19 Voltage (Potential Drop) The potential energy an electron has divided by its charge
20 Ohm s Law The current (charge per unit time) flowing through a circuit element is equal to the potential drop across this element divided by the resistance of the element. I= V/R
21 I V R Suppose the current is 3 A and the voltage is 6 V. What it the resistance? a) 3 W b) 2 W c) 1/2 W d) 1/3 W
22 Power Amplifier Driving Loudspeaker I Z= 8 W V Signal Source Amplifier Speaker
25 Capturing Sound Waves 25
26 Dynamic Microphone or Moving Coil Loudspeaker
27 Moving Coil Loudspeaker
28 Demo: Eddy Current
29 Digital Electronics Introduction to Binary Numbers
30 We can write the number 752 as 2x x x10 2 Similarly, we could use the base 2 instead of 10, e.g. 3 = 1x x2 1, which we represent as 11. Hence the binary 01 is our old friend and 01 are 2-binary digit (bit) numbers.
31 Note the possible combinations of 2 bits: 00 = 0 01 = 2 10 = 1 11 = 3, 4 possible combinations = 2 n where n= # of bits
32 More examples of 4-bit binary numbers The 2 nd of these binary numbers, for example, corresponds to the number 0x x x x2 3 = 2 Note that there are 2 4 = 16 possible combinations for a 4-bit binary number.
33 Note also that we have chosen the sequence as the coefficient of 2 0 first, then 2 1, then 2 2, etc. This convention is used by electrical engineers, but it is arbitrary.
34 Digital Audio - What is it? Really a method to capture and transform audio signals for the purpose of storage, transmission, manipulation, and playback Digital Approximation of the real event and sound waves Requires A/D and D/A Converters Devices used to change analog to digital and back again. These are generally found on computer sound cards A/D converters perform sampling of waveforms D/A converters convert digital data back into a waveform Employ various forms of encoding and decoding the bit stream using CODECS (Compressor/De-compressors) 34
35 Digital Sampling
36 Suppose we wish to represent a complex wave form digitally. We will now introduce the concept of sampling the wave form. The idea is to measure the amplitude at various times during the cycle and represent those amplitudes digitally.
39 Analog to Digital Recording Chain ADC Microphone converts acoustic to electrical energy. It s a transducer. Continuously varying electrical energy is an analog of the sound pressure wave. ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) converts analog to digital electrical signal. Digital signal transmits binary numbers. DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) converts digital signal in computer to analog for your headphones.
40 Analog versus Digital Analog Continuous signal that mimics shape of acoustic sound pressure wave Digital Stream of discrete numbers that represent instantaneous amplitudes of analog signal, measured at equally spaced points in time.
41 Analog to Digital Overview Sampling Rate How often analog signal is measured [samples per second, Hz] Example: 44,100 Hz Sampling Resolution *a.k.a. sample word length, bit depth + Precision of numbers used for measurement: the more bits, the higher the resolution. Example: 16 bit
42 Common Sampling Rates Which rates can represent the range of frequencies audible by (fresh) ears? Sampling Rate Uses 44.1 khz (44100) CD, DAT 48 khz (48000) DAT, DV, DVD-Video 96 khz (96000) DVD-Audio khz (22050) Old samplers Most software can handle all these rates.
43 Common Sampling Resolutions Word length 8-bit integer 16-bit integer 24-bit integer 32-bit floating point Uses Low-res web audio CD, DAT, DV, sound files DVD-Video, DVD-Audio Software (usually only for internal representation)
44 Amplitude 3-bit Quantization A 3-bit binary (base 2) number has 2 3 = 8 values Time measure amp. at each tick of sample clock A rough approximation
45 Amplitude 4-bit Quantization A 4-bit binary number has 2 4 = 16 values Time measure amp. at each tick of sample clock A better approximation
46 Low Quality Sampling (low-res) 46
47 Low Quality Results 47
48 Higher Quality 48
49 Even higher quality 49
50 The Nyquist Theorem This theorem holds that in order to preserve a reasonable representation of a waveform it must be sampled at least twice at its highest frequency Since the limits of human hearing are around 22khz (22,000 cycles per second), the sampling for CDs was established at 44.1 khz. 50
51 A sampler which we describe might have 16 bits, in which case the number of possible combinations is 2 16 = 65,536 This enables us to represent 65,536 sample amplitudes (in actuality, half of these are used for the positive amplitudes, the other half for the negative ones).
