From Mobility to Accessibility: Addressing the Barrier Effect of Railway Infrastructure in Urban South Africa

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1 des s Publics From Mobility to Accessibility: Addressing the Barrier Effect of Railway Infrastructure in Urban South Africa Sisa Maboza Rail Planner Passenger Rail Agency of SA

2 Contents des s Publics 1. Introduction & Background 2. Collaboration 3. Accessibility & Mobility 4. Transit-Oriented Development 5. PRASA & TOD 6. Expected Outcomes

3 1. Introduction & Background des s Publics Focus of the Speech Key Questions Reversing Past Design Outcomes to Shape the Future Is TOD Merely a Land Use Planning Approach? Alignment, Integration & Collaboration Definitions of Integration & Alignment

4 Focus of the Speech des s Publics Highlighting the importance of integration and drawing the distinction between alignment and integration Recognising the current barrier effect of railway lines and associated mobility status Using Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) to remove the barrier effect of railway lines and transforming railway station nodes Focus on the collaborative rather than the physical or technical aspect of TOD

5 Key Questions des s Publics How do you remove the barrier effect of the railway line within the urban landscape? How do you transform the sterile environments around railway stations?

6 Reversing Past Design Outcomes to Shape the Future des s Publics Urban environments along railway lines and around railway stations have been designed to be sterile and unattractive areas. What has been created by design can always be re-created and transformed by design. TOD is a planning and design approach that can be used to reverse past design outcomes

7 Negative Urban Spaces: Railway Precincts

8 Is Transit-Oriented Development Merely a Land Use Planning Approach to Urban Development? des s Publics While TOD is an urban planning tool, it would be erroneous to divorce it from transport planning. Arguably, TOD is a (public) transport planning tool as well, and should, in fact, be used as a tool for promoting public transport usage rather than merely meeting urban design ideals. According to Burke and Brown (n.d.), TODs are one land use planning intervention that creates the potential for populations to make shorter journeys and to make mode shifts away from the private motor car and towards walking, cycling and public transport. TOD, as a planning tool does not solely belong to one discipline; it represents an integrated approach to transportation and land use planning Schlossberg and Brown (2004: 34).

9 Alignment, Integration and Collaboration des s Publics Hydrogen and Oxygen aligned H O H

10 Alignment, Integration and Collaboration des s Publics Hydrogen and Oxygen integrated (water) H H O

11 Definitions of Integration and Alignment des s Publics X Alignment of Plans and Priorities an act of arranging parts in a straight line Integration of Plans and Priorities an act of incorporating or combining parts into an integral whole

12 2. Collaboration des s Publics The Necessary Ingredient for Integration Definition of Collaboration Implications for Creating Urban Space: Collaboration for Alignment Implications for Creating Urban Space: Possible Outcome of Collaboration Implications for Creating Urban Space: Collaboration for Integration

13 Collaboration: the necessary ingredient for Integration des s Publics Challenge Underlying Fear of External Interference

14 Collaboration: the necessary ingredient for Integration des s Publics Definition of Collaboration: Oxford Dictionary: The action of working with someone to produce something Business Dictionary: Cooperative arrangement in which two or more parties work jointly towards a common goal

15 Collaboration: Implications for Creating Urban Space des s Publics Collaboration for Alignment: Urban Planners creating precinct plans Infrastructu re Engineers designing service infrastructure Planners designing transport plans Dpt of Human Settlements designing and building houses Operator designing station precincts Private Developers designing new buildings

16 Collaboration: Implications for Creating Urban Space des s Publics Possible Outcome of Collaboration for Alignment: Well-planned precinct plan indicating mixed uses, integrative transport routes, green spaces, etc Practical bulk service plans indicating realistic bulk service availability Well-designed road infrastructure House Typologies accommodating all income groups close to a transit station Great station design with all operational requirements Brilliant architecture shopping centre or office block

17 Collaboration: Implications for Creating Urban Space Possible Outcome of Collaboration: des s Publics Low density residential development Congress and Highway Exhibition Shopping Centre and Offices XState of the Art Modern railway station Industrial Bus Route Mixed residential, recreational, retail & commercial uses

18 Collaboration: Implications for Creating Urban Space des s Publics Congress and Exhibition Johannesburg, Afrique du Collaboration for Integration: Urban Planners Dpt of Economic Development Dpt of Human Settlements Infrastructure Engineers Joint Planning & Development Operator Planners Other Stakeholders Private Developers

