Parking Management. Index. Purpose. Description. Relevance for Large Scale Events. Options. Technologies. Impacts. Integration potential

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1 Parking Management Index Purpose Description Relevance for Large Scale Events Options Technologies Impacts Integration potential Implementation Best Cases and Examples 1 of 13

2 Purpose Parking planning is undergoing a paradigm shift, a change in how a problem is perceived and solutions evaluated. The old paradigm assumes that parking should be abundant and free at most destinations. It strives to maximize supply and minimize price. The old paradigm assumes that parking lots should almost never fill, that parking facility costs should be incorporated into the costs of buildings or subsidized by governments, and that every destination should satisfy its own parking needs. The new paradigm strives to provide optimal parking supply and price. It considers too much supply as harmful as too little, and prices that are too low as harmful as those that are too high. The new paradigm strives to use parking facilities efficiently. It considers full lots to be acceptable, provided that additional parking is available nearby, and that any spill over problems are addressed. It emphasizes sharing of parking facilities between different destinations. It favours charging parking facility costs directly to users, and providing financial rewards to people who reduce their parking demand. Within this framework, if drivers are provided with reliable information about parking space availability and location as they enter the city centre or the area of the event, they can select a car park and the best route to take at an early stage, instead of driving from one car park to the next looking for spaces. Parking management refers to various policies and programs that result in more efficient use of parking resources. Parking management programs can usually reduce parking requirements up to 40% if compared with conventional parking programs, providing many economic, social and environmental benefits. The reduction of parking requirements comes from different factors, among which there are the strategic location of parking areas, the improvement of payment operations and the improvement of the efficiency of each parking area. Fig. 1. Different technologies for traveller information and access control in parking management systems. To sum up, parking management strategies have three main objectives: To control access to parking areas and to set up advanced payment systems (e.g. by installing automatic devices or ); 2 of 13

3 To reduce to time spent by the traveller when searching for an available parking space in the surroundings of his destination, especially in busy periods or during large events (user side); To improve the efficiency, in terms of availability, security and strategic relevance of the service of parking lots in a city or in a specific area, e.g. by using dynamic parking fees (parking operator side). A further benefit generated by parking management systems is the overall reduction of the on-street congestion, since it has been estimated that up to 30% of traffic in a city centre is made up of vehicles looking for parking spaces. The development of new technologies and the integration of ITS systems in the field of parking management has provided additional alternatives for improving the operation of changemode parking at facilities such as airports, railway stations, bus and rail transit stops, and commuter carpool areas. For each of these facilities, the importance of providing users with the means to quickly find an available space for their cars is essential. Fig. 2. The integration of an ITS platform in parking management systems. This map view represents the status of parking areas in a city center Minimizing the time required to park by simplifying the parking task will benefit the traveller and the lot operator. The traveller benefits from an easier transfer between the private automobile and the transit mode. Parking facility operators benefit from increased efficiencies in lot operation and increased business. Improvements through the use of information technology are possible in several aspects of the process, including vehicle circulation and space usage, fee processing, and staffing requirements. 3 of 13

4 Description The most common parking management system is mainly aimed at parking access control. The main element of this system is an electronic gate controlling entrances and departures to/from the parking area. Other features of the systems could be, for instance: Issue cards (magnetic strip cards) reader; Smart cards reader for long-term parking subscriptions management; Automated access control, based on RFId devices or ANPR (Automated Number Plate Recognition) technologies; Fig. 3. Parking access control system. ITS-based parking systems are most efficient from the point of view of the overall transport system when integrated in a platform. An integrated platform is able to collect information from different sources, regarding: Occupancy rate of the parking lots; Traffic flows; Historical traffic data (e.g. O/D matrix). Using this information a forecast of the parking occupancy could be made. This information is then passed to travellers using VMS (Variable Message Signs), pre-trip and on-trip information services (e.g. on-screen information on portable navigators), mobile apps or web pages. The VMS usually shows information like full or the number of available free spaces. The signs are normally positioned before junctions where drivers have to make a choice of route in order to arrive at a particular car park. 4 of 13

5 Fig. 4. Typical architecture of a parking management platform. The booking of parking spaces can be managed by specific mobile apps, giving the traveller the possibility to reserve a parking space and therefore efficiently plan his journey. Furthermore, parking management systems could be integrated in enforcement policies, improving the security of parking area and, more in general, the quality of urban life. Relevance for Large Scale Events An event that brings thousands of people to a venue in a short amount of time can be a great challenge. The question of parking and vehicle ingress and egress is often an afterthought for the event planner but requires strategic planning and effective execution for the public safety and parking team. Proper planning can help alleviate traffic problems on the surrounding streets and within the parking facility. A parking facility has a limited number of entrances and exits, and the parking manager must be creative in identifying the best ways to get cars off the street and into the parking facility. Most pay parking facilities are designed with a gate at the entrance and little room to queue vehicles. This may work fine during normal operations, but during special events, it makes getting vehicles into the facility a slow process. When developing an ingress plan, the parking manager should determine how to maximize ingress and get cars off the street quickly. For paid parking events, this may mean moving the cashiers to different locations within the facility. In addition to alleviating traffic in the surrounding area, this tactic also has psychological implications as the drivers feel that they have arrived instead of sitting in traffic on the street. Coordination with local law enforcement or parking control may also help ease street traffic and alleviate some congestion. 5 of 13