52 16-bit Sample Word Length A 16-bit integer can represent 2 16, or 65,536, values (amplitude points). We typically use signed 16-bit integers, and center the 65,536 values around 0. 32, ,768
53 We now calculate the bit rate and file size for 16 bit resolution.
54 A digital computer represents data using the binary numeral system. Text, numbers, pictures, audio, and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a string of bits, or binary digits, each of which has a value of 1 or 0. The most common unit of storage is the byte, equal to 8 bits. A piece of information can be handled by any computer whose storage space is large enough to accommodate the binary representation of the piece of information, or simply data. For example, using eight million bits, or about one megabyte, a typical computer could store a short novel.
55 Calculating Bit-rates (CD quality) Sampling Rate x Resolution x # of Channels = Bit-rate 44,100 x 16 x 2 = 1,411,200 Calculating File Sizes (one minute of CD audio) Sampling Rate x Resolution x Number of Channels x Time in Seconds / Bits / Byte = File Size (in Bytes) 44,100 x 16 x 2 x 60 / 8 = 10,584,000 MP3 compression at 128 kbps compresses this by a factor of 11
56 For the ultimate in high-fidelity, you might want to sample five 20-bit channels at 44,100 Hz. What is the bit rate? a) 4.4 kbps b) 44 kbps c) 440 kbps d) 4.4 Mbps In this case, how big of a file is 40 minutes of uncompressed audio? a) 13 Gbytes b) 1.3 Gbytes c) 130 Mbytes d) 13 Mbytes
57 Audio File Size CD characteristics - Sampling rate: 44,100 samples per second (44.1 khz) - Sample word length: 16 bits (i.e., 2 bytes) per sample - Number of channels: 2 (stereo) How big is a 5-minute CD-quality sound file?
58 Amplitude DAC: Sample and Hold To reconstruct analog signal, hold each sample value for one clock tick; convert it to steady voltage Time
59 Amplitude DAC: Smoothing Filter Apply an analog low-pass filter to the output of the sample-andhold unit: averages stair steps into a smooth curve Time
60 CD standard is 16 bits at 44.1 KHz. CD s and your Computer Using CD Ripper software, you can take digital data from the CD which is in.cda format and convert it to.wav or MP3 format all in the digital domain Not dependent upon the sound card capabilities The sound file contains all the music but the vast number of samples makes such files big Approx: 10 Mbytes per stereo minute 60
61 Digital Compression Concepts Compression techniques are used to replace a file with another that is smaller Decompression techniques expands the compressed file to recover the original data -- either exactly or in facsimile A pair of compression/decompression techniques that work together is called a codec for short 61
62 What is MP3? (Motion Pictures Experts Group Layer 3) MP3 is a compression system developed specifically for music. It had its birth as a result of the desire to send music over the internet It reduces the amount of data on a CD without hurting the sound of the music too much It actually achieves a data reduction of about 90%! It achieves this dramatic reduction by eliminating things that our ears don t hear very well soft sounds that are masked by louder sounds frequencies that are outside of our hearing range frequencies that we don t hear well advanced compression techniques 62
63 MP3 Takes Advantage of the theory that There are certain sounds that the human ear cannot hear. There are certain sounds that the human ear hears much better than others. If there are two sounds playing simultaneously, we hear the louder one but often cannot hear the softer one 63
64 MP 3 Compression
65 If we want compression without loss, we use systems like ZIP. This is very effective compression data files that hold plenty of redundant information. This could be Microsoft Word documents, they often zip very well. And when you unzip them, the document is identical to the original. You find similar compression within GIF and PNG graphics files, which compress many graphic images very well (but not photos). However you do not find much redundant information in music files. A zip compression of raw music data (WAV files) may only yield 10% reduction in file size. Therefore we use a lossy encoding to reduce the music files sizes. Lossy encoding mean that we take away music information (just as JPEG encoding take away image information from a photo). The goal is to remove music details you would not hear anyway!
