2 Learning Objectives Economic growth rate and the implications of sustained growth The economic growth trends in Canada and other countries and regions Labour productivity growth and potential GDP growth Sources of labour productivity growth The theories of economic
3 Real GDP per person in Canada tripled between 1961 and What has brought about this growth in production, incomes, and living standards? Incomes in China have tripled in the 13 years between 1997 and Why are incomes in China growing so rapidly?
4 The Basics of Economic Growth Economic growth is the sustained expansion of production possibilities measured as the increase in real GDP over a given period. Calculating Growth Rates The economic growth rate is the annual percentage change of real GDP. The economic growth rate tells us how rapidly the total economy is expanding.
5 The Basics of Economic Growth The standard of living depends on real GDP per person. Real GDP per person/per capita income Real GDP per person grows only if real GDP grows faster than the population grows.
6 The Basics of Economic Growth Applying the Rule of 70 Figure 22.1 shows the doubling time for growth rates. A variable that grows at 7 percent a year doubles in 10 years. A variable that grows at 2 percent a year doubles in 35 years. A variable that grows at 1 percent a year doubles in 70 years.
7 Anything that effects the long-run rate of economic growth even by a tiny amount will have huge effects on living standards in the long run. annual growth rate of income per capita 25 years percentage increase in standard of living after 50 years 100 years 2.0% 64.0% 169.2% 624.5% 2.5% 85.4% 243.7% 1,081.4%
8 Economic Growth Trends Growth in the Canadian Economy From 1926 to 2010, growth in real GDP per person in Canada averaged 2% a year. Real GDP per person fell precipitously during the Great Depression and rose rapidly during World War II. Growth was most rapid during the 1960s. Growth slowed during the 1970s and sped up again in the 1980s and1990s.
10 Economic Growth Trends Real GDP Growth in the World Economy Figure 22.3(a) shows the growth in the rich countries. Japan grew rapidly in the 1960s, slower in the 1980s, and even slower in the 1990s. Growth in Canada, the United States, and Europe Big 4 has been similar.
11 Economic Growth Trends Figure 22.3(b) shows the growth of real GDP per person in group of poor countries. The gaps between real GDP per person in Canada and in these countries have widened.
12 How Potential GDP Grows What Determines Potential GDP? Potential GDP is the quantity of real GDP produced when the quantity of labour employed is the full-employment quantity. To determine potential GDP we use a model with two components: An aggregate production function An aggregate labour market
13 How Potential GDP Grows Aggregate Production Function Ceteris Paribus, the aggregate production function shows how real GDP changes as the quantity of labour changes. An increase in labour increases real GDP.
14 How Potential GDP Grows Aggregate Labour Market The demand for labour shows the quantity of labour demanded and the real wage rate. The supply of labour shows the quantity of labour supplied and the real wage rate. The labour market is in equilibrium at the real wage rate at which the quantity of labour demanded equals the quantity of labour supplied.
15 How Potential GDP Grows Labour market equilibrium occurs at a real wage rate of $35 an hour and 200 billion hours employed. At a real wage rate above $35 an hour, there is a surplus of labour and the real wage rate falls. Figure 22.5: Labour market equilibrium.
16 How Potential GDP Grows At a real wage rate below $35 an hour, there is a shortage of labour and the real wage rate rises. At the labour market equilibrium, the economy is at full employment.
17 How Potential GDP Grows Potential GDP The quantity of real GDP produced when the economy is at full employment is potential GDP. The economy is at fullemployment when 200 billion hours of labour are employed. Potential GDP is $13 trillion.
18 How Potential GDP Grows What Makes Potential GDP Grow? We begin by dividing real GDP growth into the forces that increase: Growth in the supply of labour Growth in labour productivity
19 How Potential GDP Grows The Effects of Population Growth on Labour Supply The labour supply curve shifts rightward. The real wage rate falls and aggregate hours increase. Figure 22.7(a): the effects of population growth in the labour market.
