A crash course to Coordinate Systems, Map Projections and Data Formats

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A crash course to Coordinate Systems, Map Projections and Data Formats"

Transcription

1 A crash course to Coordinate Systems, Map Projections and Data Formats Ilkka Rinne Founder & CTO, Spatineo Oy GeoMashup CodeCamp 2011 University of Helsinki Department of Computer Science

2 About Us

3

4 Startup software company founded in 2011

5 Startup software company founded in 2011 Geospatial Data in the Web

6 Startup software company founded in 2011 Geospatial Data in the Web Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)

7

8 Ruoholahti Helsinki, Finland

9 Geo App Developer Data Providers Community

10 Empower Geo App Developer Data Providers Community Better access & powerful tools

11 Empower Encourage Geo App Developer Data Providers Community Better access & powerful tools Knowledge & Technical support

12 Empower Encourage Geo App Developer Better, more productive Data Providers Community communication Better access & powerful tools Knowledge & Technical support

13 In This Presentation Full material at the course web site:

14 In This Presentation Coordinates & Coordinate Systems Full material at the course web site:

15 In This Presentation Coordinates & Coordinate Systems (Map Projections) Full material at the course web site:

16 In This Presentation Coordinates & Coordinate Systems (Map Projections) Geospatial Data Formats in the Web Full material at the course web site:

17 In This Presentation Coordinates & Coordinate Systems (Map Projections) Geospatial Data Formats in the Web Open Standards for Web GeoData Access Full material at the course web site:

18 Coordinates My house is the center of the world, it s at (0,0)

19 Coordinates No, my house is the center of the world, it s at (0,0)

20 Coordinates (0,0) (0,0) Same coordinate pair, but in different Coordinate Systems

21 Coordinates (0,0) (-1,1) (1,1) Same Coordinate System, different coordinates for different places

22 Some Terminology Coordinate System (CS) Koordinaatisto in Finnish Set of mathematical rules for giving locations to places as set of coordinates. Number of axes defines the number of coordinates. Geodetic Coordinate System (GCS) Geodeettinen koordinaatisto Coordinate System, where the location is defined by geodetic longitude, geodetic latitude and height from an agreed height reference.

23 A Side Note: Latitude & Longitude Image from Wikimedia Commons, Originally by Djexplo, in public domain

24 More Terminology Geodetic Datum Datuumi in Finnish Set of parameters for relating a Geodetic Coordinate System to the Earth by setting it s origin, scale and orientation. Typically has a Reference Ellipsoid approximating the shape of the actual Earth s surface. (Geodetic) Coordinate Reference System (CRS) Koordinaattijärjestelmä A Geodetic Coordinate System fixed to the Earth using some Geodetic Datum.

25 Earth is not a sphere Image from Wikimedia Commons, Originally by NASA, in public domain

26 Earth is not a sphere Image from Wikimedia Commons, Originally by NASA, in public domain

27 Earth is not a sphere It s more like an ellipsoid Image from Wikimedia Commons, Originally by NASA, in public domain

28 Actually, it s not an ellipsoid either Image by NASA,

29 Actually, it s not an ellipsoid either Gravity anomalies make even the sea only shape of the Earth s surface slightly bumpy = Geoid Image by NASA,

30 Actually, it s not an ellipsoid either Gravity anomalies make even the sea only shape of the Earth s surface slightly bumpy = Geoid Choose and orient an ellipsoid wisely get a fit that s good enough Image by NASA,

31 Altitude Coordinates Ellipsoidal height Height from sea level (geoid) 8,848 m Surface of the Earth Geoid (mean sea level) Surface of the ellipsoid Geoid height Geoid: surface where the oceans would settle only based Earth s gravitational force. On continents, the fictional continuum of this mean sea level

32 Altitude Coordinates Ellipsoidal height Height from sea level (geoid) 8,848 m Surface of the Earth Geoid (mean sea level) Surface of the ellipsoid Geoid height Geoid: surface where the oceans would settle only based Earth s gravitational force. On continents, the fictional continuum of this mean sea level

33 Common Geodetic CRSs WGS84 (global, used by the GPS system) ETRS89 (For Europe, Eurasian plate is static) NAD83 (For US, Canada & Mexico, North American plate is static) All three use the same ellipsoid, but with a bit different parameters: more precise at the most important regions

34 CRS Realization

35 CRS Realization Coordinate Reference System + set of precisely measured positions on Earth. Makes it possible to define coordinates for new locations by measuring distances to the known reference positions.