19 3. Accessibility & Mobility des s Publics Accessibility vs Mobility Accessibility within Mobility

20 Accessibility vs Mobility des s Publics Accessibility Route (Bus & Taxi) 200m between stops Mobility Route (Rail) 2000m between stops

21 Accessibility within Mobility

22 4. Transit-Oriented Development des s Publics Development Frameworks Definition of TOD Benefits of TOD South African Policy Basis for TOD TOD thinking in City of Joburg Policy TOD Zones relative to Accessibility Merging Accessibility and Mobility

23 Development Frameworks Development Oriented Transit (DOT) Transit provision that is designed to support approved spatial and development arrangements through appropriate transit routing and schedules Auto Oriented Development City growth that supported suburban developments and mono-functional land uses that were auto-dependent Transit Adjacent Development (TAD) Development in close proximity to transit but where the development design has not been influenced by transit integration, and so lacks a functional connectivity to transit in terms of land use composition, station access or site layout Transit Related Development (TRD) Development in close proximity to transit but where the development design has not been influenced by transit integration, and so lacks a functional connectivity to transit in terms of land use composition, station access or site layout Transit Supportive Development (TSD) Development in close proximity to transit but where the development design has not been influenced by transit integration, and so lacks a functional connectivity to transit in terms of land use composition, station access or site layout Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Districts specifically designed around stations to integrate mixed use & transit choice with pedestrian friendly street and public spaces UK - Transit Development Area (TDA) A well designed, higher density, mixed use area situated around good public transport access points in urban areas Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors Linear City (Corridor) Development Land uses types and intensities are strategically distributed around hierarchical transit/intermodal nodes to create clustering districts of development, a very efficient use of transportation infrastructure and comparatively extensive and inexpensive access to desired activities. Source : Rufo Guerreschi - Polycentric Linear City

24 Transit-Oriented Development: a Planning Tool? Definition of TOD Mixed-use development that encourages people to live near transit services and to decrease their dependence on driving Districts specifically designed around stations to integrate mixed use & transit choice with pedestrian friendly and street and public spaces

25 Transit-Oriented Development: a Planning Tool? TOD Benefits Type of Benefit Public Sector Primary Recipients & Benefits Private Sector Primary Increased ridership & farebox revenues Joint development opportunities Neighbourhood revitalisation Economic development Increased land values Improved real estate performance (rents, value) Increased affordable housing opportunities Secondary Reduced traffic congestion Increased / enhanced property taxes (rates) Reduced urban sprawl Open space conservation Reduced road infrastructure spend Reduced crime Increased social capital Increased public involvement Increased access to labour Reduced transportation / parking costs Increased opportunities for nonmotorised activities (walking / cycling) Adapted from NCHRP Research Results Digest 294 : TOD Developing a Strategy to Measure Success

26 South African Policy Basis for TOD DoT Public Strategy (2007) des s Publics 85% of all residents within 1km of rapid public transport network DoT Public Strategy Action Plan (2007) IRPTN plans at City level must integrate transport and development planning functions to practically address: Land use and density zoning changes within 500m of the busway / railway including floor space ratio and residential and commercial mix Conditions for rezoning applications Developer contributions for increase of bulk or enhanced zoning

27 Transit-Oriented Development: a Planning Tool? TOD Thinking in CoJ Policy IDP Sector Plan Spatial Form & Urban Management Strategic Intervention Establish a clear structure of nodes well integrated with movement systems in the city, with an emphasis on new economic nodes in disadvantaged areas and mixed use, mixed income nodes in other parts of the city Within a clear structure for movement and accessibility, ensuring that movement systems in the city directly link with, and are supported by, strong high-intensity, mixed-use nodes and higher residential densities ation Support the underlying logic of a compact, multi-nodal city form, with well-integrated land use and transport system.