66 The most important principle in MP3 compression is the psychoacustic selection of sound signals to cut away. Those signals, we are unable to hear are removed. These include weaker sounds that are present but are not heard because they are drowned out (masked) by louder instruments/sounds. Many encoders use the fact that the human ear is most sensitive to midrange sound frequencies (1 to 4 KHz). Hence sound data within this range is left unchanged. Another compression used is to reduce the stereo signal into mono, when the sound waves are so deep, that the human ear cannot register the direction. Also the contents of common information in the two stereo channels is compressed. The Huffman algorithm reduces the file size by optimizing the data code for the most often used signals. This is a lossless compression working within the MP3 system.
67 MP3 is a Lossy Compression System 67
68 MP3 Files continued MP3 files are an average of 3-5 megabytes vs. CD files of 30 megabytes for the same song Easy to transmit over the internet Easy to store on portable devices They are an approximation of the original CD which in turn is a reasonable approximation of the real sound 68
69 Format Comparison CD Standard = 16 Bits at 44.1Khz Professional Digital Recording Standards 16 or 24 Bits at 44.1Khz, 48Khz, 96Khz Wav Probably the most common format and used by windows programs to capture CD music to a hard drive. Real representation or Pits to Bits but files are large MP3 About 1/10 the size, 1meg/stereo minute compared to 10meg for the original and called near CD quality WMA New windows format that boasts higher quality than MP3 with similar sample rates or same quality with lower sample rate and smaller file sizes MP4 A new standard that allows for synchronized video and audio and can compete with WMA. It is non-proprietary MIDI- is not a digital audio file format per se but a language for creating electronic sounds using devices that understand that language 69
70 MIDI Instruments and Devices (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) MIDI is a standard interface between electronic musical instruments and synthesizers Devices which are MIDI-compatible can communicate with each other Advantages to MIDI files are encoded and are much smaller than digitized sound files files can be easily edited and mixed for multiple tracks 70
71 Summary Digital sound is produced by sampling sound waves over time A digital sound file consists of sampled amplitudes at a number of discrete times within a given time interval The number of samples per second is called the sample rate The number of bits devoted to storing individual sampled amplitudes is called the resolution of the digitized sound: 8- bit, 16-bit and higher resolutions are used depending on the kind of sound being digitized Fidelity will be largely determined by the sample rate and resolution 71
72 Analog/Digital Conversions A Basic Digital Audio Setup Acoustical to Electrical to Digital (numerical) and back 1. Microphone converts sound into an electrical signal 2. Anti-Alias Brick Wall filter removes very high frequencies from signal. 3. ADC periodically measures (samples) the amplitude of the analog signal, sending a stream of numbers to CPU. 4. DAC converts a stream of numbers into a stepped analog signal. 5. Smoothing filter removes staircase shape from signal.
73 Compact Discs (CD s)
74 A CD is a fairly simple piece of plastic, about four onehundredths (4/100) of an inch (1.2 mm) thick. Most of a CD consists of an injection-molded piece of clear polycarbonate plastic. During manufacturing, this plastic is impressed with microscopic bumps arranged as a single, continuous, extremely long spiral track of data. We'll return to the bumps in a moment. Once the clear piece of polycarbonate is formed, a thin, reflective aluminum layer is sputtered onto the disc, covering the bumps. Then a thin acrylic layer is sprayed over the aluminum to protect it. The label is then printed onto the acrylic. A cross section of a complete CD (not to scale) looks like this: Cross-section of a CD
77 The elongated bumps that make up the track are each 0.5 microns wide, a minimum of 0.83 microns, they look something like this:
78 You will often read about "pits" on a CD instead of bumps. They appear as pits on the aluminum side, but on the side the laser reads from, they are bumps. The incredibly small dimensions of the bumps make the spiral track on a CD extremely long. If you could lift the data track off a CD and stretch it out into a straight line, it would be 0.5 microns wide and almost 3.5 miles (5 km) long! To read something this small you need an incredibly precise disc-reading mechanism. Let's take a look at that. CD Player Components The CD player has the job of finding and reading the data stored as bumps on the CD. Considering how small the bumps are, the CD player is an exceptionally precise piece of equipment. The drive consists of three fundamental components: A drive motor spins the disc. This drive motor is precisely controlled to rotate between 200 and 500 rpm depending on which track is being read. A laser and a lens system focus in on and read the bumps. A tracking mechanism moves the laser assembly so that the laser's beam can follow the spiral track. The tracking system has to be able to move the laser at micron resolutions.
