Development of Shanghai Integrated Transport ( ) XIAO Hui and GU Yu

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1 Development of Shanghai Integrated Transport ( ) XIAO Hui and GU Yu Abstract This article summarises the general situation of Shanghai s integrated transport system and then determines the trends and objectives of its 2015 development plans. It also proposes how to build integrated transport developments matching the level and standards of an international metropolis. Introduction In the 21st century, with the sustainable development of Shanghai economically and socially, its population increase and the significant expansion of urban space, these create the opportunity and political will to promote integrated transport service levels, particularly in the wake of the success of the 2010 Shanghai EXPO. Shanghai has also made significant progress in actively promoting integrated transport infrastructure and all other aspects of transportation. In the next five or ten years, Shanghai will face macro-environment trends, while taking into account its own development transformation. It will adhere to the goal to build a modern international metropolis, while considering the scale and effectiveness of integrated transport development, and promoting intensive and environment-friendly integrated transportation infrastructure in order to build a world-class integrated transport system. Shanghai Integrated Transport in 2010 With high-intensity input and fast-paced construction since the reform and opening up of the People s Republic of China, Shanghai integrated transport has made remarkable achievements in terms of increasingly sophisticated transport infrastructure, newly formed integrated transport networks, significantly increased traffic volumes and highly improved technological innovation and technical equipment. Currently, it has built the system framework in integrated transport infrastructure which focuses on 2-Ports, 2-Highways and 3-Networks. Shanghai integrated transport has made remarkable achievements in terms of increasingly sophisticated transport infrastructure, newly formed integrated transport networks, significantly increased traffic volumes and highly improved technological innovation and technical equipment. Seaport: Shanghai International Shipping Center Construction has achieved a major breakthrough with the completion of the north port area of Yangshan Deep-Water Port and Phase I to Phase VI projects of 21

2 Waigaoqiao Port area, which has a designed container terminal annual throughput capacity of over 18 million TEU. In 2010, it was the busiest port in the world, with a throughput of 29 million TEU (Figure 1). The port s cargo throughput is 650 million tonnes, which ranked as the top in the world for six successive years. cargo and mail throughput reached 3.72 million tonnes in Pudong International Airport, which ranked third in the world for cargo throughput, has been established as an international air cargo hub (Figure 2). Figure 2: Shanghai Hongqiao Hub and Shanghai Pudong International Airport Figure 1: Shanghai Ports and Shipping Airport: The construction of the Asia Pacific aviation hub has made significant progress. Hongqiao Airport s second runway and second terminal began operations in Nowadays, Shanghai has two airports, four airport terminals and five runways. Shanghai Airport s passenger throughput has achieved the million passenger mark, while Railway: Since the opening of the Shanghai- Nanjing Intercity Railway on 1 July 2010, the Shanghai railway operating mileage has reached 387 km. It has been strengthened further as the domestic rail hub. It forms the three main 3 auxiliary pattern with a total of six railway terminals (Figure 3). Since the opening of the Shanghai-Nanjing Pudong International Airport, which ranked third in the world for cargo throughput, has been established as an international air cargo hub. 22

3 and Shanghai-Hangzhou intercity railway, the fastest travel time from Shanghai to Hangzhou and to Nanjing was shortened to 38 minutes and 73 minutes, from the previous 90 minutes and 180 minutes, respectively. Figure 4: 2011 Shanghai Trunk Road Network* Figure 3: 2010 Shanghai Railway Network and Passenger and Freight Station *Including Highways and Main Roads any two points in suburban areas could be completed within 60 minutes. Highway: The total road network length in Shanghai is 12,000 km, including 776 km of expressways, which form a basic structure of 2 circles, 9 radiation directions, 1 vertical highway, 1 horizontal highway and 2 links (Figure 4). Expressway density and road network density in the city are 12 km/100 km 2 and 184 km/100 km 2 respectively, which rank as the top in China. This also achieves the planned target of 15, 30, and 60, which means that motorists anywhere in suburban areas can reach expressways in 15 minutes, then travel to the city centre in 30 minutes, and that travel by car between Urban Expressway Network: Total road length in Shanghai is 4,400 km, with 3,317 km of road in the urban centre and 193 km of expressway. The road network density of the city centre is 5 km/km 2. It has established 23 Huangpu River-crossing facilities and formed a river-crossing road system of 4 bridges and 12 tunnels. The 3-circle 10-radial backbone expressway network has been It has established 23 Huangpu Rivercrossing facilities and formed a rivercrossing road system of 4 bridges and 12 tunnels. 23

