FORESTED VEGETATION. forests by restoring forests at lower. Prevent invasive plants from establishing after disturbances

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1 FORESTED VEGETATION Type of strategy Protect General cold adaptation upland and approach subalpine forests by restoring forests at lower Specific adaptation action Thin dry forests to densities low enough to reduce fire intensity and elevations, thus reducing spread of large spread crown fires Create targeted fuel breaks at strategic landscape locations Prevent invasive plants from establishing after disturbances Include invasive species prevention strategies in all projects Inventory regularly to detect new populations and species Reduce dominance of root disease sensitive species on root disease- prone sites Regenerate and plant with species less susceptible to root disease Thin out root disease susceptible species where less root disease susceptible species are abundant Implement hot prescribed burn with reburn Enhance Resistance (or Reduce Non- Climate Stresses) Manage forest vegetation, and reduce fire severity and patch size Reduce non- natives and/or increase exotic species control efforts Use skips/gaps in silvicultural prescriptions Thin and plant disturbance- resilient species Promote disturbance- resilient species with fire (prescribed or natural) Thin and implement prescribed burns to reduce hazardous fuels in the wildland- urban interface Push boundaries of prescribed burning (e.g., burn earlier in the spring) Create gaps in forests to reduce competition and increase western larch vigor Protect high value trees (plus trees, cone producers, rare species, etc.) via management actions such as pheromones, seed orchards, etc. Decrease resilience of existing non- native species with appropriate management practices or biotic path herbicides Monitor soil stability and productivity to reduce low- fertility soils that promote non- natives

2 Reduce non- natives and/or increase exotic species control efforts Prevent widespread outbreaks of invasive species or pathogens Prevent the development of and reduce risks associated with hazard trees Reduce impacts of disease and fire Implement early detection/rapid response for exotic species treatment Plan for extreme events and events with low probability Treat existing pathogen outbreaks with more aggressive management Promote weed- free seed and ensure weed- free policies are included in planning documents Expand weed- free feed list to include additional non- native species Prevent non- native plant introductions during projects Reduce grazing practices that encourage the spread of non- native species Maintain permits for aggressive treatment of invasive species (e.g., burning, herbicide) Develop options, triggers, and methods for more aggressive management of hazard trees Enhance internal education about increasing hazard tree risk Strategically use anti- aggregation pheromones Consider increasing use of pheromone treatments to protect trees in campgrounds, high value habitats, and after floods Identify critical stands for direct protections from fire and insects Create buffer zones between fire and residential development Influence development zoning in high fire risk areas Increase forest diversity (e.g., species composition, age class, structure) and manage for stand heterogeneity (consider focusing on interface jurisdictions such as low elevations) In dry forest, restore low- severity fire and early- successional species Incorporate climate change into Wildland Fire Decision Support System Enhance education and communication about responsible land owner actions in WUI Thin to accelerate development of late- successional forest conditions Increase resilience of forest stands to

3 Increase resilience of forest stands to disturbances and future conditions Thin to limit dominance of moisture- dependent species on drought- prone sites Thin older forests to support regeneration Thin to promote shade- tolerant species Consider using more prescribed fire where scientific evidence supports change to more frequent fire regime Maintain soil productivity through appropriate silvicultural practices Consider including larger openings in thinning prescriptions and planting seedlings in the openings to create seed sources for native drought- tolerant species Manage species densities to maintain tree vigor and growth potential Maximize early successional tree species diversity by retaining minor species during pre- commercial thinning activities to promote greater resilience to drier conditions Increase the amount of thinning and/or alter thinning prescriptions Use girdling, falling and leaving trees, prescribed burns, and wildland fire to reduce stand densities and drought stress Increase flexibility in fire management Harvest to variable densities Increase forest landscape resilience to large and extensive insect or pathogen outbreaks Design forest gaps that create establishment opportunities Plant blister rust- resistant trees and/or prune blister rust Implement prescribed burning in areas affected by insect outbreaks Plant resistant species or genotypes where species- specific insect or pathogen outbreaks are a concern Increase diversity of patch sizes Consider climate change in post- fire rehabilitation Develop rapid response/assessment for fire restoration Determine where native seed may be needed for post- fire planting Manage forest restoration for future range of variability Increase resilience through post- fire or post- flood management

4 Promote Resilience Increase resilience through post- fire or post- flood management Increase resilience by promoting native genotypes and adapted genotypes of native species Allow some burned areas to regenerate naturally Reduce density of post- disturbance artificial regeneration Consider planting fire- tolerant tree species post- fire in areas with increasing fire frequency Increase post- fire monitoring Use post- fire timber harvest to prevent uncharacteristic reburns Experiment with planting native grass species to compete with cheatgrass post- fire Increase production of native plant materials for post- flooding plantings Anticipate greater need for seed sources and propagated plants Plant potential microsites with a mix of potential species (bet- hedging) Plant seeds with biochar coating Use seeding of native plant species in areas with non- native species Increase the availability of nursery stock and seed for tree species in cold upland and subalpine forests Utilize seed collection and seed banks for wildfire restoration and planting Interplant to supplement natural regeneration and genetic diversity Identify areas important for in situ gene conservation Maintain a tree seed inventory with high- quality seed for a range of species, particularly species that may do well in the future under hotter, drier conditions Develop seed orchards that contain a broader range of tree species and genotypes than in the past Develop a gene conservation plan for ex situ collections for long- term storage Protect trees that exhibit adaptation to water stress (e.g., trees with low leaf area to sapwood ratio) and collect seed for future regeneration Consider using genetically improved seedling stock

