1 Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply April U.S. Department of Energy
2 Foreword The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) both place high importance on developing resources and conversion technologies for producing fuels, chemicals and power from biomass. The two departments are working together on several aspects of bioenergy. This report is the third to be produced from joint collaboration. This and other reports can be found at: The website for biomass feedstock research sponsored by the DOE s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of the Biomass Program (OBP) can be found at: bioenergy.ornl.gov/. More general information about OBP s feedstock research program can be found at: biomass_feedstocks.html. The website for research and development sponsored by the USDA Forest Service can be found at: research/. The website for bioenergy research sponsored by the USDA Agricultural Research Service can be found at: programs.htm?np_code=. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Office of the Biomass Program and in particular, John Ferrell and Sam Tagore. The authors gratefully acknowledge the valuable contributions of Robert Guida, Rajita Majumdar, Borys Mararytsya, and Adam McCann of BCS, Incorporated in the review of the fil draft and preparation of the print copy. Notice This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, or any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade me, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof. Available electronically at: Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper, from: U.S. Department of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information P.O. Box Oak Ridge, TN - phone:.. fax:.. Available for sale to the public, in paper, from: U.S. Department of Commerce Natiol Technical Information Service Port Royal Road Springfield, VA phone:.. fax:.. online ordering:
3 BIOMASS AS FEEDSTOCK FOR A BIOENERGY AND BIOPRODUCTS INDUSTRY: THE TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF A BILLION-TON ANNUAL SUPPLY Robert D. Perlack Lynn L. Wright Anthony F. Turhollow Robin L. Graham Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge Natiol Laboratory Bryce J. Stokes Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture Dold C. Erbach Agricultural Research Service U.S. Department of Agriculture A Joint Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy U.S. Department of Agriculture Prepared by: Oak Ridge Natiol Laboratory P.O. Box Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Maged by: UT-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC-OR DOE/GO-- ORNL/TM-/
5 Contributors Howard Brown Biomass Program Communications Natiol Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO Marilyn A. Buford Natiol Program Leader USDA Forest Service Washington, DC Frederick J. Deneke Coorditor USDA Forest Service Cooperative Forestry Washington, DC Achim Dobermann Project Leader Department of Agronomy and Horticulture University of Nebraska Lincoln, NE James L. Easterly P.E. Principal Easterly Consulting Fairfax, VA Thomas Foust Biomass Program Technology Mager Natiol Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO Dennis M. May Program Mager USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station St. Paul, MN David B. McKeever Research Forester USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory Madison, WI James E. McMurtrey III Research Agronomist (retired) USDA, Agricultural Research Service Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab Beltsville, MD Patrick D. Miles Research Forester USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station St. Paul, MN John R. Mills Research Forester USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Portland, OR Ralph Overend Research Fellow Natiol Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO Michael Pacheco Director, Natiol Bioenergy Center Natiol Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO Robert B. Rummer Project Leader USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station Auburn, AL Hosein Shapouri Agricultural Economist Office of Energy Policy and New Uses USDA Office of the Chief Economist Washington, DC Kenneth E. Skog Project Leader USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory Madison, WI Shahab Sokhansanj Biomass Supply Systems Logistics Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge Natiol Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN Marie Walsh Adjunct Associate Professor Bio-Based Energy Alysis Group University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN
7 Contents Executive Summary... i Introduction... The Biomass Feedstock Resource Base... Land Resource for Biomass Production... Biomass Feedstock Consumption... Composition of the Current Resource Base.... Forest-Derived Biomass Resource Assessment.... Forestland Resource Base.... Forest Resources.... Increasing Biomass Resources from Forests..... Logging Residues and Other Removals from the Forest Inventory..... Forest Residues from Fuel Treatment Thinning..... Forest Products Industry Processing Residues..... Urban Wood Residues..... Forest Growth and Increase in the Demand for Forest Products.... Forest Resources Summary.... Agriculture-Derived Biomass Resources.... Agricultural Land Resource Base.... Agricultural Resources.... Evaluating the Biomass Potential of Agriculture..... Scerio : Current Sustaible Availability of Biomass from Agricultural Lands..... Scerio : Technology Change with Conventiol Crops Only (No Land Use Change)..... Scerio : Technology Change with Perennial Crops and Land Use Change.... Factors Increasing Biomass Resources from Agriculture..... Crop Yields..... Residue-to-Grain or -Seed Ratios..... Residue Collection Technology for Annual Crops..... Cropland Tillage..... Allocation of Cropland Acres to Perennial Crops...