79 How Does a CD Work?
80 More on CDs 750 Mbytes Link: how Edison got his groove back 75 minutes of audio
82 What the CD Player Does: Laser Focus Inside the CD player, there is a good bit of computer technology involved in forming the data into understandable data blocks and sending them either to the DAC (in the case of an audio CD) or to the computer (in the case of a CD- ROM drive). The fundamental job of the CD player is to focus the laser on the track of bumps. The laser beam passes through the polycarbonate layer, reflects off the aluminum layer and hits an opto-electronic device that detects changes in light. The bumps reflect light differently than the "lands" (the rest of the aluminum layer), and the opto-electronic sensor detects that change in reflectivity. The electronics in the drive interpret the changes in reflectivity in order to read the bits that make up the bytes.
83 A CD has a single spiral track of data, circling from the inside of the disc to the outside. The fact that the spiral track starts at the center means that the CD can be smaller than 4.8 inches (12 cm) if desired, and in fact there are now plastic baseball cards and business cards that you can put in a CD player. CD business cards hold about 2 MB of data before the size and shape of the card cuts off the spiral. What the picture on the right does not even begin to impress upon you is how incredibly small the data track is -- it is approximately 0.5 microns wide, with 1.6 microns separating one track from the next. (A micron is a millionth of a meter.) And the bumps are even more miniscule...
84 What the CD Player Does: Tracking The hardest part is keeping the laser beam centered on the data track. This centering is the job of the tracking system. The tracking system, as it plays the CD, has to continually move the laser outward. As the laser moves outward from the center of the disc, the bumps move past the laser faster -- this happens because the linear, or tangential, speed of the bumps is equal to the radius times the speed at which the disc is revolving (rpm). Therefore, as the laser moves outward, the spindle motor must slow the speed of the CD. That way, the bumps travel past the laser at a constant speed, and the data comes off the disc at a constant rate.
Analog Representations of Sound Magnified phonograph grooves, viewed from above: The shape of the grooves encodes the continuously varying audio signal. Analog to Digital Recording Chain ADC Microphone
Compact Disc Technology The Compact Disc popularly known as CD is the data storage device used to store and retrieve datas encoded in digital format. It is an optical disc made of a special polycarbonate
Acoustics II: sound storage Kurt Heutschi 2013-01-18 sound storage : introduction main building blocks of a sound storage device: concept: signal is stored as geometrical form on rotating disc basic idea:
Chapter 14 MPEG Audio Compression 14.1 Psychoacoustics 14.2 MPEG Audio 14.3 Other Commercial Audio Codecs 14.4 The Future: MPEG-7 and MPEG-21 14.5 Further Exploration 1 Li & Drew c Prentice Hall 2003 14.1
Digitizing Sound Files Introduction Sound is one of the major elements of multimedia. Adding appropriate sound can make multimedia or web page powerful. For example, linking text or image with sound in
Physics of Medical X-Ray Imaging (1) Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3: DIGITAL IMAGING IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY 3.1 Basic Concepts of Digital Imaging Unlike conventional radiography that generates images on film through
PRIMER ON PC AUDIO This document provides an introduction to various issues associated with PC-based audio technology. Topics include the following: Introduction to PC-Based Audio Introduction to Audio
Computer Networks and Internets, 5e Chapter 6 Information Sources and Signals Modified from the lecture slides of Lami Kaya (LKaya@ieee.org) for use CECS 474, Fall 2008. 2009 Pearson Education Inc., Upper
Welcome To Your Little Ego 1 2 1. USB Input (digital) 2. USB Mode Indicator 3. Sample Rate LEDs 4. Filter Select Switch 5. Headphone Output (analog) 4 3 SET 5 Quick Start If you have an Apple computer,
PHY-2464 Physical Basis of Music Presentation 26 Sound Reproduction and Synthesis: Digital Reproduction Adapted in substantial part from Sam Matteson s Unit 4 Session 40 & 41 Sam Trickey April 18, 2005
Preservation Handbook Digital Audio Author Gareth Knight & John McHugh Version 1 Date 25 July 2005 Change History Page 1 of 8 Definition Sound in its original state is a series of air vibrations (compressions
COMPACT DISK STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS History: At the end of 1982, the Compact Disc Digital Audio (CD-DA) was introduced. This optical disc digitally stores audio data in high quality stereo. The CD-DA
3.1 Analog vs. Digital Signaling is the way data is communicated. This type of signal used can be either analog or digital 1 3.1 Analog vs. Digital 2 WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1998