4 formed in the centre of the city (Figure 5). Figure 5: 2010 Shanghai Main Road Network* operation framework in 2009, the mechanism of combined public welfare and market-oriented operation has been improved further. By the end of 2010, total bus numbers were 17,000, with 1,100 bus lines and 3 million km operation range daily, Based on 600 m station service radius calculation, one quarter of land in the city centre areas is covered by rail stations, directly serving 42% of the population of the city centre. *Including Expressway and Main Roads. Figure 6: 2010 Shanghai Metro Network and Station Urban Rail Network: The length of Shanghai rail transit lines in operation is at the forefront, alongside major cities in the world. It is also the first city in China whose rail network has reached over 400 km. Although the rail transit system was developed in less than 20 years, it has parallelled the 100 years of rail development in the Western cities. By the end of 2010, 13 metro lines have been put in place (including Maglev), with total operation length of over 450 km and average passenger trips of 5.16 million per day. Based on 600 m station service radius calculation, one quarter of land in the city centre areas is covered by rail stations, directly serving 42% of the population of the city centre (Figure 6). Surface Transit: After several rounds of reform, especially the deep reform, which strengthened the state-led and optimised 24

5 mostly forming the ground bus network covering the whole city. Average passenger trips achieved were 7.69 million per day, with 80% coverage of bus stops within a 500 m service radius in the city centre and 95% bus accessibility in the suburbs (Figure 7). Figure 7: 2010 Public Transport and EXPO Taxi metro network simply by one ride, and with direct buses between the new towns and village centres. Shanghai has formed an urban public transport system with the rail transport as the backbone, the ground public transport as the basic service, the taxi as the complement, the information system as the tool and the transport hub as the link. At present, Shanghai has formed an urban public transport system with the rail transport as the backbone, the ground public transport as the basic service, the taxi as the complement, the information system as the tool and the transport hub as the link. It has laid a solid foundation for achieving 3 targets; that travel by public transport between any two points in the city centre could be completed within one hour, that residents in suburban areas could enter the Speeding up and improving the construction of Shanghai s transport infrastructure boosts investment demand and travel demand, and also promotes the rapid development of real estate, cars and other related industries. The improvement of motorised traffic has greatly reduced the spatial and temporal distance of passenger and goods flow, and also capital and information flow. It has also helped to expand the urban space of Shanghai, optimised industrialisation in municipal areas, improved the quality of life, and the environment for public transport travel, all in order to support the development of Shanghai as an international metropolis more effectively (Figure 8). Shanghai Integrated Transport Development Targets in 2015 At present, we are in the key period of the first transition and development and in the critical stage of enhancing urban functions. Based on the national strategic requirements, we will speed up to achieve Four Leads 1, accelerate to build Four Centers 2 and a modern international metropolis, and to become 25

6 Figure 8: 2010 Shanghai Internal-External Transportation Throughput and Mode Share Travel Volume Per Day in the City Centre (10,000 trips) Public Transport Private Transport Cycling and e-bike Walking 100% 80% 28.8% 28.7% 27.7% 26.5% 25.5% 60% 21.1% 20.3% 19.9% 19.5% 18.5% 40% 16.6% 17.9% 18.4% 19.5% 20.8% 20% 33.5% 33.2% 34.0% 34.6% 35.2% 0% Travel Mode Structure in the City Centre Annual External Passenger Transport Throughput (10,000 trips) Annual Freight Throughput (100 million tonnes) a core city among world-class cities, with strong international competitiveness. With the development of economic globalisation, the Yangtze River Delta integration and urbanisation of the suburbs, higher and newer requirements will be proposed for Shanghai s future transport development. Currently, Shanghai`s population grows about 350,000 per year and Shanghai s resident population may exceed 25 million in With the continuous acceleration of motorisation, the city`s motor vehicle ownership is expected to reach 3.5 million, which will bring great With the continuous acceleration of motorisation, the city`s motor vehicle ownership is expected to reach 3.5 million, which will bring great pressure and challenges to Shanghai s transport development. pressure and challenges to Shanghai s transport development. The overall goals of Shanghai s future transport development is to build a modern integrated transportation system to support city science, coordinated with Shanghai s urban functions and spatial layout, adapted to rural and urban development and ecological environment, matched with the status of a modern international metropolis, and also with corresponding facilities, functions, scientific management methods, efficient operations, environment protection policies, etc. Shanghai Integrated Transport Development Mission in 2015 In the next five years, the Shanghai integrated transport system will be further improved with more focus on transport hubs, functionality and networks. 26