9 .. Grain to Ethanol or Bioproducts and Soybeans to Biodiesel..... Secondary Processing and Other Residues.... Agricultural Resources Summary.... Potential Concerns and Impacts.... Forest-Derived Biomass Resources.... Agriculture-Derived Biomass Resources.... Summarized Findings... References... Glossary... Appendix A: Forest Resource Alysis... Appendix B: Agriculture Resource Alysis...
11 List of Figures Figure Annual biomass resource potential from forest and agricultural resources... Figure Summary of biomass resource consumption... Figure. The biomass resource base... Figure. Ownership break-up of U.S. forestland by region... Figure. Projections of timber removals, growth, and inventory... Figure. Total timberland biomass and forest residue inventory... Figure. Estimate of the sustaibly recoverable forest biomass... Figure. Forest utilization relationships... Figure. Logging and other removal residues... Figure Fire suppression cost and acres burned... Figure Total treatable biomass resource on timberlands and other forestlands... Figure Fuel treatments on timberland and other forestland... Figure. Summary of potentially available forest resources... Figure. Summary of cropland uses, idle cropland, and cropland pasture in the contiguous United States... Figure. Harvested acres of oats and soybeans,... Figure. Agricultural productivity,... Figure. Current availability of biomass from agricultural lands... Figure. Availability of biomass under increased crop yields and technology changes... Figure. Availability of biomass under increased crop yields, technology changes, and inclusion of perennial crops... Figure Average corn yields,... Figure Breeding of new giant soybean cultivars for forage production... Figure Soybean residues from large biomass (top) and conventiol soybeans (bottom)... Figure. Crops under no-till cultivation... Figure Summary of the allocation of agricultural land under altertive scerios... Figure. Summary of potentially available agricultural resources... Figure. Summary of potential forest and agricultural resources...
13 List of Tables Table A. Current availability of logging residue and other removals... Table A. Availability factors for logging residue and other removals under current recovery conditions... Table A. Availability of logging residue and other removals under current recovery conditions... Table A. Availability of logging residue and other removals under future growth and recovery conditions... Table A. Total fuel treatment thinnings resource... Table A. Assumed availability factors for fuel treatment thinnings... Table A. Availability of fuel treatment thinnings... Table A. Forest products industry processing residues... Table A. Summary of availability of urban wood residues... Table B. Comparison of USDA baseline for major crops with change scerios... Table B. Current availability of biomass from agricultural lands baseline summary... Table B. Table B. Table B. Table B. Summary of biomass from agricultural lands under moderate crop yield increases without land use change... Summary of biomass from agricultural lands under high crop yield increase without land use change... Summary of biomass from agricultural lands under moderate crop yield increase with land use change... Summary of biomass from agricultural lands under high crop yield increase with land use change...
