Course: Urban Mobility Management. Theory Lectures

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1 MESTRADO INTEGRADO DE ENGENHARIA CIVIL MESTRADO EM URBANISMO E ORDENAMENTO DO TERRITÓRIO MESTRADO EM PLANEAMENTO E OPERAÇÃO DE TRANSPORTES LICENCIATURA EM ENGENHARIA DO TERRITÓRIO Course: Urban Mobility Management Prof. Rosário Macário Theory Lectures Session 5: Technical and operational characteristics of different modes and the basic concepts of services dimensioning Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 1

2 Mobility support Urban mobility is supported by: infrastructures and vehicles operational organizations (companies operating services transport incl. parking, fuel distribution, maintenance of infrastructure and vehicles, supervision, etc.) political and administrative structure (government, municipalities, sectoral regulators) information on the provision of infrastructure and services (produced by those or other organizations) The variety and complexity of the mobility desires require a wideranging offer Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 2

3 Comparison between modes Traveler interest aspects: Travel speed allowable/ practiced Range Comfort Safety (Dimension group enabling) Society interest aspects Energy Consumption (per vehicle and per passenger/km) Space Consumption (per vehicle and per passenger/km) Environmental damage (per vehicle and per passenger/km) Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 3

4 Speed and energy efficiencies Performance of Several Mobility Types Typical values (various sources, no specific sample) Source: JMV, 2005, MT Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 4

5 Efficient in the use of the urban space (I) Space occupation in m2. min / pass. km = (m2/pass) / (km/min) Mobile Phase Source: JMV, 2005, MT Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 5

6 Basic elements of public transport operation Service is offered to transport passengers (or cargo) by motor vehicle for collective use; Operations are made by the service performance, its management and of its support activities, planning and programming of the vehicles and crews operation; Line is the infrastructure and service provided in a a given physical alignment (route) pre-set per vehicle (road or rail) in a predetermined schedule. Important parameters are the line length and the network length. The lines can be classified by its design and function in the network; Segregation level of infrastructure, can be of three types: Sharing infrastructure with other vehicles, priority is obtained by visual cue without physical separation with other traffic; Separation from other traffic by physical barriers, but the crosses are in the same level and trivialized (semi-fast); Total segregation with intersection gaps (fast, Rapid Transit System, e.g. Bogotá, Curitiba bus, light rail, etc.); Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 6

7 Territorial tracing insertion (I) The lines can be classified according to the tracing role in the community in: Radial: linking the central area where economic and trade activities are concentrated; Diametral: connects two urban areas or regions through the central area; Circular: connects multiple zones or regions forming a closed circuit; Interzonal: connect two or more zones or urban region areas; Local: route is totally within an area or urban region; Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 7

8 Tracing territorial insertion (II) Layout Diametral Circulars Radial Interzonal Local Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 8

9 Functional lines classification The lines can be classified according to their function in the network Conventional - capture the passenger on the origin, transport to the destination, and distribution on the destination Trunking operates in a corridor with high demand concentration and transport the passenger from the initial point to the end point of the corridor; Feeder captures and distributes passengers to and from a trunking line Express line with a little or no intermediate stops, with best commercial speed Special line that work only at certain times or serve special events Selective common in Latin American countries, is a complementary line to the conventional one, which operates with the highest price and best quality (e.g. air conditioning) Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 9

10 Evolution of public transport networks with the cities growth Source: V. Vuchic (1981, 2005) Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 10

11 Overall rating of PT Traffic routes Driving Movement Vehicle position Transport mode Infrastructure type Artificial (roads) Natural (exc. terminals) self-guided system free driving free driving dimensional freedom continuous discontinuous discontinuous discontinuous discontinuous suspended landed suspended landed landed sea air Telesiège Moving staircase Cable car Elevator Train Metro Tram Trolleybus Bus Taxi Pedestrian Ferry Helicopter Airplane Dedicated infrastructure Common infrastructure Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 11

12 Modes (I) Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 12

13 Modes (II) Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 13

14 Unitary capacity of vehicle Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 14

15 Unitary capacity of vehicle Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 15

16 Functional classification Use type Private Rent Public Service use owned public public Service provider user operator operator Path choice user user user/operator operator (fixed) Schedule choice user user user/operator operator (fixed) Cost absorbed by the user fixed fare fixed fare Operation type Individual Semi-collective collective Car Carpools Taxi "dial a ride" Bus Modes Motocycle Vanpools Car rented "jitney" Tram Bicycle Bus charter Metro Walking Operation domain Density origin:low Low/medium/high destitation: high Low/medium/high medium/high Path type sparse radial sparse concentrated (radial) Hours all day peak hour all day peak hours Trip purpose all only work work, business work, study, business Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 16