36 CRS Realization Example: EUREF-FIN In Finland the practical realization of ETRS89 CRS is called EUREF-FIN. Precise locations of the reference points measured by the Finnish Geodetic Institute using satellite measurement networks and triangulation

37 Confusing Naming! CRS realization is also called a Coordinate System ( Koordinaatisto ). Datum can also mean CRS in English sometimes.

38 Limited Area CRS Coordinate Reference System may only be valid at certain parts of the world (where it s accurate enough)

39 Interpreting Coordinates <gml:boundedby> <gml:envelope srsname="epsg:4326"> <gml:lowercorner> </gml:lowercorner> <gml:uppercorner> </gml:upperCorner> </gml:envelope> </gml:boundedby>

40 Interpreting Coordinates Spatial Reference System <gml:boundedby> <gml:envelope srsname="epsg:4326"> <gml:lowercorner> </gml:lowercorner> <gml:uppercorner> </gml:upperCorner> Read: </gml:envelope> </gml:boundedby> CRS is WGS84 (2D), axis order: latitude, longitude

41 Interpreting Coordinates <gml:boundedby> <gml:envelope srsname="epsg:4326"> <gml:lowercorner> </gml:lowercorner> <gml:uppercorner> </gml:upperCorner> Read: </gml:envelope> </gml:boundedby> The EPSG:4326 is also known as urn:ogc:def:crs:epsg::4326 and Spatial Reference System CRS is WGS84 (2D), axis order: latitude, longitude

42 Interpreting Coordinates <gml:boundedby> <gml:envelope srsname="epsg:4326"> <gml:lowercorner> </gml:lowercorner> <gml:uppercorner> </gml:upperCorner> Read: </gml:envelope> </gml:boundedby> The EPSG:4326 is also known as urn:ogc:def:crs:epsg::4326 and Spatial Reference System CRS is WGS84 (2D), axis order: latitude, longitude When in doubt:

43 EPSG Codes European Petroleum Survey Group, currently part of the International Association of Oil & Gas Producers EPSG Geodetic Parameter Set: code names for a multitude of different CRSes, map projections, reference ellipsoids, datums etc., see EPSG Online Registry Some often needed EPSG Codes: 4326: WGS84 (2D) CRS, coordinates: lat, lon 4979.:WGS84 (3D) CRS, coordinates: lat, lon, ellipsoidal height 4258: ETRS89 (2D) CRS, coordinates: lat, lon 4258: ETRS89 (3D) CRS, coordinates: lat, lon, ellipsoidal height 5048: ETRS89-TM35FIN(N,E) CRS, coordinates: N, E 4123: KKJ (deprecated Finnish system), lat, lon 2393: YKJ (deprecated Finnish system), northing, easting 5717: N60 Vertical datum, mean sea level at Helsinki in : ETRS89-TM35FIN(N,E) + N60 vertical datum You need these for identifying in which CRS the given coordinates are, and when transforming coordinates (or points) from one CRS to another. Codes used widely in GIS software. More at:

44 Map Projections Coordinate transformation from geodetic coordinates to planar coordinates

45 Map Projections Coordinate transformation from geodetic coordinates to planar coordinates

46 Map Projections Polar stereographic Mercator projection

47 Map Projections

48 Map Projections All projections distort the surface somehow. Select the least harmful way for each mapping task.

49 Common Map Projections General Perspective Projection as seen from space Only one half of the globe can be seen Ok if you can change the center point (rotate) Google Earth

50 Common Map Projections Stereographic Shapes are preserved locally Can be used for maps over the poles

51 Common Map Projections Mercator Google, Bing Maps, Ovi (Nokia)? Good for areas near the Equator, not suitable for polar regions

52 Common Map Projections Transverse Mercator The cylinder is rotated 90º Accurate near the chosen central meridian

53 Common Map Projections Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Earth divided into 6º wide zones, separate Transverse Mercator projection defined for each. Images: Wikimedia Commons, Carlos Furuti,