7 Hub Development Goals The level and radiation of Shanghai integrated transport hub will be upgraded by relying on the development of Shanghai International Shipping hub, improving the layout of the Shanghai integrated transport hub, enhancing the hub`s function and service level and promoting the passenger transport transfer and freight connection. railway passenger volume is expected to reach 150 million trips and 70 million trips will be made by road. Functional Development Goals To adapt to the scale of urban population and the growth in resident travel demand and to enhance the scale and capabilities of Shanghai integrated transport system. In the next five years, the Shanghai integrated transport system will be further improved with more focus on transport hubs, functionality and networks. To establish the Shanghai International Shipping Center: By 2015, the total cargo throughput of Shanghai port is expected to reach million tonnes, while the container throughput will reach 33 million TEU. The proportion of water to water transshipment will be increased 45%. It will be established as an international shipping centre with global shipping capacity by To be established as an Asia-Pacific aviation hub: By 2015, Shanghai aviation hub is expected to undertake passenger throughput of about million, and cargo and mail throughput of 5 to 5.5million tonnes. To enhance its position with regards to the national railway and road hub: It will adjust the layout of railways and road passenger and freight transport hubs to adapt to urban development. By 2015, Shanghai To further enhance the efficiency and optimise the structure for collection and distribution within the shipping centre: This is to be achieved by strengthening the construction of the aviation hub, the system of collection and distribution in the shipping centre and the system of modern service industry. The proportion of rail transport will be increased gradually to support and form a modern aviation and shipping service system. To further improve the urban transport service level: By 2015, the proportion of public transport in the city centre will be increased from 47% to 50% or more and 90% of travel will be completed within one hour by public transport. By 2020, we will strive to reach the service level of public transport in Tokyo, Hong Kong and other developed cities, to build an international metropolis-class public transport system. By 2015, the proportion of public transport in the city centre will be increased from 47% to 50% or more and 90% of travel will be completed within one hour by public transport. 27

8 To develop a safe and green transport system: By 2015, the fatality rate in traffic accidents will be reduced further. The energy consumption in the transport industry will be lower than the increased level of GDP, within the background of the rapid development of integrated transport. The three travel efficiency goals 45, 60 and 90 have been set for 2015 (Figure 9), which means that average travel time in the city centre will be no more than 45 minutes, that travellers from any suburban new town will be able to reach the city centre in 60 minutes, and that travellers from any major city in the core area of the Yangtze River Delta can reach Shanghai in 90 minutes. Network Development Goals To develop three regional transport networks and one intensive complex inter-city network including railway, highway and water to serve the Yangtze River Delta: an urban transport network which coordinates with public transport and main roads. i. Public transport networks: By 2015, total railway transport mileage will be over 600 km with 500 m coverage of bus stops from the urban centre to the suburbs, and 300 m coverage of bus stops within the internal ring. ii. Backbone road network: The centre expressway network has been formed and the next priority is to improve supporting roads and connected roads and connectivity. To develop traffic information network rapidly: Improve traffic information platforms, fulfill auxiliary management functions, reinforce operation supervision and provide help for travellers on their journey. Figure 9: 2015 Shanghai Travel Efficiency Goals i. Railway network: Building and forming a railway corridor in 4 directions and constructing suburban railways. From the core area of Yangtze River Delta to city centre 90min ii. Highway network: To build 9 intercity expressways with multiple functions with 54 intercity expressways by From Suburban area to city centre 60min Within city centre 45min iii. Inner river network: Developing an advanced river channel network. To improve the intercity traffic network continually: This is to be achieved by forming 28

9 Conclusion Better City, Better Life was the 2010 Shanghai EXPO Theme which reflects the future of human society and a better vision of urban life. It also gives us much inspiration for Shanghai s transport development in future. Based on its current practice, Shanghai will learn more from other advanced cities in the world regarding their successful experience in urban transport development, and promote an intensive and environment-friendly transport system, to create a modern international metropolis with a world-class modern integrated transportation system. Notes 1. Four Leads means to lead the transformation of economic growth, enhance the independent innovation capability, promote reform and opening up, and build a socialist harmonious society. 2. Four Centres means the International economic, financial, trade and shipping centres. Xiao Hui is Deputy Director of the Comprehensive Planning Division, Shanghai Urban Construction and Transportation Commission, China. Prior to joining the Commission, he held key managerial positions in Shanghai Municipal Engineering Administration Bureau and Shanghai Planning Design Research Institute. He has been engaged for years in the research areas of road network planning, urban comprehensive transportation planning, transportation policy research, intelligent transport, and municipal engineering feasibility. He is highly sought after in the field of urban transport planning. He has a Masters degree in Transportation Planning from Tongji University, China, and is currently pursuing a PhD there. Gu Yu is Deputy Director of the Transport Planning Department, and a Senior Fellow of Engineering, in Shanghai City Comprehensive Transportation Planning Institute, China. He has been engaged in urban integrated transport strategy and planning research. He has published more than ten papers in various professional journals and was involved in authoring three books, including Urban Transport Strategy and Rapid Transit System. He has a B.Eng. in Traffic Engineering and a Masters degree in Industrial Engineering from the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology. 29

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