5 Plan and prepare for increased fire frequency and severity and greater area burned Employ a risk- diversification approach to forest management and silvicultural practices by spreading risks at the local and landscape level Maintain or increase the extent of subalpine berry areas Restore and promote health and vigor of aspen clones Emphasize use of plant species in restoration projects that will be robust to climate change Plant genetically adapted species from appropriate seed zones Incorporate climate change into fire management plans Plan post- fire response for large fires Consider using prescribed fire to facilitate transition to a new fire regime in dry forests Anticipate more opportunities to use wildfire for resource benefit Promote diverse age classes, species mixes, within stand and across landscape structural diversity and genetic diversity and minimize monocultures Utilize interplanting to supplement native regeneration/genetic diversity Maintain variability in species and tree architecture in certain locations Prepare for species migration by managing for multiple species across large landscapes Allow stands to develop somewhat idiosyncratically within a spacious envelope of possible conditions Maintain huckleberry production through tree removal and prescribed fire Consult with tribes to understand historical patterns and current locations of huckleberry habitat Implement ungulate management during regeneration and/or to protect existing populations Remove conifers Determine effect of disturbance frequency on aspen survival, and effects of Sudden Aspen Death and new clones Develop techniques for artificial regeneration of aspen Select for drought tolerant mother trees Identify and target areas most likely to successfully regenerate to be good planting opportunities

6 aspen clones Increase fire disturbance Facilitate Transition Facilitate change to desired assemblages Promote connected landscapes that can facilitate forest species migration along climatic gradients Identify and protect refugia and/or implement restoration actions in refugia Replace plant associations- habitat typing with index based on biophysical variables Plant seedlings expected to thrive in new climate conditions Foster resilience in areas shifting to novel assemblages Monitor for management action effectiveness and communicate effective techniques to partners and stakeholders Consider planting desired species (assisted migration) rather than relying on natural regeneration and migration Plant and encourage regeneration of rare and disjunct species in appropriate locations Prioritize monitoring and management of desired species where predicted to survive and establish in future Identify and protect wildlife corridors that can serve double duty as migration corridors for plant species Identify existing and historical conditions and develop desired conditions for species connectivity Identify sites that are less likely to be affected by climate change (refugia) and focus restoration activities on those sites Identify processes and conditions that create fire refugia, and map refugia areas Identify critical stands for direct protections from fire and insects Identify biophysical predictors related to habitat types, site productivity, vegetation composition and structure Predict site productivity based on biophysical predictors; use to determine what to plant now and long- term effects Project into the future based on climate change models Expand long- term monitoring programs, including reforestation monitoring and post- treatment monitoring. Track regeneration success and species distribution at the fine scale. Look for species transfer zones. Consider monitoring soil types as habitat types may not be appropriate with changing climate. Increase knowledge of patterns, characteristics, and rates of change in species distributions

7 Increase Knowledge Engage Coordination Increase knowledge of patterns, characteristics, and rates of change in species distributions Increase knowledge of rates and patterns of tree establishment and regeneration failures Address information gaps in order to maintain viable populations Work across jurisdictions Improve integration between wildlife managers and forest ecologists, and between research and management Install GLORIA plots to monitor species distribution and abundance Install and analyze additional plots to gather trend information over time, targeting areas where changes are expected Promote awareness of the important components within conservation areas (e.g., RNAs, roadless wilderness) and desired conditions Use FIA plot information to determine trends in subalpine forests Improve understanding of how stand mosaic influences connectivity for wildlife Detect and attribute historical changes in tree distribution at tree line Implement accurate mapping of important species Monitor tree establishment patterns Address information gaps - identify current locations, potential habitat, and stand condition Address genetic data gaps - establish breeding program Align budgets and priorities for program of work with neighboring lands Coordinate with USDA FS and NPS to create weed- free seed standards and regulations Communicate about adjacent projects and coordinate on- the- ground activities Coordinate USDA, USFS and NPS efforts to collect cones and produce seedlings Work across boundaries to preserve roads, trails, and access in light of increased fire and flood events Establish NF or regional monitoring network (i.e., intensified grid) Detect change (e.g., adult and seedling mortality, species composition)

8 Engage Coordination Detect change (e.g., adult and seedling mortality, species composition) Monitor establishment, survival, and development by age class across different aspects/heat load/soil moisture using FIA data and project- level stocking exam Expand reforestation and other monitoring, and continue to establish permanent monitoring plots and share data Coordinate invasive species management, funding, and support between agencies Collaborate with other federal agencies to monitor alpine species Monitor pre- and post- treatment

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