Science in hair and beauty studies principal learning

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1 Science in hair and beauty studies principal learning Through the levels of the hair and beauty studies principal learning, learners develop a range of scientific knowledge and skills, starting with an introduction to science of hairstyling ( (Level 1 unit 3) ). At level 2 they are testing cosmetic ingredients and at level 3, they use them to carry out both testing and experimentation. Compliance with health and safety procedures is a requirement throughout, tying in with the similar strand running through key stage 4 and GCE science and control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH) regulations that are familiar to learners in schools. Levels 1 and 2 at key stage 4 At levels 1 and 2 the required knowledge of anatomy and physiology, chemistry and the science of colour linked to hair and beauty services overlaps only partially with the key stage 4 science programme of study. For learners aged it is expected in any case that GCSE science will be taken alongside the principal learning. Teaching implications for levels 1 and 2 at key stage 4 In supporting the science content of levels 1 and 2, hair and beauty specialists will wish to call upon the expertise of science specialists. It is vital that hair and beauty specialists and teachers of science are given opportunities to plan together and that they develop a shared terminology. At key stage 4, in planning the sequencing of teaching, deliverers may consider deferring the science elements of the principal learning until later so that learners have had the strongest possible grounding from their GCSE courses, to support the sectorrelated learning. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

2 Level 1 At level 1 learners need to know about basic anatomy and physiology connected with hair and beauty. They consider the factors affecting the health and adverse conditions of the skin ( (Level 1 unit 4) ) and nails ( (Level 1 unit 5) ). There will be aspects of anatomy that are not covered in GCSE science. The next unit looks at personal appearance, style and well-being and offers the chance to look at the science of nutrition and lifestyle choices ( (Level 1 unit 6) ). Level 2 Level 2 requires the learners to appreciate the risks and hazards to health and safety and the reasons why it is important to follow safe working practices and comply with requirements, policies and procedures ( (Level 2 unit 1) ). At level 2 coverage of anatomy and physiology relating to hair and beauty is explicitly tied in with the underpinning science and is treated at greater depth than may be found in key stage 4 ( (Level 2 unit 3) ). This unit has strong links to the processes of science How science works : Data, evidence, theories and explanations, Practical and enquiry skills, and Communication skills. Learners begin to look at the concept of formulation, ie the need for accurate recording and measurement. They become familiar with sector-related testing processes, ph, the effects of water hardness and temperature, and heat and light. They examine the principles of colour. They understand how to carry out tests safely using a range of chemicals and proprietary products used in salons. They should, for example, be able to explain why salon products are normally found within a narrow ph range of weak acids and alkalis. It should be noted that coverage of ph is not universal to all GCSE specifications and learners are unlikely to examine colour pigments in GCSE science. Information, advice and guidance supporting levels 1 and 2 Learners thinking of progression to the level 3 hair and beauty studies Diploma should be advised that the science content of this is best supported if they follow GCSE science at higher tier. Progression to level 3 vocational qualifications where physiology and/or anatomy are important, should be well supported by the level 2 hair and beauty studies principal learning with GCSE at higher tier alongside. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

3 Level 3 The unit Cosmetic science requires an understanding of the nature of cosmetic science and its application within the sector. Learners get to know and understand basic chemical and molecular structures and properties of ingredients used in hair, beauty and nail products ( (Level 3 unit 8) (molecules)). Cosmetic science Testing requires the learner to apply a range of scientific investigative skills. Working with precise formulations, learners carry out and report on a comparative evaluation of ingredients or products of their own devising ( (Level 3 unit 8) (testing)). Learners research the key scientific principles and processes of cosmetic chemistry ( (Level 3 unit 8) (principles)), for example redox reactions, action of bleaches, acids, alkalis, ph, the cooling effect of evaporation on the skin and the effect of humectants on the skin. They investigate the effectiveness of ingredients or processes over time. They may investigate colour pigments ( (Level 3 unit 8) (colour pigments)). They investigate types and origins of organic and inorganic raw materials used in hair, beauty and nail products ( (Level 3 unit 8) (raw materials)). They also investigate the potential harmful effects of ingredients and why some are no longer used. They need to know about legal and EU requirements relating to the hair and beauty sectors ( (Level 3 unit 8) (EU)). Finally, they discover more about career pathways in cosmetic science ( (Level 3 unit 8) (career pathways)). The science content of the Cosmetic science unit will most likely draw on specialist science expertise. It is therefore vital that science specialists and hair and beauty specialists have ample opportunity to plan and work together and that they develop a shared terminology relevant to real workplace situations. Information, advice and guidance supporting level 3 Learners who are thinking of science-related careers in cosmetics should be advised to take at least GCE AS chemistry as their additional and specialist learning. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