54 Common Map Projections Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Earth divided into 6º wide zones, separate Transverse Mercator projection defined for each. Images: Wikimedia Commons, Carlos Furuti,

55 Finnish Map Projections (ETRS-)TM35FIN Ellipsoid Cylinder Projection zone Scale (Mk) = ºE Central meridian Surface of the cylinder Surface of the ellipsoid Central meridian Equator Projection zone Central meridian UTM based, the whole Finland in one, widened zone, central meridian is 27ºE Images: Maanmittauslaitos Equator (0,0 m) Make coordinates positive: move the origin (false easting). In TM35FIN the point where the Equator and the central meridian (27º) cross has coordinate N:0 E:

56 Some Geometry Types Point - a single position Line - two positions connected to each other LineString - multiple lines connected to each other Polygon - a closed LineString (can have holes!) MultiPolygon - multiple polygons in one (ex. the islands of a lake) (types slightly differ from data format to another)

57 Geospatial Data Formats: GML Geography Markup Language Extensive toolbox for building languages for geospatial data, or GML Application Profiles Standard by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Geospatial objects and especially their geometries as XML structures. Very complex geometry types available.

58 Geospatial Data Formats: GML Geography Markup Language Extensive toolbox for building languages for geospatial data, or GML Application Profiles Standard by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Geospatial objects and especially their geometries as XML structures. Very complex geometry types available.

59

60 GML Simple Features Profile Restricted set of GML geometry property types and simplified CRS handling: This profile defines a restricted but useful subset of XML-Schema and GML to lower the implementation bar of time and resources required for an organization to commit for developing software that supports GML. GML simple features profile, OGC r9, 05-July-2005 Powerful enough for most use cases, geometry types can be stored as geospatial objects in geoenabled databases, like PostGIS & Oracle Spatial

61 Geospatial Data Formats: GeoJSON Geo-enabled object encoded in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) GML Simple Features for JSON Supports the following geometry types: Point, LineString, Polygon, MultiPoint, MultiLineString, MultiPolygon, and GeometryCollection

62 Geospatial Data Formats: GeoJSON Geo-enabled object encoded in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) GML Simple Features for JSON Supports the following geometry types: Point, LineString, Polygon, MultiPoint, MultiLineString, MultiPolygon, and GeometryCollection

63

64 Geospatial Data Formats: KML Formerly Keyhole Markup Language Developed for Google Earth (was: Keyhole Earth Viewer) Standardized by Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008 In addition to defining geometries & their visualization, also offers some GUI and data linking features. WGS84 CRS only: latitude, longitude(, altitude).

65 Geospatial Data Formats: KML Formerly Keyhole Markup Language Developed for Google Earth (was: Keyhole Earth Viewer) Standardized by Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008 In addition to defining geometries & their visualization, also offers some GUI and data linking features. WGS84 CRS only: latitude, longitude(, altitude).

66

67 Default altitude: sea level (ellipsoidal height)

68 Geospatial Data Formats: (Geo)RSS Basic idea: location & geometry info embedded into an Atom or RSS feed entries. Two profiles, GeoRSS Simple and GeoRSS GML GeoRSS Simple is very straightforward: elements for point, line, polygon, box and circle. GeoRSS GML is a subset of GML geometry properties (a profile)

69 GeoRSS Simple in Atom

70 GeoRSS Simple in Atom

71 GeoRSS GML in Atom

72 GeoRSS GML in Atom

73 Open Standard Geo Web Services Standardized by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC): Web Map Service (WMS) Web Feature Service (WFS) HTTP-based to access spatial information as pre-rendered maps (WMS) or GML objects (WFS)

74 OGC Web Map Service (WMS) Retrieve pre-rendered images of selected map layers for the given geographic bounding box, in the wanted map projection, using standard HTTP requests. Offered layers & available options as an XML document (GetCapabilities).

75 OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) Retrieve objects with geospatial properties filtered by custom queries, encoded as GML Features (XML), using standard HTTP requests. Also advertises the service offerings and options using GetCapabilities documents.

