CLOTHING DEMAND FROM EMERGING MARKETS " "" AN OPPORTUNITY FOR LDC SUPPLIERS

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1 CLOTHING DEMAND FROM EMERGING MARKETS " "" AN OPPORTUNITY FOR LDC SUPPLIERS Geneva 2008

2 Acloiowledgements Note iii xvii Introduction 1 Chapter 1 Brazil 5 A brief overview of the Brazilian market for apparel 5 Executive summary 5 The structure and characteristics of the domestic market 7 Market size and prices 7 The domestic clothing industry 7 The consumer market for clothing 8 Per capita income 9 Socio-economic profile 9 Average factory prices of clothing produced in Brazil 10 Type of products supplied by the domestic industry and from abroad 13 Offer and demand in the national market 13 National production 14 Import developments, Clothing imports by type 19 Main origins of Brazil's clothing imports 22 An analysis of the tariff structure of imports 23 Taxes and duties on imports 23 Estimated cost of importing clothing 24 Regional agreements 25 Non-tariff market requirements 25 Special import regulations 25 Import licensing 25 Access to SISCOMEX 26 Inspection of prices 26 Customs procedures 26 The clearance process 26 Special customs regimes 27 Freight and transport requirements 28 Packaging, marketing and labelling requirements 28 Use of specialized companies 29 Ethical trading requirements 29

3 VI Expected market developments 29 The domestic market 30 Market players 30 Sales channels 30 Number of companies in the clothing business 31 Apparel procurement practices 31 Use of e-commerce and ICT for procurement 32 Consumer preferences for specific fibre.types, and blending 32 Case studies of large national retailers and clothing importers 33 Case studies 33 C&A Modas Ltda. 33 Arthur Lundgren Tecidos S.A. 33 Lojas Riachuelo S.A. 34 GZT Comercio e Importac,ao Ltda. 34 Irmaos Zolko Ltda. 35 Products imported 35 Supply origins 36 Sourcing practices 36 The retail chains' main requirements from LDCs 37 The retail chains' image of clothing imports from LDCs 37 The recommendations of the major retail chains on how best to penetrate the domestic market 39 What LDC clothing exporters need to offer to the major retail chains 39 Possible niche markets and product groups to be targeted 39 List of imports 39 Products and market niches offering the best opportunities 40 Support schemes for LDCs 41 Recommendations to clothing exporters 41 Supplying the retail trade 41 Possible partnership with Brazilian fabric producers 43 Annexes I. Brazil: useful contacts and addresses 44 II. Brazil: main clothing retail and import companies 45 III. Brazil: macroeonomic indicators 50 IV. Brazil: sources of information 51 Chapter 2 China 52 Executive summary 52 Background 52 The scale and characteristics of China's clothing market 52 Key players in the Chinese clothing market 53 Market entry strategies of developing and least developed countries 54 The structure and characteristics of the domestic market: a macro view 55 Market size: contributing factors 55 Population and GDP growth 55 Growth of income and apparel consumption 55 Retail sales of clothing 56 Market characteristics: dualism in consumption patterns 56

4 Supply of apparel: domestic and imported 58 Menswear 59 Womenswear 59 Childrenswear 59 Casual wear 60 Sportswear 60 Lingerie and underwear 60 National production 60 Import developments in " 61 Import growth 61 Imports from least developed countries 61 The tariff structure for imports 62 Tariff system 62 Tariff structure for clothing 62 Preferential tariff systems for clothing from LDCs and developing countries 63 Preferential system for selected African countries 63 The Bangkok Agreement 63 Preferential agreement with Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Myanmar 64 Customs procedures 64 Non-tariff market requirements 65 Import restrictions 65 Import quotas 65 Import licence 65 Tariff rate quotas 66 Standards and other technical requirements 67 National general safety technical code for textile products (GB 18401) 67 National standard: Cotton-Upland Cotton, Revision No. 1 (draft) 67 National General Safety Technical Code for Textile Products (recommended) 67 National Standard of the People's Republic of China, Environmental Protection Control Standard for Imported Solid Wastes as Raw Materials Waste and Scrap of Fibres 68 Announcement No. 177 of 2005 made by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine 68 Labelling and packaging 68 Anti-dumping 69 Market prospects 69 Market potential 69 The rise of the middle class 69 The process of urbanization 70 Consumer behaviour 70 The change of lifestyle 70 Diversification of demand 70 Distribution channels 71 The domestic garment market: a micro view 71 The players/distributors in the market 71 Retailers of garments 71 The least developed countries as sources of apparel 74 Apparel procurement practices 75 Global sourcing 75 Vendor selection 76 Procurement procedure 77 E-procurement and usage of information and communications technology 78 vu