20 How Potential GDP Grows The increase in aggregate hours increases potential GDP. Because the diminishing returns, the increased population increases real GDP but decreases real GDP per hour of labour.
21 How Potential GDP Grows Growth of Labour Productivity Labour productivity is the quantity of real GDP produced by an hour of labour. Labour productivity equals real GDP divided by aggregate labour hours. If labour become more productive, firms are willing to pay more for a given number of hours so the demand for labour increases.
22 How Potential GDP Grows Figure 22.8 shows the effect of an increase in labour productivity. The increase in labour productivity shifts the production function upward.
23 How Potential GDP Grows In the labour market: An increase in labour productivity increases the demand for labour. With no change in the supply of labour, the real wage rate rises and aggregate hours increase.
24 How Potential GDP Grows And with the increase in aggregate hours, potential GDP increases.
25 Why Labour Productivity Grows Preconditions for Labour Productivity Growth The fundamental precondition for labour productivity growth is the incentive system created by firms, markets, property rights, and money. The growth of labour productivity depends on Physical capital growth Human capital growth Technological advances
26 Why Labour Productivity Grows
27 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies We study three growth theories: Classical growth theory Neoclassical growth theory New growth theory
28 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies Neoclassical Growth Theory Neoclassical growth theory is the proposition that real GDP per person grows because technological change induces a level of saving and investment that makes capital per hour of labour grow. Growth ends only if technological change stops because of diminishing marginal returns to both labour and capital.
29 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies The Neoclassical Theory of Population Growth The neoclassical view is that the population growth rate is independent of real GDP and the real GDP growth rate. Technological Change and Diminishing Returns In the neoclassical theory, the rate of technological change influences the economic growth rate but economic growth does not influence the pace of technological change. It is assumed that technological change results from chance.
30 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies The Basic Neoclassical Idea Technology begins to advance at a more rapid pace. New profit opportunities arise and investment and saving increase. As technology advances and the capital stock grows, real GDP per person increases. Diminishing returns to capital lower the real interest rate and eventually economic growth slows and just keeps up with population growth. Capital per worker remains constant.
31 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies New Growth Theory New growth theory holds that real GDP per person grows because of choices that people make in the pursuit of profit and that growth can persist indefinitely. The theory begins with two facts about market economies: Discoveries result from choices. Discoveries bring profit and competition destroys profit.
32 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies Two further facts play a key role in the new growth theory: Discoveries are a public capital good. Knowledge is not subject to diminishing returns. Increasing the stock of knowledge makes capital and labour more productive. Knowledge capital does not experience diminishing returns is the central proposition of new growth theory.
33 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies Figure 22.10: The ideas of new growth theory as a perpetual motion machine.
34 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies The Empirical Evidence on the Causes of Economic Growth Economic growth makes progress by the interplay of theory and empirical evidence. Theory makes predictions about what we will observe if it is correct. Empirical evidence provides the data for testing the theory. Table 22.1 on the next slide summarizes the more robust influences on growth that economists have discovered.
35 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies
36 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies Policies for Achieving Faster Growth Growth accounting tell us that to achieve faster economic growth we must either increase the growth rate of capital per hour of labour or increase the pace of technological change. The main suggestions for achieving these objectives are Stimulate Saving Saving finances investment. So higher saving rates might increase physical capital growth. Tax incentives might be provided to boost saving.
37 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies Stimulate Research and Development Because the fruits of basic research and development efforts can be used by everyone, not all the benefit of a discovery falls to the initial discoverer. So the market might allocate too few resources to research and development. Government subsidies and direct funding might stimulate basic research and development.
38 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies Improve the Quality of Education The benefits from education spread beyond the person being educated, so there is a tendency to under invest in education. Provide International Aid to Developing Countries If rich countries give financial aid to developing countries, investment and growth will increase. But data on the effect of aid shows that it has had zero or a negative effect.
39 Growth Theories, Evidence, and Policies Encourage International Trade Free international trade stimulates growth by extracting all the available gains from specialization and trade. The fastest growing nations are the ones with the fastest growing exports and imports.
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