read Kaufman 2.14 and 4.2 slide 2 Basic Problem   ? Given: both parties already know the same secret Goal: send
More informationArea optimized in storage area network using Novel Mix column Transformation in Masked AES
Area optimized in storage area network using Novel Mix column Transformation in Masked AES Mrs.S.Anitha #1, Ms.M.Suganya #2 #1 Assistant professor, #2 P.G.Scholar, II M.E.VLSI Design #1,#2 Department of
More informationCIS433/533  Computer and Network Security Cryptography
CIS433/533  Computer and Network Security Cryptography Professor Kevin Butler Winter 2011 Computer and Information Science A historical moment Mary Queen of Scots is being held by Queen Elizabeth and
More informationCOPYRIGHT AND CITATION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THIS THESIS/ DISSERTATION
COPYRIGHT AND CITATION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THIS THESIS/ DISSERTATION o Attribution You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any
More informationCryptography and Network Security Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Cryptography and Network Security Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur Module No. # 01 Lecture No. # 05 Classic Cryptosystems (Refer Slide Time: 00:42)
More informationDeveloping and Investigation of a New Technique Combining Message Authentication and Encryption
Developing and Investigation of a New Technique Combining Message Authentication and Encryption Eyas ElQawasmeh and Saleem Masadeh Computer Science Dept. Jordan University for Science and Technology P.O.
More informationPolymorphic AES Encryption Implementation
Polymorphic AE Encryption Implementation Ricardo Chaves, Leonel ousa Instituto uperior Técnico / INECID Portugal, Lisbon Email: ricardo.chaves@inescid.pt Georgi Kuzmanov, tamatis Vassiliadis Computer
More informationThe Stream Cipher HC128
The Stream Cipher HC128 Hongjun Wu Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, ESAT/SCDCOSIC Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B3001 LeuvenHeverlee, Belgium wu.hongjun@esat.kuleuven.be Statement 1. HC128 supports 128bit
More informationSpecification of Cryptographic Technique PCMACAES. NEC Corporation
Specification of Cryptographic Technique PCMACAS NC Corporation Contents 1 Contents 1 Design Criteria 2 2 Specification 2 2.1 Notations............................................. 2 2.2 Basic Functions..........................................
More informationSymmetric Key cryptosystem
SFWR C03: Computer Networks and Computer Security Mar 811 200 Lecturer: Kartik Krishnan Lectures 222 Symmetric Key cryptosystem Symmetric encryption, also referred to as conventional encryption or single
More information{(i,j) 1 < i,j < n} pairs, X and X i, such that X and X i differ. exclusiveor sums. ( ) ( i ) V = f x f x
ON THE DESIGN OF SBOXES A. F. Webster and S. E. Tavares Department of Electrical Engineering Queen's University Kingston, Ont. Canada The ideas of completeness and the avalanche effect were first introduced
More informationA NEW APPROACH FOR COMPLEX ENCRYPTING AND DECRYPTING DATA
A NEW APPROACH FOR COMPLEX ENCRYPTING AND DECRYPTING DATA ABSTRACT Obaida Mohammad Awad AlHazaimeh Department of Information Technology, Albalqa Applied University, ALHuson University College, Irbid,
More informationEFFECTIVE AES IMPLEMENTATION
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET) Volume 7, Issue 1, JanFeb 2016, pp. 0109, Article ID: IJECET_07_01_001 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijecetissues.asp?jtype=ijecet&vtype=7&itype=1
More informationNetwork Security  ISA 656 Introduction to Cryptography
Network Security  ISA 656 Angelos Stavrou September 18, 2007 Codes vs. K = {0, 1} l P = {0, 1} m C = {0, 1} n, C C E : P K C D : C K P p P, k K : D(E(p, k), k) = p It is infeasible to find F : P C K Let
More informationThe implementation and performance/cost/power analysis of the network security accelerator on SoC applications
The implementation and performance/cost/power analysis of the network security accelerator on SoC applications RueiTing Gu grating@eslab.cse.nsysu.edu.tw KuoHuang Chung khchung@eslab.cse.nsysu.edu.tw
More informationHardware Implementation of AES Encryption and Decryption System Based on FPGA
Send Orders for Reprints to reprints@benthamscience.ae The Open Cybernetics & Systemics Journal, 2015, 9, 13731377 1373 Open Access Hardware Implementation of AES Encryption and Decryption System Based
More informationA Study of New Trends in Blowfish Algorithm
A Study of New Trends in Blowfish Algorithm Gurjeevan Singh*, Ashwani Kumar**, K. S. Sandha*** *(Department of ECE, Shaheed Bhagat Singh College of Engg. & Tech. (Polywing), Ferozepur152004) **(Department
More informationCombining Mifare Card and agsxmpp to Construct a Secure Instant Messaging Software
Combining Mifare Card and agsxmpp to Construct a Secure Instant Messaging Software Ya Ling Huang, Chung Huang Yang Graduate Institute of Information & Computer Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University
More informationLecture 5  Cryptography
CSE497b Introduction to Computer and Network Security  Spring 2007  Professors Jaeger Lecture 5  Cryptography CSE497b  Spring 2007 Introduction Computer and Network Security Professor Jaeger www.cse.psu.edu/~tjaeger/cse497bs07/
More informationNetwork Security: Secret Key Cryptography