76 WMS & WFS Adoption OGC & ISO Standards, wide support in both Commercial & Open Source software. Huge boost for adoption in Europe: EU INSPIRE Directive requires that public sector agencies open a lot of their geospatial databases as WMS & WFS services. Gradual implementation

77

78 Don t Go Anywhere Just Yet

79 Team Up Now Some of you probably like playing solo, but this is a teamwork course. Meet with your team before Monday to brainstorm about your app ideas and which data resources you re going to use. Come back here on Monday 24th at to announce your selection of data resources (minimum of two), and to learn about the Google Web Toolkit demo application.

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections

More information

EX 2 GEOREFERENCING. Part I - A theoretical background about Coordinate Systems

EX 2 GEOREFERENCING. Part I - A theoretical background about Coordinate Systems EX 2 GEOREFERENCING Introduction A coordinate system (CS) provides a fundamental spatial framework to support the planning and development of a nation. All spatial data has a coordinate system to define

More information

The Earth's Graticule

The Earth's Graticule Georeferencing How do we make sure all our data layers line up? Georeferencing: = linking a layer or dataset with spatial coordinates Registration: = lining up layers with each other Rectification: =The

More information

Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS

Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map

More information

f = difference/major axis = ~1/300 for earth

f = difference/major axis = ~1/300 for earth Map Projection and Coordinates The shape of the earth Models Sphere with radius of ~6378 km Ellipsoid (or Spheroid) with equatorial radius (semi-major axis) of ~6378 km and polar radius (semi-minor axis)

More information

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short

More information

Coordinate Systems and Map Projections

Coordinate Systems and Map Projections Coordinate Systems and Map Projections Introduction Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections and coordinate systems no matter how much computers seem to have automated

More information

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical

More information

2016/07/25. GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2. Why is this important to YOU? Dr W Britz

2016/07/25. GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2. Why is this important to YOU? Dr W Britz GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2 Dr W Britz Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter how much computers seem to have automated the

More information

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic

More information

GIS for Disaster Management

GIS for Disaster Management GIS for Disaster Management Week 04 These slides are taken form Hongjie Xie; Earth shape models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short enough so that earth curvature

More information

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose

More information

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel

More information

Map Projection. Overview. Projection: An Introduction. LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS)

Map Projection. Overview. Projection: An Introduction. LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS) LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS) Map Projection Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview 1. Geographic coordinate

More information

TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections

TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections 1 TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections When we hand draw a map on the back of an envelope or a napkin, it usually doesn t matter that the position

More information

Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University

Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas

More information

EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5

EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5 European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June

More information

Registered map layers

Registered map layers Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running east-west lines of latitude (parallels)

More information

Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1

Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Map Projections & Coordinates 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying

More information

Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems

Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems Jamie Wolfe CITE Marshall University Huntington, WV - 25755 304-696-6042 Jawolfe@marshall.edu IS 645 Introduction to GIS Lecture 03, May 23, 2000 Today s class

More information

Geographic Datums & Coordinates

Geographic Datums & Coordinates Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9-04-2012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 2-1 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes

More information

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and

More information

G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems

G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems I. Introduction A. Fundamental Concern with Map Work 1. Maps / GIS a. 2-D representation of Earth surface b. locations of map features

More information

GIS s s Roots in Cartography

GIS s s Roots in Cartography Following up on the last lecture GIS s s Roots in Cartography Getting Started With GIS Chapter 2 Information ordering: Lists and indexes Organizing data and information Information can be organized as

More information

Representing The Shape of the Earth

Representing The Shape of the Earth Representing The Shape of the Earth Geoids Ellipsoids Datums Coordinate Systems Projections The Shape of the Earth 3 ways to model it Topographic surface the land/air interface complex (rivers, valleys,

More information

Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5

Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5 Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5 Coordinate reference system definition recommended practice Revision history Version Date Amendments 2.1 January 2009 In example c corrected value for inverse flattening

More information

Geodesy and Datums. Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system

Geodesy and Datums. Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system Geodesy and Datums Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system Defining the Ellipsoid The Earth is not perfectly round Fatter around the waist (equator) Flattened at the Poles To define this unique

More information

FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems

FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems Definition of a Datum A datum is a reference coordinate system which is defined by an origin, orientation and is physically tied to the surface of the

More information

Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection. Dr. Maher A. El-Hallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza

Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection. Dr. Maher A. El-Hallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection Dr. Maher A. El-Hallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter

More information

Coordinate Systems. Every coordinate system has an initial reference point or origin All mapped features are represented in some coordinate system

Coordinate Systems. Every coordinate system has an initial reference point or origin All mapped features are represented in some coordinate system Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems A coordinate system is a 2- or 3-D reference frame used to specify locations on the earth. Many different coordinate systems exist, and each is defined by an origin,

More information

It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball.