15 Abbreviations and Acronyms CAFO... confined animal feeding operation CRP... Conservation Reserve Program DOE... U.S. Department of Energy EERE... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy FIA... Forestry Inventory and Alysis (USDA program) FTE... Fuel Treatment Evaluator HFRA... Healthy Forest Restoration Act LBS... large biomass soybean MSW... municipal solid waste NCGA... Natiol Corn Growers Association OBP... Office of the Biomass Program quad... quadrillion ( ) BTUs R&D... research and development RMR... residue maintence requirement RUSLE... Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation SCI... Soil Conditioning Index TPO... Timber Product Output (USDA) USDA... U.S. Department of Agriculture
16 Executive Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both strongly committed to expanding the role of biomass as an energy source. In particular, they support biomass fuels and products as a way to reduce the need for oil and gas imports; to support the growth of agriculture, forestry, and rural economies; and to foster major new domestic industries biorefineries making a variety of fuels, chemicals, and other products. As part of this effort, the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee, a panel established by the Congress to guide the future direction of federally funded biomass R&D, envisioned a percent replacement of the current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by. Biomass all plant and plant-derived materials including animal manure, not just starch, sugar, oil crops already used for food and energy has great potential to provide renewable energy for America s future. Biomass recently surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy and currently provides over percent of the total energy consumption in the United States. In addition to the many benefits common to renewable energy, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it invaluable in reducing oil imports one of our most pressing energy needs. A key question, however, is how large a role could biomass play in responding to the tion s energy demands. Assuming that economic and fincial policies and advances in conversion technologies make biomass fuels and products more economically viable, could the biorefinery industry be large enough to have a significant impact on energy supply and oil imports? Any and all contributions are certainly needed, but would the biomass potential be sufficiently large to justify the necessary capital replacements in the fuels and automobile sectors? The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustaible supply of biomass sufficient to displace percent or more of the country s present petroleum consumption the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year. The short answer to the question of whether that much biomass feedstock can be produced is yes. Looking at just forestland and agricultural land, the two largest potential biomass sources, this study found over billion dry tons per year of biomass potential (Figure ) enough to produce biofuels to meet more than one-third of the current demand for transportation fuels. The full resource potential could be available roughly around mid- st century when large-scale bioenergy and biorefinery industries are likely to exist. This annual potential is based on a more than seven-fold increase in production from the amount of biomass currently consumed for bioenergy and biobased products. About million dry tons of sustaibly removable biomass could be produced on forestlands, and about million dry tons could come from agricultural lands. Forestlands in the contiguous United States can produce million dry tons annually. This projection includes million dry tons of fuelwood harvested from forests, million dry tons of residues from wood processing mills and pulp and paper mills, million dry tons of urban wood residues including construction and demolition debris, million dry tons of residues from logging and site clearing operations, and million dry tons of biomass from fuel treatment operations to reduce fire hazards. All of these forest resources are sustaibly available on an annual basis. For estimating the residue tonge from logging and site clearing operations and fuel treatment thinnings, a number of important assumptions were made: all forestland areas not currently accessible by roads were excluded; all environmentally sensitive areas were excluded; equipment recovery limitations were considered; and recoverable biomass was allocated into two utilization groups conventiol forest products and biomass for bioenergy and biobased products. From agricultural lands, the United States can produce nearly billion dry tons of biomass annually and still continue to meet food, feed, and export demands. This projection includes million dry tons of annual crop residues,
17 million dry tons of perennial crops, million dry tons of grains used for biofuels, and million dry tons of animal manures, process residues, and other miscellaneous feedstocks. Important assumptions that were made include the following: yields of corn, wheat, and other small grains were increased by percent; the residue-to-grain ratio for soybeans was increased to :; harvest technology was capable of recovering percent of annual crop residues (when removal is sustaible); all cropland was maged with no-till methods; million acres of cropland, idle cropland, and cropland pasture were dedicated to the production of perennial bioenergy crops; all manure in excess of that which can applied on-farm for soil improvement under anticipated EPA restrictions was used for biofuel; and all other available residues were utilized. The biomass resource potential identified in this report can be produced with relatively modest changes in land use, and agricultural and forestry practices. This potential, however, should not be thought of as an upper limit. It is just one scerio based on a set of reasoble assumptions. Scientists in the Departments of Energy and Agriculture will explore more advanced scerios that could further increase the amount of biomass available for bioenergy and biobased products. Forest resources Agricultural resources Total resource potential Million dry tons per year Figure : Annual biomass resource potential from forest and agricultural resources