1 Network Security: Secret Key Cryptography Henning Schulzrinne Columbia University, New York schulzrinne@cs.columbia.edu Columbia University, Fall 2000 c 19992000, Henning Schulzrinne Last modified September
More informationA VHDL Implemetation of the Advanced Encryption StandardRijndael Algorithm. Rajender Manteena
A VHDL Implemetation of the Advanced Encryption StandardRijndael Algorithm y Rajender Manteena A thesis sumitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical
More informationDecember 4, 2013 MATH 171 BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA B. KITCHENS
December 4, 2013 MATH 171 BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA B KITCHENS The equation 1 Lines in twodimensional space (1) 2x y = 3 describes a line in twodimensional space The coefficients of x and y in the equation
More informationAN IMPLEMENTATION OF HYBRID ENCRYPTIONDECRYPTION (RSA WITH AES AND SHA256) FOR USE IN DATA EXCHANGE BETWEEN CLIENT APPLICATIONS AND WEB SERVICES
HYBRID RSAAES ENCRYPTION FOR WEB SERVICES AN IMPLEMENTATION OF HYBRID ENCRYPTIONDECRYPTION (RSA WITH AES AND SHA256) FOR USE IN DATA EXCHANGE BETWEEN CLIENT APPLICATIONS AND WEB SERVICES Kalyani Ganesh
More informationDisk Encryption. Adnan Vaseem Alam. Master of Science in Communication Technology. Scrutinizing IEEE Standard 1619\XTSAES
Disk Encryption Scrutinizing IEEE Standard 1619\XTSAES Adnan Vaseem Alam Master of Science in Communication Technology Submission date: June 2009 Supervisor: Danilo Gligoroski, ITEM Norwegian University
More informationApplication of cube attack to block and stream ciphers
Application of cube attack to block and stream ciphers Janusz Szmidt joint work with Piotr Mroczkowski Military University of Technology Military Telecommunication Institute Poland 23 czerwca 2009 1. Papers
More informationNetwork Security. Abusayeed Saifullah. CS 5600 Computer Networks. These slides are adapted from Kurose and Ross 81
Network Security Abusayeed Saifullah CS 5600 Computer Networks These slides are adapted from Kurose and Ross 81 Goals v understand principles of network security: cryptography and its many uses beyond
More informationKALE: A HighDegree AlgebraicResistant Variant of The Advanced Encryption Standard
KALE: A HighDegree AlgebraicResistant Variant of The Advanced Encryption Standard Dr. Gavekort c/o Vakiopaine Bar Kauppakatu 6, 41 Jyväskylä FINLAND mjos@iki.fi Abstract. We have discovered that the
More informationTable of Contents. Bibliografische Informationen http://dnb.info/996514864. digitalisiert durch
1 Introduction to Cryptography and Data Security 1 1.1 Overview of Cryptology (and This Book) 2 1.2 Symmetric Cryptography 4 1.2.1 Basics 4 1.2.2 Simple Symmetric Encryption: The Substitution Cipher...
More informationFast Software AES Encryption
Calhoun: The NPS Institutional Archive Faculty and Researcher Publications Faculty and Researcher Publications 2010 Fast Software AES Encryption Osvik, Dag Arne Proceedings FSE'10 Proceedings of the 17th
More informationlundi 1 octobre 2012 In a set of N elements, by picking at random N elements, we have with high probability a collision two elements are equal
Symmetric Crypto PierreAlain Fouque Birthday Paradox In a set of N elements, by picking at random N elements, we have with high probability a collision two elements are equal N=365, about 23 people are
More informationResearch Article. ISSN 23479523 (Print) *Corresponding author Shihai Zhu Email:
Scholars Journal of Engineering and Technology (SJET) Sch. J. Eng. Tech., 2014; 2(3A):352357 Scholars Academic and Scientific Publisher (An International Publisher for Academic and Scientific Resources)
More informationCRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY Principles and Practice
CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK SECURITY Principles and Practice THIRD EDITION William Stallings Prentice Hall Pearson Education International CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 PART ONE CHAPTER
More informationAESCBC Software Execution Optimization
AESCBC Software Execution Optimization Razvi Doomun*, Jayramsingh Doma, Sundeep Tengur Computer Science and Engineering, University of Mauritius r.doomun@uom.ac.mu, kartouss@gmail.com, tempo14@gmail.com
More informationIntroduction. Where Is The Threat? Encryption Methods for Protecting Data. BOSaNOVA, Inc. Phone: 8668655250 Email: info@theq3.com Web: www.theq3.
Introduction Within the last ten years, there has been a vast increase in the accumulation and communication of digital computer data in both the private and public sectors. Much of this information has
More informationAES Cipher Modes with EFM32
AES Cipher Modes with EFM32 AN0033  Application Note Introduction This application note describes how to implement several cryptographic cipher modes with the Advanced ion Standard (AES) on the EFM32
More informationSecuring Data at Rest ViSolve IT Security Team
Securing Data at Rest ViSolve IT Security Team 1 Table of Contents 1 Introduction... 3 2 Why Data at Rest needs to be secure?... 4 3 Securing Data... 4 3.1 Encryption  Access Control Approach... 5 3.1.1
More informationMultiLayered Cryptographic Processor for Network Security
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2012 1 MultiLayered Cryptographic Processor for Network Security Pushp Lata *, V. Anitha ** * M.tech Student,
More information