It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball. Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the

More information

Earth Models and Maps James R. Clynch, Naval Postgraduate School, 2002

Earth Models and Maps James R. Clynch, Naval Postgraduate School, 2002 Earth Models and Maps James R. Clynch, Naval Postgraduate School, 2002 I. Earth Models Maps are just a model of the world, or a small part of it. This is true if the model is a globe of the entire world,

More information

Objectives. Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, and Map Projections

Objectives. Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, and Map Projections Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, and Map Projections Objectives Introduce the main concepts of geodesy coordinate systems, datums, ellipsoids, and geoids Describe map projections and coordinate systems we

More information

An introduction to Coordinate Reference Systems

An introduction to Coordinate Reference Systems An introduction to Coordinate Reference Systems 27/11/2009 1. Introduction A coordinate that defines a position on the Earth is ambiguous unless its coordinate reference system (CRS) is defined. This ambiguity

More information

Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates

Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates NHLSA TOWN MONUMENT LOCATION WORKSHOP UNH DURHAM, N.H. 8-11-2007 PART 1: THE DIFFERENT COORDINATE SYSTEMS Bob Moynihan UNH - TSAS Coordinate Systems 1 Decoding the Mystery

More information

Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG

Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG Geographic Coordinate Systems and Projections. Decimal Degrees and Degrees Minutes Seconds DNR Garmin for GPS waypoint management GPS tips Submitting coordinate information

More information

PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH

PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH D M STILLMAN Abstract Detail surveys measured with a total station use local coordinate systems. To make the data obtained from such surveys compatible with Google

More information

GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.

GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,

More information

Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview

Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial

More information

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS

More information

Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe

Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe 1 Latitude is the angle north or south (think ladder going north south) Longitude is the angle east or

More information

HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE

HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE PTV VISUM TIPS & TRICKS: HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE COORDINATE SYSTEM? I imported network data in WGS84, calculated my link lengths, but they are all still zero. Why is that and how can I get to correct

More information

UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003

UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003 UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003 I. Introduction The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates occur on most topographic maps. This is the Northing and Easting coordinates discussed below.

More information

North Carolina Property Mappers Association. Advanced Mapping. Section 4 NORTH AMERICAN DATUMS

North Carolina Property Mappers Association. Advanced Mapping. Section 4 NORTH AMERICAN DATUMS North Carolina Property Mappers Association Advanced Mapping Section 4 NORTH AMERICAN DATUMS 4-1 4.1 Datums A datum is a set of quantities used as a basis to calculate other quantities. In mapping, it

More information

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems You will always find parallels and meridians on largescale maps This is done to make the map a very close approximation to the size and shape of the piece of

More information

An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University

An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March 2013 S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University Agenda What is GIS? Basic GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcGIS Coordinates

More information

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) regarding NAD 83(NSRS2007)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) regarding NAD 83(NSRS2007) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) regarding NAD 83(NSRS2007) 1. Why is the readjustment important? The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) readjusted 67,693 GPS survey control points in the U.S. to the nationwide

More information

Web Service Standards

Web Service Standards Web Service Standards Web Service Standards WMS: Web Map Service is an OGC and ISO standard for requesting and serving maps over the Internet. Maps produced by WMS are generally rendered in a pictorial

More information

An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa

An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa Centuries ago people believed that the earth was flat and notwithstanding that if this had been true it would have produced serious problems for mariners

More information

Coordinate Systems key concepts. Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data

Coordinate Systems key concepts. Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems key concepts Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data Projections and Coordinate Systems: Geographic Coordinate System Uses Uses 3D spherical

More information

UTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates

UTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates UTM UTM Uniform strips Scalable coordinates Globally consistent, most popular projection/coordinate system for regional to global scale geospatial data (i.e. satellite images global scale datasets USGS/EDC)