18 Introduction Biomass is already making key energy contributions in the United States, having supplied nearly quadrillion Btu (quad) of energy in. It has surpassed hydropower as the largest domestic source of renewable energy. Biomass currently supplies over percent of the total energy consumption in the United States mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry and electrical generation with forest industry residues and municipal solid waste (MSW). In addition to the many benefits common to any renewable energy use, biomass is particularly attractive because it is the only current renewable source of liquid transportation fuel. This, of course, makes it an invaluable way to reduce oil imports one of our tion s most pressing energy and security needs. Biomass also has great potential to provide heat and power to industry and to provide feedstocks to make a wide range of chemicals and materials or bioproducts. Feedstock Resource Vision Goals Established by the Biomass Research & Development Technical Advisory Committee (Source: BTAC, a) Biopower Biomass consumption in the industrial sector will increase at an annual rate of % through, increasing from quads in to. quads in,. quads in, and. quads in. Additiolly, biomass consumption in electric utilities will double every years through. Combined, biopower will meet % of total industrial and electric generator energy demand in and % in The overall mission of the U.S. Department of Energy s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is to strengthen the tion s energy security, environmental quality, and economic vitality in public-private partnerships that enhance energy efficiency and productivity; bring clean, reliable and affordable energy technologies to the marketplace; and make a difference in the everyday lives of Americans by enhancing their energy choices and their quality of life. Consistent with this mission, DOE-EERE s Biomass Program supports a research agenda to develop biomass feedstock production and conversion technologies capable of providing for significant fractions of domestic demands for transportation fuels, electric power, heat, chemicals and materials. Biobased Transportation Fuels Transportation fuels from biomass will increase significantly from.% of U.S. transportation fuel consumption in (. quad) to % of transportation fuel consumption in ( quads), % in (. quads), and % in. Biobased Products Production of chemicals and materials from biobased products will increase substantially from approximately billion pounds or % of the current production of target U.S. chemical commodities in, to % in, % in, and % in. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) through its agencies and offices has similar goals of reducing foreign oil dependence, improving the environment through the development of new sources of energy, increasing the use of agricultural crops and forest resources as feedstocks for bioenergy and bioproducts, and creating jobs and enhancing income in America s rural sector. The Biomass Research and Development Act of created the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee to provide advice to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Energy on program priorities and to facilitate cooperation among various federal and state agencies, and private interests. The Technical Advisory Committee also established a tiol vision for bioenergy and biobased products. Included in its vision was the setting of a very challenging goal: biomass will supply percent of the tion s power, percent of its transportation fuels, and percent of its chemicals by. The goal is equivalent to percent of current petroleum consumption and will require more than approximately one billion dry tons of biomass feedstock annually a fivefold increase over the current consumption (DOE, ). The purpose of this report is to assess whether the land resources of the United States have the potential to produce a sustaible supply of biomass that can displace percent of the country s current petroleum consumption. This report does not attempt to outline R&D and policy agendas to attain this goal, nor does it attempt to assess the economic competitiveness of a billion-ton bioenergy and bioproducts industry, and its potential impacts on the energy, agriculture (food and feed production), and forestry sectors of the economy. Many of these issues are partially addressed in the roadmap that accompanied the biomass vision (BTAC, b). The roadmap explores the technical research, development, and demonstrations needed to achieve advances in biomass systems and outlines the institutiol and policy changes needed to remove the barriers to economically and environmentally sound
19 development of sustaible biomass systems. To provide some perspective, the next section of this resource assessment report summarizes current biomass consumption and the biomass feedstock resource base. The biomass feedstock resource base from forests and agricultural lands are then discussed in more detail in the main body of the report.