6 Fig. 6. Example of a parking management plan for large events. [From: To summarize, parking management strategies could be defined as essential for the management of large events. These strategies, combined with an ad-hoc strategic planning, are helpful to drive traffic and parking demand, assuring both the satisfaction of the needs of the traveller and the security and efficiency of the existing parking lots, maximising their vehicle storing capacity. Furthermore, the benefits derived from VMS guidance can be even more evident in large scale events, since many drivers will not know the area of the venue. For this reason, this kind of guidance will give best results in terms of traffic flows improvement and drivers satisfaction. Finally, specific car parks for particular categories of vehicles (e.g. VIP vehicles, Olympic teams, press vehicles) may be important for the logistic organization of the large event. Options There are many variants of the parking management systems, depending on the functions required by the operator. One of the most important ones is park and ride. This is a form of integrated transport that allows private transport users to park their vehicles at a large car park and travel into the city centre using a public transport mode. Normally, park and ride is used to control city centre access, but it can also be used to protect specific areas (e.g. the stadium area in Olympic Games) for private traffic, giving access only to certain authorized categories of vehicles. The vast majority of park and ride sites are situated outside the urban areas of city centres and are designed to relieve road congestion along the roads leading into and located within the city centre itself. Whilst bus, coach, light rail or suburban train could all provide the 6 of 13

7 public transport services at park and ride sites, in many cases these services are provided by dedicated bus services. In most cases users either pays for the bus services and can park their car free of charge, or pays for their car parking and travels free of charge on the bus. The dedicated bus services tend to consist of modern low floor buses that are branded. They also operate a high service frequency throughout the day, especially during the morning and evening peak periods. Fig. 5. Example of a park&ride network. [From: Another important variant is the dynamicmanagement of parking lots. This technique is founded on the application of variable fees for parking spaces, depending on current occupancy rate and on traffic conditions. This approach is able to drive the parking space demand and therefore, coupled with driver guidance through the use of VMS, the traffic demand. According to this model, the user can check his trip before starting, in terms of traffic congestion, expected travel time, availability and costs of parking spaces. Then, the user can choose the best transport solution, basing on his real needs and on adaptive fares. Technologies The main elements of a park management system are: Central database and controller; Entry/exit barriers and detectors; 7 of 13

8 VMS (Variable Message) signs; Communication network; User interface: web pages, mobile apps, on-board systems. The detectors mainly has the role to collect information about the number of vehicles in each car park. The simplest form is to have a detector placed at the entry and exits points of the car parks. These count the cars coming in and out of the car park. More complex systems have a detector in each parking bay, so that a car can be directly guided to a free space. Innovative lighting solutions can be interfaced with these advanced systems, in order to efficiently use the features of the latest LED lighting systems, for instance to light up only the available spaces, or the path from the entrance of the parking lot to the free space. The central controller collects the information and calculates the number of free spaces. It also controls the VMS signs, modifying the message as the parking lot fills and empties. The VMS signs show messages related to the various car parks linked to the system. The actual type and message shown by the signs can vary considerably from system to system. In the more modern systems, the central controller is linked directly to the UTC system (Urban Traffic Control system) or with the area supervision platform. This grants an higher level of integration of the parking management system with the other ITS systems in the area and allows to apply wide-area optimisation strategies, in terms of traffic flows and parking lots occupancy. Fig. 7. Latest technologies for parking management. [From: ndi-rs.com] Other technologies used in parking managements platforms are related to the possibility for the traveller to book parking spaces in a specific area. Usually, presence sensors are connected to a central control system, which is able to manage the parking demand, interfacing with vehicle identification systems, like ANPR (Automatic Number Plate Recognition) or RFId detection systems. The increasing diffusion of smartphones and tablets will have an important role in the development of dedicated mobile apps. Impacts Impacts are mainly expected on improved transport efficiency, lower fuel emissions, improved service quality and increased business and occupancy levels for parking operators. Over the whole network, this will have the effect of reducing the number of vehicles using the road network at any one time. This fall in traffic demand will also reduce congestion for those not seeking parking spaces. 8 of 13