More information

Establishing Control and Site Calibration for a Construction Site. David McNamee HCC-6344

Establishing Control and Site Calibration for a Construction Site. David McNamee HCC-6344 Establishing Control and Site Calibration for a Construction Site David McNamee HCC-6344 Why Do We Need Control and Site Calibrations for Construction Sites? The Need for Control Everything that is constructed

More information

Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections

Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections 1 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections Dan Uhrhan dfu101@psu.edu 2 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 3 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 4 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 5 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM [Replace

More information

Pro Spatial with SQL Server 2012

Pro Spatial with SQL Server 2012 Pro Spatial with SQL Server 2012 Alastair Aitchison ULB Darmstadt Illllllill 17711989 Apress* Contents Contents at a Glance Foreword About the Author About the Technical Reviewer Acknowledgments Introduction

More information

What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map

What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map Types of Maps: (just a few that we may be using) Political Maps Shows borders of states,

More information

UTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale. Transverse Mercator. UTM Zones. UTM Grid System. UTM Grid System. Coordinate Systems - UTM.

UTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale. Transverse Mercator. UTM Zones. UTM Grid System. UTM Grid System. Coordinate Systems - UTM. UTM, State Plane Coordinates & Map Scale Coordinate Systems - UTM Convenience of a plane rectangular grid on a global level A section from a transverse Mercator projection is used to develop separate grids

More information

The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual

The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones

More information

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning 11.520: A Workshop on Geographic Information Systems 11.188: Urban Planning and Social Science Laboratory Lecture 3: More

More information

More About UTM. Universal Transverse Mercator UTM

More About UTM. Universal Transverse Mercator UTM Week 6 More About UTM Universal Transverse Mercator UTM Developed by US Army Corps Eng. & Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) in 1947 Originally used Clarke 1866 ellipsoid used for the U.S. (International Ellipsoid

More information

Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. I. Production of Topographic maps in the US

Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS. I. Production of Topographic maps in the US Lab 9: Topographic Maps 151 Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Topographic maps are rich sources of geographic information. Geologic maps are commonly constructed upon topographic base maps, and much geological mapping,

More information

Learning about GPS and GIS

Learning about GPS and GIS Learning about GPS and GIS Standards 4.4 Understand geographic information systems (G.I.S.). B12.1 Understand common surveying techniques used in agriculture (e.g., leveling, land measurement, building

More information

Application of the Swiss Projection System in GIS Software

Application of the Swiss Projection System in GIS Software Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport DDPS Federal Office of Topography swisstopo Application of the Swiss Projection System in GIS Software Version 1.2 from August 2016 Editor swisstopo

More information

Waterfront Access Plan Metadata

Waterfront Access Plan Metadata Products > BYTES of the BIG APPLE TM Waterfront Access Plan Metadata nywap Data Format: Shapefile File or table name: nywap Data Projection: NAD_1983_StatePlane_New_York_Long_Island_FIPS_3104_Feet Coordinate

More information

1. GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS

1. GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS 1. GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a constellation of satellites, transmitting signals for use in navigation and positioning applications, anywhere

More information

2 GIS concepts. 2.1 General GIS principles

2 GIS concepts. 2.1 General GIS principles 2 GIS concepts To use GIS effectively, it is important to understand the basic GIS terminology and functionality. While each GIS software has slightly different naming conventions, there are certain principles

More information

THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM

THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM NGA Office of GEOINT Sciences Coordinate Systems Analysis (CSAT) Phone: 314-676-9124 Unclassified Email: coordsys@nga.mil March 2007 THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Military

More information

_ LUCIADRIA PRODUCT DATA SHEET

_ LUCIADRIA PRODUCT DATA SHEET _ LUCIADRIA PRODUCT DATA SHEET V2015.1 LuciadRIA offers browser-based geospatial situational awareness with the fluidity and speed of a desktop application. The software components of LuciadRIA have been

More information

Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection

Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 2014-02-18 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC

More information

Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1

Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1 Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1 Keith W. Cunningham, Ph.D. 14 East Eighth Street Lawrence, KS 66044 800/238-1911 Maps and coordinates are used to describe features and their locations