Bits and Bytes Computers are used to store and process data. Processed data is called information. You are used to see or hear information processed with the help of a computer: a paper you ve just typed
Chapter 9 The CD player as an information channel 9.1 The CD as an information channel The next few chapters use the example of the CD audio system to show some of the basic properties of instruments used
Phys 1240: Sound and Music LAST: wind instruments TODAY: Jeff Merkel on sound in the studio NEXT: Wrapping up - wind instruments, voices, sonograms, No new reading! No more assignments after CAPA #9 (tonight)
MULTIMEDIA DATA Prof. Pallapa Venkataram, Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India Objectives of the Talk To know the Multimedia Technology. To describe
Overview Sound In this part, you will learn to Describe how sound works in a PC Select the appropriate sound card for a given scenario Install a sound card in a Windows system Troubleshoot problems that
MPEG, the MP3 Standard, and Audio Compression Mark ilgore and Jamie Wu Mathematics of the Information Age September 16, 23 Audio Compression Basic Audio Coding. Why beneficial to compress? Lossless versus
2: Audio Basics Mark Handley Audio Basics Analog to Digital Conversion Sampling Quantization Aliasing effects Filtering Companding PCM encoding Digital to Analog Conversion 1 Analog Audio Sound Waves (compression
Fundamentals Series Analog vs. Digital Polycom, Inc. All rights reserved. Fundamentals Series Signals H.323 Analog vs. Digital SIP Defining Quality Standards Network Communication I Network Communication
Introduction: NetStreams patent-pending StreamNet Technology encompasses several protocols, conventions, and technologies to insure the best quality audio and video distribution over TCP/IP. This whitepaper
3 FUNDAMENTALS OF SOUND TECHNOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson, you will learn about different technologies i.e. analog and digital used for processing of sound (audio) signals, and differentiate between
Trigonometric functions and sound The sounds we hear are caused by vibrations that send pressure waves through the air. Our ears respond to these pressure waves and signal the brain about their amplitude
3 Data Storage 3.1 Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: List five different data types used in a computer. Describe how
Audio Editing Using Audacity Matthew P. Fritz, DMA Associate Professor of Music Elizabethtown College What is sound? Sounds are pressure waves of air Pressure pushes air molecules outwards in all directions
Introduction to Digital Audio Before the development of high-speed, low-cost digital computers and analog-to-digital conversion circuits, all recording and manipulation of sound was done using analog techniques.
Introduction to Multimedia What is Multimedia? 22 What is Multimedia? Multimedia can have many definitions these include: (A computer system perspective) 23 Multimedia means that computer information can
Module 9 AUDIO CODING Lesson 28 Basic of Audio Coding Instructional Objectives At the end of this lesson, the students should be able to : 1. Name at least three different audio signal classes. 2. Calculate
E305 Digital Audio and Video (4 Modular Credits) This document addresses the content related abilities, with reference to the module. Abilities of thinking, learning, problem solving, team work, communication,
Digital Transmission of Analog Data: PCM and Delta Modulation Required reading: Garcia 3.3.2 and 3.3.3 CSE 323, Fall 200 Instructor: N. Vlajic Digital Transmission of Analog Data 2 Digitization process
Multimedia Networking Reading: Sections 3.1.2, 3.3, 4.5, and 6.5 CS-375: Computer Networks Dr. Thomas C. Bressoud 1 Digital Audio and Video Data 2 Challenges for Media Streaming Large volume of data Each
MP3 Player CSEE 4840 SPRING 2010 PROJECT DESIGN Zheng Lai Zhao Liu Meng Li Quan Yuan email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org I. Overview Architecture The purpose
University of Michigan Deep Blue deepblue.lib.umich.edu 2006-07-10 Best practices for producing quality digital audio files Formats Group, Deep Blue http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/40248 Best practices for
Bits, Bytes, and Representation of Information Digital representation means that everything is represented by numbers only The usual sequence: something (sound, pictures, text, instructions,...) is converted
Analog-to-Digital Voice Encoding Basic Voice Encoding: Converting Analog to Digital This topic describes the process of converting analog signals to digital signals. Digitizing Analog Signals 1. Sample
(Refer Slide Time: 00:01:23) Data Communications Prof. Ajit Pal Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture # 03 Data and Signal Hello viewers welcome
Multichannel Audio Technologies: Lecture 7 Mastering for Surround Sound Surround sound mastering is a highly specialized skill which differs significantly from stereo mastering. Although the purpose of