4 Level 1 unit 3 Introducing hairstyling Areas: Know and understand the basic structure of the hair types and characteristics. Scientific knowledge and understanding: The basic structure of the hair and the hair growth cycle eg cuticle, cortex and medulla: anagen, catagen and telogen. Overlap with key stage 4: Structure of the hair does not feature in the programme of study. Overlap with GCSE qualifications: Structure of the hair does not feature in GCSE specifications. Supportive prior learning: Structure of the hair does not feature in the key stage 3 programme of study. Level 1 unit 4 Introducing basic skin care treatments Areas: Know and understand: the basic structure of the skin common skin conditions the main functions affecting skin condition. Scientific knowledge and understanding: Epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layers: sebaceous and sweat glands, erector pili muscle, hair follicle, hair shaft; Conditions: allergies skin infections and diseases; Main factors affecting healthy skin: environmental, health, chemical. Overlap with key stage 4: Breadth of study : 2.1 Organisms and health. Overlap with GCSE qualifications: AQA Additional Applied Science Unit Food science: Food nutrients and their functions (skin health due to diet); AQA Applied Science Double Award 11.2 Health and medicine: Illnesses, diseases, diagnosis and their treatment (infections); AQA Environmental Science 9.15 Air pollution: Ozone depletion (skin cancer); AQA Human Physiology and Health 10.4 Health of the individual: Basic standards of personal cleanliness (washing for better hair and skin) and Disease (skin as barrier and infection), 10.7 Pollution: Chlorofluorocarbons (skin cancer), 11.2 The skin (also hair) and 11.6 Nutrition: Vitamins (healthy skin). Supportive prior learning: Key stage 3 programme of study 3.3 Organisms, behaviour and health a. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

5 Level 1 unit 5 Introducing basic and nail care services Area: Be able to describe the basic structure of the nails and their function. Scientific knowledge and understanding: Nail structure and location, function and processes. Overlap with key stage 4: Breadth of study : 2.1 Organisms and health e. Overlap with GCSE qualifications: No specific references. Supportive prior learning: Key stage 3 programme of study 3.3 Organisms, behaviour and health a. Level 1 unit 6 Personal appearance, style and well-being Area: Know and understand that poor nutrition and other poor lifestyle choices can impact on health and well-being. Scientific knowledge and understanding: The effects of diet and lifestyle on health and well-being. Overlap with key stage 4: Breadth of study : 2.1 Organisms and health e. Overlap with GCSE qualifications: AQA Science Unit 2 What can we do to keep our bodies healthy?; OCR gateway B1 Understanding ourselves; OCR 21st century Biology B2 Keeping healthy. Supportive prior learning: Key stage 3 programme of study 3.3 Organisms, behaviour and health a. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

6 Level 2 unit 1 Safe and healthy working practices Areas: Know and understand: the key legal health and safety requirements, policies and procedures, and the safe working practices applicable in hair and beauty what risks and hazards related to hair and beauty services there may be, and the importance of avoiding and early recognition and reporting. Scientific knowledge and understanding: The importance of working safely; Microbes that can cause disease; Contamination and measures to avoid contamination. Overlap with key stage 4: How science works : 1.2 Practical and enquiry skills c (the importance of working safely). Overlap with GCSE qualifications: AQA Applied Science Double Award Unit 2 Health and medicine: Illnesses, diseases, diagnosis and their treatment (infections); AQA Human Physiology and Health 10.4 Health of the individual: Disease (skin as barrier and infection). Supportive prior learning: Key stage 3 programme of study 3.3 Organisms, behaviour and health a. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