More information

Web Development of Spatial Content Management System through the Use of Free and Open-Source Technologies. Case Study in Rural Areas

Web Development of Spatial Content Management System through the Use of Free and Open-Source Technologies. Case Study in Rural Areas Journal of Geographic Information System, 2015, 7, 527-540 Published Online October 2015 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jgis http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jgis.2015.75042 Web Development of Spatial

More information

Geographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013

Geographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013 Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from

More information

Geography Skills Pre- Test

Geography Skills Pre- Test Name: period: Geography Skills Pre- Test 1. What does the relative location of a place tell you? A. The longitude and latitude of a place B. Which symbol shows a place on a map C. Where a place is compared

More information

Appendix B: Geographic Coordinates Systems & Map Projections. B.1 Approximating the Earth's Shape

Appendix B: Geographic Coordinates Systems & Map Projections. B.1 Approximating the Earth's Shape The following is an appendix from: Strindberg, S. In prep. Optimized Automated Survey Design in Wildlife Population Assessment. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of St. Andrews. Appendix B: Geographic

More information

WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS

WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS N & E State Plane Coordinates for Control Points AZIMUTHS - True, Geodetic, or Grid - Conversion from Astronomic to Geodetic (LaPlace Correction)

More information

MVLWB. Guideline for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Submission Standard

MVLWB. Guideline for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Submission Standard MVLWB Guideline for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Submission Standard DATE Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board Gwich in Land and Water Board Sahtu Land and Water Board Wek èezhìi Land and Water

More information

MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections

MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections All too often emphasis in map production is placed on becoming operational with GIS software while neglecting basic, yet important, map design principals. For many mapmakers,

More information

From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models. Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013

From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models. Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013 From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013 Which Way Does the Water Flow? A topographic map shows relief features or surface configuration of an

More information

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION GIS Syllabus - Version 1.2 January 2007 Copyright AICA-CEPIS 2009 1 Version 1 January 2007 GIS Certification Programme 1. Target The GIS certification is aimed

More information

Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006

Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 I. Latitude and Longitude on Spherical Earth Latitude and longitude are the grid lines you see on globes. For a spherical earth these are

More information

DATUM SHIFTS AND DIGITAL MAP COORDINATE DISPLAYS. The Real World, Maps, and Coordinate Systems

DATUM SHIFTS AND DIGITAL MAP COORDINATE DISPLAYS. The Real World, Maps, and Coordinate Systems DATUM SHIFTS AND DIGITAL MAP COORDINATE DISPLAYS Larry Moore U.S. Geological Survey lmoore@usgs.gov Revised March, 2001 Paper maps may be printed with reference points for several different grid systems.

More information

Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties

Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties Projections Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth (or a portion of the earth) on a flat surface. Four spatial relationships (or properties) between locations can

More information

Datums, Coordinates, & Projections UNCLASSIFIED

Datums, Coordinates, & Projections UNCLASSIFIED Datums, Coordinates, & Projections Lesson Objectives Modeling the earth Horizontal Datums: Traditionally Derived Regional Horizontal Datums Satellite Derived: World Geodetic System 1984 Vertical Datums

More information

GMT TECHNICAL REFERENCE & COOKBOOK Cylindrical Projections Mercator Projection ( Jm or JM)

GMT TECHNICAL REFERENCE & COOKBOOK Cylindrical Projections Mercator Projection ( Jm or JM) GMT TECHNICAL REFERENCE & COOKBOOK 5 14 5.4 Cylindrical Projections 5.4.1 Mercator Projection ( Jm or JM) Probably the most famous of the various map projections, the Mercator projection takes its name

More information

MSI PLANET Terrain Data UTM Projection

MSI PLANET Terrain Data UTM Projection Pathloss 4.0 MSI PLANET Terrain Database UTM Projection MSI PLANET Terrain Data UTM Projection Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Projection The UTM projection divides the world into 60 zones or segments.

More information

Geo-Web services based framework for development of Mashup applications in GIS

Geo-Web services based framework for development of Mashup applications in GIS N Geo-Web services based framework for development of Mashup applications in GIS Dr. Harish Karnatak Head Geoweb Services, IT & Distance Learning Department Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), ISRO

More information

Primitive type: GEOMETRY: matches SDO_GEOMETRY and GEOMETRY_COLUMN types.