20 The Biomass Feedstock Resource Base Land Resources for Biomass Production The land base of the United States encompasses nearly, million acres, including the million acres of land in Alaska and Hawaii. About percent of the land area is classified as forest land, percent as grassland pasture and range, percent as cropland, percent as special uses (e.g., public facilities), and percent as miscellaneous uses such as urban areas, swamps, and deserts (Vesterby and Krupa, ; Alig et al., ). About one-half of this land has some potential for growing biomass. This percentage is nearly percent without Alaska and Hawaii. Currently, slightly more than percent of biomass consumption in the United States (about million dry tons) comes from forestlands. The remainder (about million dry tons), which includes biobased products, biofuels and some residue biomass, comes from cropland. Biomass Feedstock Consumption In, biomass contributed nearly quadrillion BTU (quad) to the tion s energy supply, nearly percent of total U.S. energy consumption of about quads (EIA, a). At percent of total renewable energy consumption, biomass is the single largest renewable energy resource, recently surpassing hydropower (Figure ). More than percent Natural gas, % Coal, % Nuclear, % Renewable energy, % Biomass, % Hydroelectric, % Geothermal, % Wind, % Solar, % Petroleum, % Biomass Consumption Forest products industry Wood residues Pulping liquors Urban wood and food & other process residues Fuelwood (residential/commercial & electric utilities) Biofuels Bioproducts Million dry tons/year Total Forestlands and agricultural lands contribute million dry tons of biomass - % of America's current energy consumption. Source: EIA, a & b Figure : Summary of biomass resource consumption
21 of this biomass comes from wood residues and pulping liquors generated by the forest products industry. Currently, biomass accounts for approximately percent of renewably generated electricity, nearly all ( percent) the industrial renewable energy use, nearly all the renewable energy consumption in the residential and commercial sectors ( percent and percent, respectively), and percent of transport fuel use. A relatively significant amount of biomass (~ to million dry tons) is also currently used in the production of a variety of industrial and consumer bioproducts that directly displace petroleum-based feedstocks (Energetics, ). The total annual consumption of biomass feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts together currently approaches million dry tons (Figure ). Composition of the Current Resource Base The biomass resource base is composed of a wide variety of forestry and agricultural resources, industrial processing residues, and municipal solid and urban wood residues (Figure ). The forest resources include residues produced during the harvesting of forest products, fuelwood extracted from forestlands, residues generated at primary forest product processing mills, and forest resources that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health. The agricultural resources include grains used for biofuels production, animal manures and residues, and crop residues derived primarily from corn and small grains (e.g., wheat straw). A variety of regiolly significant crops, such as cotton, sugarcane, rice, and fruit and nut orchards can also be a source of crop residues. Municipal and urban wood residues are widely available and include a variety of materials yard and tree trimmings, land-clearing wood residues, wooden pallets, packaging materials, and construction and demolition debris. Forest Resources Primary Logging residues from conventiol harvest operations and residues from forest magement and land clearing operations Removal of excess biomass (fuel treatments) from timberlands and other forestlands Fuelwood extracted from forestlands Secondary Primary wood processing mill residues Secondary wood processing mill residues Pulping liquors (black liquor) Ter ertiar tiary Urban wood residues construction and demolition debris, tree trimmings, packaging wastes and consumer durables Agricultural Resources Primary Crop residues from major crops corn stover, small grain straw, and others Grains (corn and soybeans) used for ethanol, biodiesel, and bioproducts Perennial grasses Perennial woody crops Secondary Animal manures Food/feed processing residues Ter ertiar tiary MSW and post-consumer residues and landfill gases The resource base includes a wide range of primary resources, and secondary and tertiary residues. This report emphasizes primary resources. Figure : The biomass resource base The remainder of this report addresses the potential availability of biomass feedstock projected over a long term roughly around mid- st century when large-scale bioenergy and biorefinery industries are likely to exist. The report emphasizes primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and woody crops. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, sustaible quantities of biomass. While the primary sources are emphasized, secondary and tertiary (or residue) sources of biomass are also addressed in the report. The amount of forest-derived biomass is based on an alysis of extant resources and trends in the demand for forest products. The biomass resource potential from agricultural land is based on creating scerios that extrapolate from current agriculture and research and development trends. While the forestland area is much larger, agricultural land has a greater biomass resource potential due to a much higher level of magement intensity. Forestlands, especially those held publicly, will always be maged less intensively than agricultural lands because forests are expected to provide multiple-use benefits including wildlife habitat, recreation, and ecological and environmental services. By contrast, active cropland and, to a lesser extent, idle cropland and cropland pasture are intensively maged, with crops and magement practices changing on a year-to-year basis and land moving in and out of active production.