7 Level 2 unit 3 The science of hair and beauty Areas: Be able to: understand basic anatomy and physiology linked to the delivery of hair, beauty and nail services know and understand the common types of analysis and testing procedures safely perform diagnostic tests or skin examinations to ascertain whether there is a condition present that may prevent a service taking place analyse results and draw conclusions about hair and skin condition, sensitivity and product compatibility. Scientific knowledge and understanding: Skin: structure and location, function and processes; Hair: type, structure and location, function and processes; Nail: structure and location, function and processes; Head, neck and shoulders: bones position, muscles position and action; Lower arms and hands: bones position, muscles position and action; Lower legs and feet: bones position, muscles position and action; Factors affecting healthy skin, hair and nails environmental, hormonal, hereditary; Nutritional, stress-related, effects of products; Infectious and non-infectious conditions; Skin allergies and sensitivities; Procedures for safely conducting and recording basic hair, skin and sensitivity tests including ph tests. Overlap with key stage 4: Coverage of anatomy extends and structure of the hair and nails extends beyond the programme of study for How science works : 1.1 Data, evidence, theories and explanations a, b ( safe testing procedures); 1.2 Practical and enquiry skills a, b, c, d; 1.3 Communication skills a, b, c. Overlap with GCSE and other qualifications: AQA GCSE Additional Applied Science 11.2 Food science, Food nutrients and their functions (skin health due to diet); AQA GCSE Applied Science Double Award Unit 2 Health and medicine, illnesses, diseases, diagnosis and their treatment (infections); AQA GCSE Environmental Science 9.15 Air pollution, Ozone depletion (skin cancer); AQA GCSE Human Physiology and Health 10.4 Health of the individual, 10.7 Pollution, 11.2 The skin, 11.3 Principles of enzyme action, 11.6 Nutrition; AQA GCSE Physical Education A 9.1 Section A Health, fitness and factors affecting performance, Fitness for physical activities (bones and muscles); Edexcel BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Applied Science Unit 7 Anatomy and physiology; OCR GCSE Biology B gateway B1c Keeping healthy, B1d Keeping in touch and B5e Waste disposal; WJEC GCSE Science Biology 1 6b Homestasis. Infectious and non-infectious conditions, skin allergies and effects of excessive ultraviolet light are not covered at GCSE; Coverage of ph is not universal to all GCSE specifications. Supportive prior learning: Key stage 3 programme of study 3.3 Organisms, behaviour and health. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

8 Level 3 unit 8 Cosmetic science (molecules) Area: Know and understand the basic chemical and molecular structures and properties of ingredients used in hair, beauty and nail products. Scientific knowledge and understanding: Molecules, atoms and ions; Covalent bonds in molecules, how ions are formed and how ions of opposite charges attract; ph, acids and alkalis. This might cover: shampoo in water: ion exchange between sodium stearate (shampoo) and calcium bicarbonate in the water, because of the positive and negative charges of the ions elements, compounds and mixtures (eg solvents, emulsions, gels, suspensions) key ingredients (eg emulsifiers, surfactants, humectants, preservatives, antioxidants) simple organic compounds used in cosmetic products eg acetone, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate and how the structure of these compounds relates to their properties. Overlap with A level qualifications: AQA GCE Chemistry AS Unit 1 Foundation chemistry; OCR GCE Biology AS Unit F212 Molecules, Biodiversity, Food and Health Module 1 Biological Molecules; OCR GCE Applied Science Unit 5 Chemicals for a purpose; WJEC GCE Chemistry Unit CH2 Properties, structure and bonding. Supportive prior learning: Key stage 4 Breath of study : 2.2 Chemical and material behaviour. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