Chapter 3 Data Storage Objectives After studying this chapter, students should be able to: List five different data types used in a computer. Describe how integers are stored in a computer. Describe how
Analog/Digital Conversion Analog Signals Interacing a microprocessor-based system to the real world. continuous range x(t) Analog and digital signals he bridge: Sampling heorem Conversion concepts Conversion
DIGITAL MUSIC DAY 1 WHAT IS SOUND? 1. Making a sound playing a musical instrument, moves the surrounding the instrument. 2. Making a sound sends out air which hit your ears. 3. Waves of changing air pressure
encoding compression encryption ASCII utf-8 utf-16 zip mpeg jpeg AES RSA diffie-hellman Expressing characters... ASCII and Unicode, conventions of how characters are expressed in bits. ASCII (7 bits) -
Introduction When purchasing powered loudspeakers, most customers compare three key specifications: price, power and maximum SPL. Unfortunately, this can be like comparing apples and oranges. For the Maximum
Chapter 03 After first exam Representing Real Numbers In general, we use sign-mantissa-exponent R = mantissa * 10 exp R = mantissa * 2 exp Depending on the form of the mantissa, we have: Floating-point
DOLBY SR-D DIGITAL by JOHN F ALLEN Though primarily known for their analog audio products, Dolby Laboratories has been working with digital sound for over ten years. Even while talk about digital movie
How to design a digital FM radio Gautam Das and Udayan Umapathi, Cypress Semiconductor - March 13, 2012 We are witnessing an evolution in the personal computing space. Mobile devices, such as phones and
Lecture 19 Link Peter Cheung Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering Imperial College London URL: www.ee.ic.ac.uk/pcheung/teaching/de1_ee/ E-mail: email@example.com Lecture 17 Slide 1 Linking
Technical Paper Dolby Digital Plus Audio Coding Dolby Digital Plus is an advanced, more capable digital audio codec based on the Dolby Digital (AC-3) system that was introduced first for use on 35 mm theatrical
Voice Transmission --Basic Concepts-- Voice---is analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3-important wave-characteristics: Amplitude Frequency Phase Voice Digitization in the POTS Traditional
Video and Audio Codecs: How Morae Uses Them What is a Codec? Codec is an acronym that stands for "compressor/decompressor." A codec is an algorithm a specialized computer program that compresses data when
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOGUE AND ANALOGUE-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION Introduction The outputs from sensors and communications receivers are analogue signals that have continuously varying amplitudes. In many systems
(For Images) Autumn 2016 CSCU9N5: Multimedia and HCI 1 Why Use Data Compression? Images in bitmap format take a lot of memory to store e.g. 1024 x 768 pixels x 24 bits-per-pixel = 2.4Mbytes 16 Mega pixel
GUIDELINES FOR THE CREATION OF DIGITAL COLLECTIONS Digitization Best Practices for Audio This document sets forth guidelines for digitizing audio materials for CARLI Digital Collections. The issues described
ELG3336: Converters Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) Digital to Analog Converters (DACs) Digital Output Dout 111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 ΔV, V LSB V ref 8 V FS 4 V 8 ref 7 V 8 ref Analog Input V
Digital Audio Prior to the advent of computers, sound recordings were made using exclusively analog systems, where the instantaneous signal amplitude was continuously conveyed by a voltage we could measure
Welcome to the tutorial for the MPLAB Starter Kit for dspic DSCs Welcome to this tutorial on Microchip s MPLAB Starter Kit for dspic Digital Signal Controllers, or DSCs. The starter kit is an all-in-one
Jean Schleipen, Philips Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands Many parties were involved in making this project available for schools: This technology project was originally developed by Philips (The Netherlands)
The MIDI Architecture and Device Connectivity 3.1 Introduction. An important distinction when discussing sound recording is to distinguish between computer generated sounds via MIDI devices, and computer
Video compression: Performance of available codec software Introduction. Digital Video A digital video is a collection of images presented sequentially to produce the effect of continuous motion. It takes
PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth
Reference301 Series PD-301 CD Player /FM Tuner Ideal CD player and FM tuner for use with other 301 Reference Series components also supports RDS and USB memory playback Main functions High-precision slot-in
HugoTT Instruction Manual Desktop Headphone amplifier with Advanced DAC Thank you for purchasing the Chord HugoTT. In order to get the most from your product, please take a few moments to read the instructions.