17 Elements service characterization Transport system operation and services Transport operation Scheduling, crew list, trip and vehicle moitoring, fares and circulation system Transport service System viewd by the current and the potential users Set of performance elements such as: service frequency operational speed reliability System performance security capacity productivity capacity productivity utilization Service chacteristics measurament: performance elements that affect the users - operational speed, reliability and security Level of service service quality - convinience, easiness of use, comfort and cleanliness price - fares Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 17

18 Operation of a trip chain System components Spaceactivity system Transport system Spaceactivity system Operational chain Users role Time-space diagram Origin neighborhood Travel time Interface Interface Interface pedes trian waiting Mode 1 Mode 2 passenger stop transfer pedestr ian waiting passenger pede strian Destination neighborhood distance Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 18

19 Operational dimensioning (I) Frequency (f) number of vehicles passing or part of a particular location during a certain period of time Nº of vehicle (X) number o vehicle used in the transport production (unit) Route length (L) Pressing time (Tb) Travel time (Tp) Rotation time (Tr) distance between the two ends of the route (km) time interval used spatially in the ends of each route in order to compensate for possible delays and allow some rest to the drivers (min) time required to make a path from one end to another, usually using an average time based on the operational speed (min) total time required to make the path from one end to another, plus the return time and the pressing time (min) Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 19

20 Operational dimensioning (II) Headway (Ti) time between two consecutive departures or passages of vehicles at a certain point (min) Commercial speed (V) average speed considering the accelaration and disaccelaration, the congestion and the dwelling times (km/h) Maximum speed (V max) Cruising speed Capacity (Cx) Route capacity per direction/ Total capacity (Cd/Ct) maximum speed that allows the vehicles to obey the travel time scheduled, reducing the penalities imposed by the stops and the congenstion (km/h) normal speed perfomed in the route sections where there is no need to make stops (km/h) number of places offered number of places offered per hour and direction / number of places offered per hour in both direction Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 20

21 Operational dimensioning (III) Course Time Rotation Time Passages Interval Between Frequency nº of courses per hour Directional Capacity (passengers per hour and direction) Line Capacity (passengers per hour in both direction) Benefits of Exploitation (nº vehicles. kilometer) Benefits Limits Traffic (nº places. kilometer) Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 21

22 Diagram of motion Transporter represent the fleet use, vehicle to vehicle Customer represent the moment of departure / passing of vehicle Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 22

23 Commercial speed vs Cruising speed Stops Time Commercial Speed Cruise Speed Stop Duration Distance Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 23

24 Public Transport Capacity Utilization Carried Passengers Offered capacity Line Capacity (places/h) Carried Passengers (pass./h) Distance (km) Cd Directional capacity [pass. (hour. direction)] Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 24

25 Public Transport Offer, Demand and Infrastructure Offer Vehicles and their characteristics Capacities Time (variations during the days and weeks) Routes Regularity of passage in key points and stops Articulation between the various lines and between them and the desire lines of users Direct and indirect link to main city areas (1 st and 2 nd level interfaces) Demand Movements of in / out Demand loads Vehicles occupancy rates Travels origin and destination Infrastructure Dedicated / shared BUS corridors (% routes) Movements of in / out Speeds allowed Location and conditions of the infrastructure outside the street (stops, shelters, etc.) Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 25

26 Relationship of travel time/distance to different rail services Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 26

27 Relationship pace/vehicle capacity to equal capacity for directional transport (1800 pass./hour) Commercial Speed 3 km/h, conveyor km/h, hectométrico transp km/h, urban bus or trolleybus km/h, tram or LRT km/h, classic subway, automated light rail km/h, regional express train Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 27

28 Spatial classification Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 28

29 Grid interfaces Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 29

30 Access to the PT Source: Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 30

31 Distance between stops Cruise Speed Speed Distance Line Layout Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 31

32 Methods for data collection Observations along the way ( check point ) Observations on the vehicle ( ride-check ) Observations made by the driver Origin-destination inquiries Automatic data collection Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 32

33 Point Check Normally at stops during peak periods Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 33

34 RideCheck Normally on vehicle during the journey obtain more reliable data than studies in stops data from only one trip each with corresponding dead time in obtaining data for inputs, outputs, arrival time at each stop waiting time at stop durations, delays causes and their location, type of fare used, etc... Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 34

35 Automatic data collection Instituto Superior Técnico / MEC MPOT - MUOT GMU Aulas teóricas 35

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