5 VIII Consumer preferences 80 Growing demand for natural fabrics 80 Preferences for countries of origin and price consciousness 80 Quality and comfort 80 Price range and store preference 81 Case studies: the key players in China's garment market 82 Case 1: Shanghai Brilliance (Group) Co., Ltd 82 Outlets. 82 Oriental Shopping Center 83 Shanghai Orient International Trading Co., Ltd 83 Case 2: Carrefour 83 Purchasing categories 84 Vendor evaluation 84 Case 3: Shenzhou Knitting Co., Ltd 85 Social responsibility and environmental protection 85 Quick response, R&D and design 86 Possibilities for cooperation along the value chain 86 The textile complex and the role of least developed countries 86 Global market segmentation 88 Competitors or cooperators 88 Cotton, yarn and fabrics 88 Cotton 88 Cotton yarn 90 Cotton fabrics 90 Raw bast 90 Recommendations for developing and least developed countries 91 Government policies and strategies 92 The business climate 92 Infrastructure 92 Regional integration and international cooperation 92 Education and training 92 Supplying raw materials 92 The industries' strategies 93 Targeting and positioning 93 Criteria and priorities. 93 Advanced equipment 93 Digital technology and a quick response (QR) strategy 93 Good will and trust 93 Annex: China: list of contacts 95

6 Chapter 3 India 97 Executive summary 97 The Indian market 97 Import procedures 98 Preferential trade agreements, 98 Scope for apparel imports I. 99 Entry strategy 99 Structure and characteristics of the domestic market 100 Market size 101 Foreign direct investment 102 Products manufactured locally and those supplied from abroad 103 Analysis of the tariff structure of imports by product group 103 Preferential agreements 104 Free trade agreement (FTA) with Sri Lanka 104 Trade agreement with Nepal 105 Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area 106 SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement 107 Special import regulations and customs procedures 108 Customs procedures 108 Non-tariff barriers 109 Packaging, marketing and labelling requirements 109 Expected market developments 110 The apparel market 110 Menswear 112 Womenswear 112 Unisex apparel 1 14 Childrenswear 114 The domestic market: a micro view 114 The retail industry 114 Brands in the Indian market 1 19 Menswear 119 Sportswear 120 Womenswear 121 Childrenswear 122 Denim wear 123 Apparel procurement practices in the market 123 Consumer preferences for specific types of fibres and blends 125 Synopsis of trade interviews 126 Possible niche markets and product groups to be targeted 129 Private label suppliers 130 Suppliers to well-known brands 130 Sell through wholesalers 131 Existing national support schemes for LDC exporters to penetrate this market 131 Integration of LDC textile and clothing exporters into the overall value chain 131 Recommendations to clothing exporters on penetrating the target market 131 Annexes I. India: useful contacts and addresses 133 II. India: apparel imports by commodity 136 III. India: list of banned dyes 138 IV. India: statistics on the apparel market 140

7 Chapter 4 Malaysia Executive summary Introduction Role of tourism Retailing Historical information: the textile and clothing industry The domestic market for textiles and clothing: a macro view Textiles Apparel Foreign trade Market forecasts Retailing Retail sales of clothing Import tariffs Import duties and taxes International agreements Non-tariff market requirements Labelling Licensing Expected market developments The domestic market Major retail players Clothing specialists Brand owners Department stores Hypermarts Procurement practices E-commerce Consumer preferences for fibre types and blending Case studies of large national retailers and clothing importers Hypermarts GCH Retail (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Magnificient Diagraph Sdn Bhd (Carrefour) Department stores Aeon Co. (M) Bhd (Jaya Jusco Department Store) MJ Department Stores Sdn Bhd Parkson Corporation Clothing specialists/retailers MJ Reject Shop (2002) Sdn Berhad Padini Holdings Berhad Voir Group of Companies F.J. Benjamin (M) Sdn Bhd Manufacturer/distributor The Utmost Apparel Sdn Bhd Possible niche markets and product groups to be targeted Support schemes that can be utilized to assist developing country exporters to penetrate the Malaysian market Integration of textile and clothing exporters into the overall value chain Recommendations to clothing exporters Annexes I. Malaysia: list of contacts and addresses II. Malaysia: bibliography