28 TOD Zones relative to Accessibility des s Publics Primary Development Zone 5-10 minute direct accessibility on foot or by feeder service Secondary Development Zone < 15 minute indirect accessibility on foot or by complementary feeder service Tertiary Development Zone > 15 minute indirect accessibility on foot or by complementary feeder service After H Priemus : HST-Railway Stations as Dynamic Nodes in Urban Networks

29 Accessibility within Mobility: Creating a Setting for TOD Merging Accessibility and Mobility Railway line as a mobility route Railway Station as an accessibility node The walking distance around the railway station as the TOD area Rail Corridor Spatial Development Framework 500m 1000m Rail Corridor Station Catchment Area 2000m 2000m 2000m 2000m 2000m 2000m Ideal Station Spacing LocaL Authority Integrated Zone Spatial / Economic Development Framework

30 5. The Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA) & TOD des s Publics PRASA s Structure: Restructured to take TOD from Concept to Reality PRASA s Collaborative Structures PRASA s TOD Initiatives Transit-Oriented Development

31 PRASA s Structure: Restructured to take TOD from Concept to Reality PRASA GROUP PRASA RAIL PRASA TECHNICAL AUTOPAX (Long distance coach) PRASA CRES INTERSITE INVESTMENTS R/Stock engineering and maintenance Capital Projects Translux City to City Real Estate Solutions Facilities Management Leverage investments on key property assets METRORAIL (Suburban) S-MEYL (Long distance)

32 PRASA s Collaborative Structures: Positioning for Successful TOD des s Publics Congress and Exhibition Rail Liaison Activities Intermodal Planning Committees (IPC): The National Land Act, 2009 (Act 5 of 2009) makes provision for the establishment of Intermodal Planning Committees, led by Planning Authorities, with PRASA representation. integration proposals are negotiated at the IPC prior to their inclusion in the Integrated Plans. Johannesburg, Afrique du Rail Steering Committees The Regulations (R. 1119) of the NLTA explain the role of Rail Steering Committees that are established to ensure the acceptance and implementation of the National Rail Plan. RSC s require the drafting of Terms of Reference or, in some cases, a Memorandum of Understanding.

33 PRASA s Collaborative Structures: Positioning for Successful TOD des s Publics Congress and Exhibition Johannesburg, Afrique du Collaborative Activities Joint identification of and agreement on TOD Stations, through the Typology of Stations Study Joint precinct planning (including market analysis, etc.) and design Bringing private developers to the table through PRASA s Intersite Joint planning and design of the TOD precinct through Steering Committees and IPC s sub-committees Shortcoming The only landowners that are currently part of the process on a continuous basis are PRASA and Government. Private landowners involvement is still limited This is currently being addressed through municipal precinct planning processes.

34 PRASA s TOD Initiatives des s Publics Congress and Exhibition Johannesburg, Afrique du Intersite s Phase 1 and Phase 2 projects PRASA Technical s Phase 1 and Phase 2 projects Examples: Germiston Station Kempton Park Station New Canada Station Shortcoming No evident response from surrounding landowners; an issue that PRASA and Municipalities must address.

35 6. Expected Outcomes des s Publics Attractive Environments along Railway Lines and Around Railway Stations Increased Access to Public Increased Choices for Reducing Travel Times Increased Use of Public Elimination of the Barrier Effect of (Some) Railway Lines

36 From Negative to Great Urban Spaces: New Limindlela Station: Ekurhuleni Municipality

37 From Negative to Great Urban Spaces: New Germiston Station: Ekurhuleni Municipality Proposed Concourse Station Proposed Retail Area Proposed Intermodal Facility Existing Retail Revamp Proposed Food Court Proposed Medical Suite

38 From Negative to Great Urban Spaces: New Germiston Station: Ekurhuleni Municipality Integrated high density development on concrete slabs. Joint Planning with EMM within an Urban Design Framework

39 From Negative to Great Urban Spaces: New Germiston Station: Ekurhuleni Municipality

40 From Negative to Great Urban Spaces: New Germiston Station: Ekurhuleni Municipality Proposed Covered Retail Mall

41 Removal of the Barrier Effect of a Railway Line: Amsterdam des s Publics

42 Removal of the Barrier Effect of a Railway Line: Amsterdam des s Publics

43 Removal of the Barrier Effect of a Railway Line: Amsterdam des s Publics

44 TOD Success Story des s Publics Congress and Exhibition Johannesburg, Afrique du DREAMING!!!

45 TOD Success Story THE DREAM IS ALIVE!!! des s Publics Congress and Exhibition Johannesburg, Afrique du

46 DANKIE SIYABONGA!

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