22 . Forest-Derived Biomass Resource Assessment. Forestland Resource Base The total forestland in the United States is approximately million acres about one-third of the tion s total land area. Most of this land is owned by private individuals or by the forest industry (Figure ). Two-thirds of the forestland ( million acres) is classified as timberland which, according to the Forest Service, is land capable of growing more than ft per acre of wood annually (Smith et al., ). Although timberland is not legally reserved from harvesting, much of it is iccessible or inoperable by forestry equipment. In addition, there are million acres of forestland that the Forest Service classifies as other. This other forestland is generally incapable of growing ft per acre of wood annually. The lower productivity is due to a variety of factors or site conditions that adversely affect tree growth Million acres Northe ast North Central Southeast South Central Great Plains Intermountain Pacific Northw es t Pacific Southwest Alaska Public ownership Industrial ownership Private ownership Of the million acres of U.S. timberland, about % is publicly owned, % is owned by the forest industry, and the remaining % is privately owned. Timberland ownership varies considerably among regions of the country. The East United States tends to be domited by private ownership and the West by public land ownership. Source: Alig et al., Figure : Ownership break-up of U.S. forestland by region (e.g., poor soils, lack of moisture, high elevation, and rockiness). As a result, this land tends to be used for livestock grazing and extraction of some non-industrial wood products. The remaining million acres of forestland are reserved from harvesting and are intended for a variety of non-timber uses, such as parks and wilderness. The total forestland base considered for this resource alysis includes the million acres of timberland and the million acres of other forestland. The timberland acreage is the source of nearly all current forest-derived bioenergy consumption and the source of most of the potential. The other forestland is included because it has accumulated excess biomass that poses wildland fire risks and hazards. Much of this excess biomass is not suitable for conventiol wood products but could be used for a variety of bioenergy and biobased product uses.
Foreword The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) both place high importance on developing resources and conversion technologies for producing
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Missouri Soybean Economic Report State Analysis March 2014 The following soybean economic impact values were estimated by Value Ag, LLC, as part of a Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council funded project.
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The Journal of Science Policy & Governance POLICY MEMO: INCREASING SUSTAINABLE BIOMASS THROUGH PRODUCTION TAX CREDITS BY Ashley Paulsworth firstname.lastname@example.org Executive Summary As various tax credits
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Agricultural Watershed Institute Experimental Watershed Projects as a Research Platform for Co-Production of Biomass and Ecosystem Services Steve John Agricultural Watershed Institute email@example.com
News Release Investors, analysts and other interested parties can access Acadian Timber Corp. s 2012 First Quarter Results conference call via webcast on Wednesday, May 2, 2012 at 1:00 p.m. ET at www.acadiantimber.com
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Packaging Waste Reduction Life Cycle Inventory Packaging Options for Shipping Soft Goods in E-Commerce and Catalog Sales Businesses, individuals, and governments shipping non-breakable items via a common
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Biomass-to-Fuel-Cell Power For Renewable Distributed Power Generation February 2013 The information contained in this document is derived from selected public sources. Ballard does not guarantee the accuracy
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