The Rise of Ancient Rome

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1 1 Chapter 8 The Rise of Ancient Rome Section 1 The Roman Republic Section 2 The Roman Empire Notebook Number Mr. Graver Old World Cultures Name Period

2 2 Just when you thought an Empire couldn t get any bigger than Alexander the Great s Along comes Rome! Get ready to learn about the largest and longest lasting Empire that ever existed on Earth! The Romans are marching our way! In this chapter, you ll find out how Rome grew from a small town into an Empire, you ll learn about its geography, who the Etruscans were, how the Romans created a Republic, who the Patricians and Plebeians were, how men named Julius Caesar and Augustus came to power, and what amazing accomplishments the Romans achieved. Get ready to start Roamin! Section 1 The Roman Republic In this section, we ll find out who Romulus and Remus were, where Rome was located, what the geography was like, who the Etruscans were, how the Romans created a Republic, and how the different social classes worked in the Empire. Oh, yeah We ll also Hail Caesar! 1. According to Roman legend, who were ROMULUS and REMUS? 2. How does legend explain the founding of the city of Rome by Romulus and Remus?

3 3 Rome s Geography and Early Settlement 3. What can we learn about Rome from the legend of Romulus and Remus? Geographical Advantages 4. Where did the early people of Rome settle? Why did they pick this location? 5. What do we now call the area that was once Ancient Rome? The Etruscans 6. Who conquered the early people who lived in Rome around 600 B.C.? 7. What do we know about the ETRUSCANS? 8. How did the early Romans feel about being ruled by the powerful Etruscan kings? What did they do about it? 9. What parts of Etruscan culture did the early Romans Borrow?

4 4 Romans Form a Republic 10. What type of government did the early Romans vow NOT to have? Why? 11. What type of government did the early Romans create? 12. Define REPUBLIC 13. What lands did the early Romans rule by the time they created their Republic? The Roman Senate 14. In the Roman Republic, what part of the government was the most powerful? What did it do? 15. At first, who made up the Senate?

5 5 16. Define PATRICIANS 17. Define PLEBEIANS 18. In the early Republic, what could Plebeians NOT do? The Roman Consuls 19. What was a CONSUL? What were they responsible for? 20. Who could become a Consul in the Roman Republic? 21. How long did each Consul rule? 22. What happened if one Consul did not agree with the other? 23. Define VETO

6 6 Other Important Officials 24. Since the Romans knew their government wouldn t work if the two Consuls did not agree, what could be done in an emergency? 25. Define DICTATOR Patricians versus Plebeians 26. How did the Patricians and Plebeians feel about each other? 27. How did the Patricians keep getting richer and richer? 28. How did the Plebeians keep getting poorer and poorer? 29. Why did the Patricians begin to give into the demands of the Plebeians? What did the Plebeians demand? 30. What were the Twelve Tables and what did they do? 31. Did the Plebeians ever get the same powers and rights as the Patricians?

7 7 Masters of the Mediterranean 32. What were Roman armies becoming very good at? 33. Where was Carthage? What did the Romans do to the Empire of Carthage? 34. What other lands did the Romans begin to conquer? The Decline of the Republic 35. Why did the Patricians and Plebeians begin fighting again? How bad was the fighting? 36. What did many Roman generals begin doing at the end of the Roman Republic? 37. Who rose to be a strong leader in Rome?

8 8 The Rise of Julius Caesar 38. What lands did Julius Caesar conquer for Rome? What did this do for Julius Caesar? 39. What three men became very powerful in Rome at the same time? How did they become so powerful?

9 9 Let s find out how Julius Caesar became the leader of Rome POMPEY JULIUS CAESAR CRASSUS 40. What kind of leader was Julius Caesar?