Primitive type: GEOMETRY: matches SDO_GEOMETRY and GEOMETRY_COLUMN types. property sheets 27/01/2010 1/6 Introduction The Geographic Data was revised on the previous and design documents, the final goal was allow user to model geographic data into spatial databases like Oracle

More information

UTM SYSTEM. COMPOSED AND PRODUCED BY : Chris Rule. Permission is granted for use by acknowledging the author s name.

UTM SYSTEM. COMPOSED AND PRODUCED BY : Chris Rule. Permission is granted for use by acknowledging the author s name. COMPOSED AND PRODUCED BY : Chris Rule. Permission is granted for use by acknowledging the author s name. UTM stands for Universal Transverse Mercator which is a technical term for the type of map projection.

More information

GPS AND SECTIONAL CONTROL SYSTEM INFORMATION

GPS AND SECTIONAL CONTROL SYSTEM INFORMATION CITY OF NORTH LAS VEGAS GPS AND SECTIONAL CONTROL SYSTEM INFORMATION The official coordinate system of the City of North Las Vegas Vertical Datum is the Nevada Coordinate System of 1983, and is based upon

More information

Plotting GPS derived Coordinates on a Map

Plotting GPS derived Coordinates on a Map Plotting GPS derived Coordinates on a Map Introduction to GPS Global Positioning Systems (GPS) is a technology whereby a constellation of satellites sends out signals which can be received by a GPS receiver

More information

UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System

UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System Practical Cartographer s Reference #01 UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System 180 174w 168w 162w 156w 150w 144w 138w 132w 126w 120w 114w 108w 102w 96w 90w 84w 78w 72w 66w 60w 54w 48w 42w

More information

There are various ways to find data using the Hennepin County GIS Open Data site:

There are various ways to find data using the Hennepin County GIS Open Data site: Finding Data There are various ways to find data using the Hennepin County GIS Open Data site: Type in a subject or keyword in the search bar at the top of the page and press the Enter key or click the

More information

Newton s Law of Gravity

Newton s Law of Gravity Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has

More information

OSSIM Mapping ARchive OMAR Users Guide

OSSIM Mapping ARchive OMAR Users Guide OSSIM Mapping ARchive OMAR Users Guide Version 1.8.16 March 25 2013 1 (U) Table of Contents Table of Contents (U) Table of Contents... 2 1.0 (U) Points of Contact... 6 2.0 (U) Overview... 7 2.1 (U) Feedback...

More information

Maintaining High Accuracy in Modern Geospatial Data

Maintaining High Accuracy in Modern Geospatial Data Maintaining High Accuracy in Modern Geospatial Data Patrick Cunningham President info@bluemarblegeo.com www.bluemarblegeo.com +1 (207) 582 6747 Copyright 2010 Blue Marble Geographics Concepts Geodesy -

More information

What are map projections?

What are map projections? Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework

More information

Version 2. A technical guide to datums and projections in New Zealand

Version 2. A technical guide to datums and projections in New Zealand Version 2 A technical guide to datums and projections in New Zealand Government of South Australia Adapted by Graeme Blick, Land Information New Zealand from Where in the World Are We Australia by Andrew

More information

_ LUCIADRIA PRODUCT DATA SHEET

_ LUCIADRIA PRODUCT DATA SHEET _ LUCIADRIA PRODUCT DATA SHEET V2016.0 LuciadRIA offers browser-based geospatial situational awareness with the fluidity and speed of a desktop application. The software components of LuciadRIA have been

More information

INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences

INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences September 13, 2010 Outline What is geographical / spatial analysis and why do we care? Different types

More information

OBJECTIVES MATERIALS BACKGROUND. Maps and Mapping. Key Terms. Common units and conversions. Introduction. Page 1 of 10

OBJECTIVES MATERIALS BACKGROUND. Maps and Mapping. Key Terms. Common units and conversions. Introduction. Page 1 of 10 OBJECTIVES This exercise involves understanding map scale and coordinate systems. You will learn to read geographic coordinates in latitude/longitude, the State Plane Coordinate System, and the Universal

More information

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System State Plane Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular

More information