How DA7210 maximises both headphone playback time and audio performance White Paper Andy Terry, Jim Brown Abstract Recent years have witnessed a huge expansion in the market for portable devices with hi
University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Eng Branch Laser application Lab. The aim of work: Experiment (9) Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD 1-measure
UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION BMMC (2011 Admission) V SEMESTER CORE COURSE AUDIO RECORDING & EDITING QUESTION BANK 1. Sound measurement a) Decibel b) frequency c) Wave 2. Acoustics
DAB Radio: Digital Audio Broadcasting If you go into an electrical store you will see more and more radios that are labelled as 'DAB' radios. But what are they and why have they suddenly become popular?
Lecture 2 Outline EE 179, Lecture 2, Handout #3 Information representation Communication system block diagrams Analog versus digital systems Performance metrics Data rate limits Next lecture: signals and
Comparison of different image compression formats ECE 533 Project Report Paula Aguilera Introduction: Images are very important documents nowadays; to work with them in some applications they need to be
INMATE/INMATE USB PROFESSIONAL " MIXER User Guide and Reference Manual INTRODUCTION Welcome to the NEWHANK INMATE and INMATE USB professional " mixers series user manual. INMATE and INMATE USB both offer
Doppler Doppler Chapter 19 A moving train with a trumpet player holding the same tone for a very long time travels from your left to your right. The tone changes relative the motion of you (receiver) and
DJ Controller with 4-in/4-out Audio Interface Cutting-Edge DJ Controller with built-in Audio for Live & Studio DESCRIPTION Dual-deck metal DJ controller with audio dedicated to computer DJing. TARGET Advanced
Whitepaper: The H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) Standard What It Means to Web Camera Performance Introduction A new generation of webcams is hitting the market that makes video conferencing a more lifelike
Multichannel Audio Technologies: Lecture 2.A Setting up for Surround Sound on Commercial Speaker Layouts In this lecture we focus on preparation for surround mixing. For this, we need to consider the loudspeaker
4.3 Analog-to-Digital Conversion overview including timing considerations block diagram of a device using a DAC and comparator example of a digitized spectrum number of data points required to describe
Summary Features HD 980 and HD 990 CD Players Purists unite. In the beginning there were stereo components, carefully chosen one at a time and lovingly assembled into sublime, high performance music systems.
Compression Compression and Image Formats Reduce amount of data used to represent an image/video Bit rate and quality requirements Necessary to facilitate transmission and storage Required quality is application
The shift from CD to NAS Discover the supreme sound quality of Network Audio for a new style of enjoying music. Network Audio is designed to be as simple as possible so that anyone can enjoy music by selecting
D Two-Channel DVD Player Test Results Product Identification Report Number: Brand: Technology Code: Model Number: Licensed Devices: Manufacturer: PCC Code: Manufacturer Number: Date Completed: Tested by:
QUICK SETUP GUIDE SETUP FOR ICONNEX SOUNDCARD AND AUDACITY RECORDING SOFTWARE SETUP GUIDE Congratulations on your purchase of the ikey Audio iconnex soundcard. This guide will help you setup the iconnex
MP3 Player Presentation Based on VS1005 SoC June 2012 Table of Contents What is VLSI Solution? Current MP3 Player Trends Structure of a Typical MP3 Player MP3 Player Based on VS1005 SoC New Features of
Streaming Audio and Video CS 360 Internet Programming Daniel Zappala Brigham Young University Computer Science Department Streaming Audio and Video Daniel Zappala 1/27 Types of Streaming stored audio and