8 Chapter 5 Singapore 179 Executive summary 179 Background 179 Role of tourism in retailing 180 Historical developments of the textile and apparel industry 181 The structure and characteristics of the dojnestic market for textiles and clothing: a macro view 182 The retail industry 182 Market size 183 Imported textiles 184 Imported clothing 184 An analysis of the tariff structure of imports 185 Non-tariff market requirements 186 Special import regulations 186 Customs procedures 187 Import procedures 187 Export procedures 187 Using Tradenet 187 Permit exemption 187 Third country trading through Singapore 188 Temporary import/export under an ATA Carnet 188 Documentation fees: processing through Tradenet 188 Market prospects 1 89 The domestic market: a macro view 191 Outlets, distributors, agents 191 Department stores 191 Agents and distributors 193 Speciality retailers 194 Hypermarts 194 Apparel procurement practices 194 Packing requirements 195 Consumer preferences for specific fibre types and blending 196 Case studies of national retailers and clothing importers 196 Survey highlights 196 Department stores 197 C.K. Tang 197 Isetan (Singapore) Ltd 198 Metro (Private) Limited 199 John Little 200 Mohamed Mustafa & Samsuddin Co. Pte Ltd 201 Takashimaya Singapore 202 Speciality shops 203 Kiddy Palace Pte Ltd 203 Importers, agents, distributors 204 Goldlion Enterprise (Singapore) Pte Ltd 204 F.J. Benjamin 205 Steven Enterprise 206

9 Hypermarts 208 Giant - Hypermart 208 Carrefour 209 Textile importers 210 Ban Joo and Co. Ltd 210 Marketing and sales offices 210 South Pacific Textile Industries (S) P/L 210 Garment manufacturers ^ 211 Chu Kwong Garment Factory Pte Ltd 211 Possible niche markets and product groups to be targeted 213 Existing national support schemes 214 Integration of LDC exporters into the overall value chain 214 Recommendations to clothing exporters 214 Annexes I. Singapore: useful contacts and addresses 217 II. Singapore: textile and clothing trade: tables 220 III. Singapore: more popular imports, textiles and clothing, tables 226 IV. Singapore: survey of textile and clothing retail market: the questionnaire 237 V. Singapore: bibliography 243 Chapter 6 South Africa 244 Executive summary 244 The domestic market: a macro view 245 Demographics 245 Structure of the local industry 246 Local production 247 The import market 249 Origin of imports 250 An analysis of the tariff structure 251 Import tariffs 25 1 Other taxes payable on imports 252 Preferential access 252 Southern African Customs Union 252 Southern African Development Community 252 Trade and Development Cooperation Agreement 253 European Free Trade Association 253 Bilateral agreements 253 Non-tariff requirements 254 Special import regulations 254 Customs procedures 254 Official standards 254 Packaging, marketing and labelling requirements 255 Expected market developments 255 Quotas for clothing and textile imports from China 255 Customized Sector Programme for the clothing and textile industry 256 Formalization of a business alliance driven by the private sector 257 The growth of the middle class 258 Proudly South African 258

10 The domestic market: a micro view 258 Major players in the retail sector 258 Edcon Group 259 Foschini 259 Truworths 260 Pepkor 260 Woolworths, 261 Mr Price I 261 Procurement practices 261 Use of e-commerce for procurement 262 Consumer preferences, 262 Case studies of large national retailers and importers 263 Case study 1: TFG Manufacturing 263 Case study 2: Celrose Ltd T/A Celrose Clothing 264 Possible niche markets and product groups 264 Existing national support schemes 266 Integration of LDC clothing exporters into the value chain 266 Fibre 266 Yarn, 267 Fabric 268 Recommendations to clothing exporters 269 Annexes I. South Africa: useful contacts and addresses 270 II. South Africa: clothing production, by quantity, III. South Africa: imports of clothing, by HS category and by value, IV. South Africa: imports of clothing from LDCs, by value, 2000 and V. South Africa: imports from China on which quotas have been imposed, 2000 and

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