9 Level 3 unit 8 Cosmetic science (testing) Areas: Know and understand: the different approaches to human safety testing and trialling on new products, including safety, claimed beneficial effects, price and value for money how to examine the pros and cons of animal and human testing. Scientific knowledge and understanding: Chemical analysis; Use of control groups; Scientific aspect of animal and human testing. Overlap with A levels: AQA GCE Applied Science A2 Unit 12 The actions and development of medicines; AQA GCE Chemistry AS Unit 3 Investigative and practical skills in AS chemistry; OCR GCE Applied Science Unit 9 Sampling, testing and processing. Supportive prior learning: Key stage 4 How science works : 1.2 Practical and enquiry skills c (the importance of working safely). Level 3 unit 8 Cosmetic science (principles) Area: Know and understand the key scientific principles of cosmetic chemistry. Scientific knowledge and understanding: Redox reactions (oxidation and reduction), including the action of bleach and colouring, the breaking and re-formation of sulphur sulphur bonds in permanent waving; ph: the concentration of hydrogen ions in relation to acid, alkaline, neutral, ph1 14; The effects of acid or alkaline ph products on the skin, hair and nails and the importance of correct ph formulations in cosmetic formulations; The cooling effect of evaporation on the skin; The effects of humectants on the skin; The effects of all of the above over time. Overlap with A levels and other qualifications: AQA GCE Chemistry Unit 4 CHEM4 Kinetics, equilibria and organic chemistry Acids and bases; AQA GCE Environmental Studies Unit 2 ENVS2 The physical environment The hydrosphere, Water as a resource; Edexcel BTEC First Unit 3 Chemical applications (chemical reactions, cosmetic chemistry); OCR GCE Chemistry A 3.5 A2 Unit F325 Equilibria, energetics and elements, Rates, equilibria and ph; WJEC GCE Chemistry 2.1 Chemical equilibrium and acid base reactions. Supportive prior learning: Key stage 4 Breath of study : 2.2 Chemical and material behaviour, 2.3 Energy, electricity and radiations. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

10 Level 3 unit 8 Cosmetic science (colour pigments) Area: Know and understand the types of colour pigments and perfumes used in cosmetic products. Scientific knowledge and understanding: Chemical origins of colour; Aromatic compounds. Overlap with A level qualifications: AQA GCE Applied Science Unit 13 Colour chemistry; OCR GCE Chemistry (Salters) Unit F335 Chemistry by design. Supportive prior learning: Key stage 4 Breath of study : 2.2 Chemical and material behaviour, 2.3 Energy, electricity and radiations. Level 3 unit 8 Cosmetic science (raw materials) Area: Know and understand the types and origins of organic and inorganic raw materials used in hair, beauty and nail products. Scientific knowledge and understanding: Plant extracts; Mineral extracts; Petroleum derivatives their molecular and structural formulae the cosmetic processes they are used in. Supportive prior learning: Key stage 4 Breath of study : 2.2 Chemical and material behaviour; AQA GCSE Science 1b Oils, earth and atmosphere, Organic chemicals; AQA GCSE Applied Double Unit 2 Science for the needs of society, Ethanol and cosmetics; WJEC GCSE Chemistry 2. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

11 Level 3 unit 8 Cosmetic science (EU) Area: Know the critical legal and EU requirements applicable to the development and sale of cosmetic products. Scientific knowledge and understanding: Understand and interpret descriptions of permitted substances and concentrations. Supportive prior learning: Key stage 4 How science works : 1.2 Practical and enquiry skills c (the importance of working safely). Level 3 unit 8 Cosmetic science (career pathways) Areas: Be able to find out about science-related careers in the sector (examples of science-related careers in particular sectors are available from the FutureMorph website ( The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency is the non-regulatory part of the Qualification and Curriculum Authority QCA

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