10 10 The Death of a Dictator 41. How did many Roman Senators feel about Julius Caesar? Why? 42. What happened to Julius Caesar on March 15, 44 B.C? 43. Why was Julius Caesar assassinated? Are you ready for a great Roman Soap Opera? Read This! After Julius Caesar was assassinated, there was a lot of civil war in Rome. It seemed like Romans were fighting Romans everywhere! Some people wanted to get revenge on the Senators who played a part in Julius Caesar s assassination. Caesar s grandnephew, and adopted son, Octavian teamed up with Caesar s general and friend named Mark Antony. Octavian and Antony hunted down and killed everyone that had something to do with Caesar s death. Nasty! After the battling was over, Octavian and Mark Antony decided to divide the Roman Empire into two halves. Octavian took the western half and Antony took the Eastern Half. It sounded like a good deal for the two of them Unfortunately, Mark Antony went to a part of his empire called Egypt. While he was there, he met the queen of Egypt named Cleopatra (Who was once in love with Julius Caesar himself!). It didn t take him long to realize she was a hottie. They both fell in love. One night, during a cruise on the Nile River, Cleopatra convinced Mark to try to take Octavian s half of Rome. Of course Mark Antony wanted to please his new girlfriend and prepared for battle. At the battle of Actium, Octavian defeated Mark Antony and took back the whole darn Roman Empire. Cleopatra, rather than be conquered, committed suicide. Octavian took over all of Rome and changed his name to Augustus which means Highly Respected. He lived happily ever after

11 Who was OCTAVIAN and MARK ANTONY? What did they do for Julius Caesar? 45. What did Octavian and Mark Antony do to Rome after they got revenge for Julius Caesar s death? What lands did each man take? 46. What did Mark Antony and Cleopatra plan? 47. Who won the battle of Actium? What happened to Mark Antony and Cleopatra? 48. What happened to Octavian? What did he change his name to and what did it mean?

12 12 From Republic to Empire 49. Who took over Rome after Julius Caesar was assassinated? 50. What did the rule of Augustus mark the beginning and end of in Rome? 51. What had the Roman Republic achieved? 52. How was Rome ruled for 500 years after the Republic came to an end?

13 13 Section 2 The Roman Empire Hail, Caesar! The Roman Empire is on the march! In this section, you ll learn about the growth of the Roman Empire. We ll find out who Augustus was, what gods the Romans worshipped, how the Romans built an Empire, what they watched in the Colosseum as entertainment, what laws they passed, and how the Empire declined. Come to Rome! 1. Read the opening poem by the Roman poet named Virgil. What is he trying to tell the Romans in this poem? Ruling an Empire 2. What lands did Rome control by the time Augustus became Emperor? What did the Romans call the Mediterranean Sea? The Power of Augustus 3. What kind of ruler was Augustus? Why did he rule the way he did? 4. What was the PAX ROMANA? How long did it last?

14 14 Governing Conquered Peoples 5. How did the Romans govern the new lands they conquered? 6. Define PROVINCE 7. Why didn t the Romans force their way of life on the people they conquered? How do we know these conquered people adapted Roman ways anyway? The Five Good Emperors 8. Why was Rome on a roller-coaster after the death of Augustus? 9. Who were the two worst Roman Emperors? Why were they so bad? 10. What did a Roman Emperor finally decide to do to prevent future insane Emperor from ruling? What was this era called in Roman history? 11. Who was perhaps the greatest of the Five Good Emperors? Why was he so great?

15 Who was the last of the Five Good Emperors? Who did he choose to follow him? 13. Why was Commodus such a bad Emperor? The Empire in Decline 14. What 3 things helped Rome to go downhill after the rule of Commodus? A. B. C. The Greek Influence on Rome 15. What civilization was greatly admired by the Romans? What were some achievements the Romans really admired about these people?

16 16 Religion 16. Define POLYTHEISM 17. What were some big similarities between Greek religion and Roman religion? Building on Ideas 18. Why can we say that Romans were very practical people? Architecture and Technology The Roman Style 19. How were the Romans able to build large structures and giant buildings with large open spaces? 20. Define ARCH 21. What new building material did the Romans develop which allowed them to construct buildings that were taller than any others? What is this building material made from?

17 17 The Colosseum 22. What was the greatest Roman building? 23. Define COLOSSEUM 24. How many spectators could be seated in the Colosseum? What were some other amazing things that happened in this Roman building? Roads and Aqueducts 25. What did Roman engineers build from the city of Rome to every part of the Empire? 26. Why was it a good thing that All roads led to Rome? 27. What other famous structure are Romans famous for? 28. Define AQUEDUCTS

18 18 Roman Law 29. What is probably the greatest gift Rome has given the rest of the world? 30. Read the Code of Justinian. What are some laws our country copied from this code?

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