9 CRITERION IMPACT COMMENTS MEASURED IMPACTS* TRAFFIC EFFICIENCY *** When drivers are provided with information on parking slots availability and location, they can select the best route to get to the selected car park, instead of driving from one car park to the next in the hope of finding a space. Frankfurt After the installation of a VMS guidance systems, when looking for a parking in city centre: PT EFFICIENCY * Positive 2 nd order impacts. Parking management could increase the usage of PT, and this could lead to fewer fares/improved services. Average travelled distance reduction: 30%; Average travel time reduction: 45%. MODAL SHIFT ** Modal shift could be improved with the implementation of an integrated strategy of PT lines (e.g. Park&Ride ). AIR POLLUTION *** Air pollution decrease is directly related to the reduction in total kilometres travelled on the road network. Frankfurt Average travelled distance reduction: 10 million km per year; Average reduction in fuel consumption: 1 million litres per year. (measured in Frankfurt) SAFETY * The reduction in traffic flows can be linked to a parallel reduction in incidents. [*, ** or *** indicate the strength of the impact] Integration potential The integration of parking management systems with other ITS systems is an important way of achieving an higher level of efficiency of the urban traffic flows, since an improvement of the resources invested in management of parking lots has direct reflections on the quality of vehicle flows. In particular, the integration of parking information in area supervision platforms and in urban traffic control systems will enable the traffic operator to quickly answer to any critical situation related to abnormalities in parking demand, for instance immediately before the beginning of a large event. As a result of this integration and using upcoming communication technologies like mobile apps, web pages or cooperative V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) and V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure) systems, an efficient and real- 9 of 13

10 time information service can be offered to the travellers. This flow of information, coupled with the parking spaces booking, could therefore be used to manage other infrastructures or services, for example modifying in real-time the headway of the public transport lines connecting parking lots with the event venue. Implementation Even though it not easy to sum up here practical indications for a successful deployment of parking management strategies, since they depend on several city characteristics and other factors such the kind of planned large event or the size of the expected attendees, below there are recommendations for the implementation of an integrated parking planning strategy. These recommendations should be adjusted to reflect and to satisfy the needs of a specific situation, in particular as regards large events. Define Scope. Define the geographic scope of analysis, such as the site, street, district/neighbourhood and regional scale; Define Problems. Carefully define parking problems. For example, if people complain of inadequate parking it is important to determine where, when and to whom this occurs, and for what types of trips. This phase could be extremely important as regards large events, mainly for two reasons: Difficulties in forecasting traffic and parking demand; Many people are unfamiliar with the area of the event. Define Strategic Planning Context. Parking planning should be coordinated with a community s overall strategic vision. This helps insure that individual decisions reflect broader community objectives. As regards large events this coordination is particularly relevant, due to the dimensions of the problem and to the number of actors (attendees, press, organizing committee, VIP,...) involved in; Establish Evaluation Framework. Develop a comprehensive evaluation framework. This provides the basic structure for analyzing options, insuring that critical impacts are not overlooked and different situations are evaluated consistently. Define Survey Conditions. Survey parking supply (the number of parking spaces available in an area) and demand (the number of parking spaces occupied during peak periods) in the study area; Identify and Evaluate Options. Evaluate each option with respect to evaluation criteria and develop an implementation plan. Once the components of a parking management plan are selected, the next step is to develop an implementation plan, in order to define the different phases of the management strategy. Examples Park&Ride in Bari - Italy The Park&Ride system activated by the City Council allows the travellers going downtown to park the vehicle in peripheral interchange parking areas and to reach the centre with public transport. The project also aims, through the integration of private vehicles and public transport, to reduce traffic congestion in the city with a significant improvement in air quality and the environment. 10 of 13

11 Fig. 8. Results of the survey on the implementation of the Park&Ride system in Bari. The survey involved 1233 participants, interviewed from April 16th to November 25th It is noticeable to highlight that about the 90% of the travellers is satisfied of the service. More information are available at: SFpark in San Francisco - USA SFpark is an experimental platform introduced in San Francisco, which allow the traveller to know the actual parking spaces availability, the current fares, and to book a space in a specific area. SFpark works by collecting and distributing real-time information about where parking is available so drivers can quickly find open spaces. Fig. 9. The SFpark system interface. [From: To help achieve the right level of parking availability, SFpark periodically adjusts meter and garage pricing up and down to match demand. Demand-responsive pricing encourages drivers to park in underused areas 11 of 13

12 and garages, reducing demand in overused areas. Through SFpark, real-time data and demand-responsive pricing work together to readjust parking patterns in the City so that parking is easier to find. More information are available at: Torino 2006 Winter Olympic Games - ITALY The Winter Olympics in 2006 were held from February, and were followed by the Paralympics in March. The area concerned consisted of the City of Turin and nine different sites in the Alpine valleys to the west. The numbers of spectators was estimated around half a million over the full period. Fig. 10. Organisational structure for transportation systems in Torino 2006 Olympics. As regards parking management, the overall strategy was based on park&ride systems and on public transport intensification, both in the city and in the mountain area. approach roads to In the city area, a network of large parking areas was set up in the city outskirts. Spectators arriving by private car were encouraged to leave their vehicles there and to continue by public transport or shuttle; In the mountain area, a filtering strategy was set up. Three large parking areas were set up on the cater for those travelling to the mountain events by private car. Progressive filters were established to avoid congestion on the narrow mountain roads. 12 of 13

13 Fig. 11. The road traffic filter and parking system in Torino 2006 Olympics. These regulated car access to the Olympic resorts. When the car parks nearest the sites were full, a filter was activated and private cars directed to the upstream parking area. 13 of 13

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